English grammar in progress


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English grammar in progress

  1. 1. Rina Bell AbrahamRina Bell Abraham Roma CaguimbalRoma Caguimbal Cristine Pearl de CastroCristine Pearl de Castro Eloisa Marie MarasiganEloisa Marie Marasigan Tom Christopher ParmaTom Christopher Parma
  2. 2. 2 Rina Bell Abraham Roma Caguimbal Cristine Pearl de Castro Eloisa Marie Marasigan Tom Christopher Parma
  3. 3. 3 The authors wanted to express their deepest gratitude to the authors and publishers of the books and articles used in making “English Grammar in Progress” possible. The authors would also like to thank: Mrs. Maricris Ascan and family for their limitless support. BatStateU Family for believing that the authors can make it. All the friends that light up their loads. Deepest gratitude are bestowed to: Inay and Tatay My sisters and brother Love -RMA Mama and Papa Rhea Jane FFG -RPC Inay and Tatay Carla and Christian W.S.A - CPBD Inay and Tatay My sisters and brother -EMMM
  4. 4. 4 Check It Out!!! Challenge Grammar Armchair This book is designed to test and improve the students’ language proficiency by supplying the students with the basic knowledge in grammar including grammar rules, instructions and practices. It provides students with exercises in applying such gram- mar rules aiming to enhance the students’ confidence in using the language in their everyday lives. The authors made use of techniques that will make the students easily acquire the grammar points necessary in communication Features This provide test that will measure the students’ knowledge on what they already know in grammar. Provides the students with activi- ties to be answered within a given time. This contains discussions on the given topic. Grammar in Action Inkblot Mastery Test
  5. 5. 5 Title Page Title Page i Acknowledgement iii Preface v Table of Contents vii Noun 1 Pronoun 19 Verb 35 Simple Tenses 47 Subject Verb Agreement 57 Adjectives 65 Adverbs 75 Clauses and Phrases 85 Basic Sentence Pattern 101 Common Mistakes in English Grammar Bibliography 107 116
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  7. 7. 7 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Identify what nouns are;  Classify the kinds, plural and possessive forms of nouns;  Write and use the plural of a noun;  Write and use the possessive form of a noun; and  Assay if a word is a noun N o u n s
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  9. 9. 9 Check It Out!!! E N T H U S I A S M A Y E U X T S W A C W G S K E I Y E N O A P A P D A F T Y F X J A O Y Q E G N U E Q V S X E I U S R M E W E D R A O C U G L D S U U R F A A W E F R R A O I Y J I S L J K W Q R A H R S E K T R H R G C I R O P Q U T N A P O F F R M T P M E T O L C R E S E A A B T G P R O T P E L T R A I I F Y Q W F Z N V S L I E M O N G R E T C H E N A E S P T J A D Y Y E I K N E L F B S O F T A L K I N G P Z M I E A K S Y Y T I N U M M O C M W Direction: Encircle the nouns in the puzzle below and write it on the space provided. Then, classify them accordingly. NOUN HUNT Noun Classification Noun Classification
  10. 10. 10 Challenge Direction: Underline the nouns that can be found in the selection. This I Believe (Excerpt) Albert Einstein My political idea is democracy. Everyone should be respected as an individual, but no one idolized. It is an irony of fate that I should have been showered with so much un- called-for and unmerited admiration and esteem. Perhaps this adulation springs from the unfulfilled wish of the multitude to comprehend the few ideas which I, with my weak pow- ers, have advanced. Full well did I know that in order to attain my definite goal, it is imperative that one person should do the thinking and commanding and carry most of the responsibility. But those who are led should not be driven, and they should be allowed to choose their leader. It seems to me that the distinctions separating the social classes are false; in the last analysis they rest on force. I am convinced that degeneracy follows every autocratic system of violence, for violence inevitably attracts moral inferiors. Time has proved that illustrious tyrants are succeeded by scoundrels… What is truly valuable in our bustle of life is not the nation, I should say, but the creative and impressionable individuality, the personality – he who produces the noble and sublime while the common herd remains dull in thought and insensible in felling. Grammar Armchair Nouns are words used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea. Nouns may be classified according to the following groups: A. Proper Nouns - Proper noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing. The names of days of the week, months, historical documents, institutions, organisations, religions, their holy texts and their adherents are proper nouns. B. Common Nouns - Common noun is a noun referring to a person, place, or thing in a gen- eral sense -- usually, you should write it with a capital letter only when it begins a sentence. C. Concrete Nouns - Concrete noun is a noun which names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. D. Abstract Nouns - Abstract noun is a noun which names anything which you can not per- ceive through your five physical senses, and is the opposite of a concrete noun.
