Nuclear tragedy in_japan

272 views

Published on

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
272
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Nuclear tragedy in_japan

  1. 1. Nuclear Tragedy In JapanNuclear Tragedy In Japan <br />How does a nuclear reactor work?<br />A nuclear reactor is a device to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. The most common use of nuclear reactors is for the generation of electric energy (see nuclear power) and for the power in some ships (see nuclear marine propulsion). Heat from nuclear fission is used to raise steam, which runs through turbines, which in turn powers either ship's propulsion or electrical generators. <br />When a large fissile atomic nucleus such as uranium-235 or plutonium-239 absorbs a neutron, it may undergo nuclear fission. The heavy nucleus splits into two or more lighter nuclei, releasing kinetic energy, gamma radiation and free neutrons; collectively known as fission products. A portion of these neutrons may later be absorbed by other fissile atoms and trigger further fission events, which release more neutrons, and so on. This is known as a nuclear chain reaction.<br />What went wrong in Japans case?<br />Nuclear reactors in Japan are designed to turn off automatically anytime a disaster knocks out the electric grid. That system worked properly in this case, shutting down the nuclear reaction.<br />Even with the plant shutdown, though, the nuclear fuel still held tremendous heat. Diesel-powered backup generators are meant to pump water into the plant to cool the fuel, but those systems failed in the tsunami that followed the quake. Emergency batteries provided some power, but not enough to run the water pumps.<br />What are the different chemical reaction involved in a chemical reactor?<br />A nuclear reactor is a device to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. The most common use of nuclear reactors is for the generation of electric energy (see nuclear power) and for the power in some ships (see nuclear marine propulsion). Heat from nuclear fission is used to raise steam, which runs through turbines, which in turn powers either ship's propulsion or electrical generators. <br />When a large fissile atomic nucleus such as uranium-235 or plutonium-239 absorbs a neutron, it may undergo nuclear fission. The heavy nucleus splits into two or more lighter nuclei, releasing kinetic energy, gamma radiation and free neutrons; collectively known as fission products . A portion of these neutrons may later be absorbed by other fissile atoms and trigger further fission events, which release more neutrons, and so on. This is known as a nuclear chain reaction.<br /> Heat generation<br />The reactor core generates heat in a number of ways:<br />The kinetic energy of fission products is converted to thermal energy when these nuclei collide with nearby atoms.Some of the gamma rays produced during fission are absorbed by the reactor, their energy being converted to heat.<br />Heat produced by the radioactive decay of fission products and materials that have been activated by neutron absorption. This decay heat source will remain for some time even after the reactor is shut down.<br />A kilogram of uranium-235 (U-235) converted via nuclear processes releases approximately three million times more energy than a kilogram of coal burned conventionally (7.2 × 1013 joules per kilogram of uranium-235 versus 2.4 × 107 joules per kilogram of coal<br />Harmful effects of radiations on plants<br />Plants do not have to worry much about radiation. Experiments have been conducted that show that radiation is really only a problem when a plant is in the stage of a seed. Still, large amounts of radiation can destroy any material, including plant material.<br />Seeds<br />High doses of radiation can cause seeds to not sprout, grow slowly, lose fertility or develop genetic mutations that can change characteristics of the plant.<br />Dormant vs. Germinated<br />An experiment conducted by the San Antonio Community Hospital found that plants that have already germinated before radiation exposure are less likely to develop defects than plants that are dormant.<br />Molecule Damage<br />All molecules, from water to animal and plant material, can be damaged by radiation, as it disrupts the normal flow of electrons surrounding an atom.<br />Resistance<br />Plants contain chemicals that protect them from most radiation, since they are exposed to a large amount of radiation when basking in sunlight.<br />Harmful effects of radiations in animals<br />Radiation effects everything it touches and the beasts are no different. This article will give the effects of radiation on animals.Radiation is an equal opportunity killer, meaning it will attack any living thing, regardless of species, size, or health status. In people, it unlocks dormant genes, like cancer and ms and is fatal in most cases of  exposure. In animals, it works much the same, drawing out things like feline leukemia. However, animals do not have as many dormant genes as humans and so the radiation finds other ways to cause damage. Here are a few:Size. Radiation exposure, much like in the movies, will cause an animal to double in size or even triple. This takes time though, usually over a few generations. In 2 years, pups of an exposed bitch will be twice the size of a litter who's parent had no history of exposure.<br />Sickness. Radiation sickness hits both animals and humans in the same way, destroying the bodies immune system upon contact and then sinking in to do its damage. Both humans and animals will develop sores, mostly caused by the peeling of the skin and the itching if the area. The skin becomes very fragile and a simple scratch will break it and cause a wound.<br />Hair loss.Another side effect of radiation is the loss of hair or fur. There will be small patches at first but eventually, every hair will fall out as the radiation sinks deeper into the body. Teeth and nails will begin to chip and then fall out, as the skin and gums that holds these things in place weaken so much that they are unable to secure them any longer.<br />Stillborn.The increase of stillborn births in animals exposed to radiation after Nagasaki and Hiroshima shot up nearly 72%. That means out of every 100 births, 72 of them were stillborn. Instances of miscarriage were much the same, rising to a rate of 56%, where it had previously been just 4%. Some species were even put on the endangered list because of this.Deformities.<br />Radiation causes deformities in both human and animals. The most common is in newborns litters and infants, where there were reported cases of too many limbs and actual body parts being on the outside of the animal.  There were also reports of not enough limbs and lack of body parts, such as eyes and lobes of the brain.<br />

×