  11. 11. 11 E. Countable Nouns - Countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count. You can make a countable noun plural and attach it to a plural verb in a sentence. Over the course of twenty-seven years, Martha Ballad delivered just over eight hundred babies. F. Non-Countable Nouns - Non-countable noun (or mass noun) is a noun which does not have a plural form, and which refers to something that you could (or would) not usually count. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence. G. Collective Nouns - Collective noun is a noun naming a group of things, animals, or per- sons. You could count the individual members of the group, but you usually think of the group as a whole is generally as one unit. You need to be able to recognise collective nouns in order to maintain subject-verb agreement. A collective noun is similar to a non-countable noun, and is roughly the opposite of a countable noun. Grammar in Action Exercise A Circle the nouns in each of the following sentences. 1. Melissa used a red crayon and a black pen to complete her drawing. 2. George Washington was the first President of the United States. 3. Many people are fascinated by the art of the Incas. 4. The airplane taxied down the runway on its way to Florida. 5. The telephone was an important invention in the history of technology.6. Laughter is the best medicine when you have a case of the blues. 7. An apple is a good snack according to nutritionists. 8. The Middle East is often in the news these days. 9. The guillotine is a machine invented by a doctor named Guillotine. 10. The usher collected our tickets and let us into the theatre. Exercise B In each sentence, underline the common nouns and circle the proper nouns. 1. The Stanley Steamer was his favourite automobile. 2. Sports are quite exciting in the mountains. 3. Nellie would rather read poems than novels. 4. Mr. Putnam will tour the valleys of the Loire and the Rhine. 5. Kathleen Ross was our excellent fielder. 6. Be sure to bring paint, scissors, and paper for Art I. 7. Do you prefer Superman, Spiderman, or Wonder Woman? 8. Muffin was the tiniest dog in the show.9. Riverside Pool echoed with the yells of my little brother. 10. Woof-Woof Unlimited sells clothing for dogs.
  12. 12. 12 Exercise C In the following exercise, try to match the collective noun to the animal with which it belongs. 1. pride kangaroos 2. school ferrets 3. pack fish 4. army parrots 5. cete lions 6. mob seals 7. crash dogs 8. cast pigeon 9. flock ants 10.company badgers Inkblot Think of a man or woman of principle whom you know and admire. Write a profile of his/her character in paragraph of not more than 20 sentences. Underline the nouns and identi- fy what type of noun each one is. Challenge Direction : Fill in the puzzle with the plural form of each word. ACROSS 2 Tooth. 7 Wife. 8 Snake. 10 Party. 12 Leaf. 13 Box. 16 House. 17 Finger. 19 Knife. 20 Basket. DOWN 1 Man. 3 Hammer. 4 Bush. 5 Foot. 6 Bench. 9 Girl. 11 Story. 14 Shoe. 15 Sock. 18 Goose.
  13. 13. 13 Grammar Armchair Rules for Forming Plural Nouns To form the plural of nouns, follow the rules below. 1. Add s to most nouns. girl/girls bicycle/bicycles printer/printers 2. Add es to nouns ending is s, x, z, ch, or sh. class/classes ax/axes buzz/buzzes church/churches wish/wishes 3. For nouns ending in y preceded by a consonant, change y to i and add es. fly/flies party/parties daisy/daisies 4. For nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel, add s. monkey/monkeys valley/valleys
  14. 14. 14 5. For nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, add es. hero/heroes potato/potatoes 6. For nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel, add s. Oreo/Oreos radio/radios patio/patios 7. For musical terms ending in o, add s. solo/solos alto/altos piano/pianos 8. For nouns ending in f or fe, usually change the f or fe to ves. leaf/leaves shelf/shelves wolf/wolves Exceptions: chief/chiefs chef/chefs safe/safes 9. Add s to the end of singular nouns ending in ful. cupful/cupfuls spoonful/spoonfuls 10. Change the spelling of some words. cactus/cacti mouse/mice goose/geese woman/ women 11. Leave some nouns as they are. sheep/sheep deer/deer fish/fish moose/moose 12. Add s to the most important noun in a hyphenated word. editor-in-chief/editors-in-chief brother-in-law/brothers-in-law 13. Add s to proper nouns which do not end in s. Add es to proper nouns which do end in s. Mr. and Mrs. Walker/the Walkers Mr. and Mrs. Ross/the Rosses
  15. 15. 15 Grammar in Action Direction: Choose the correct form of the noun in each sentence. 1. I have three (child, children). 2. There are five (man, men) and one (woman, women). 3. (Baby, Babies) play with bottles as toys. 4. I put two big (potato, potatoes) in the lunch box. 5. A few men wear (watch, watches). 6. I put a (memo, memos) on the desk. 7. I saw a (mouse, mice) running by. 8. There are few (bus, buses) on the road today. Directions: Make the singular nouns into plural nouns. Directions: Make the singular nouns into plural nouns. 1. box = __________________________ 7. class = ____________________________ 2. church = _______________________ 8. shop = ____________________________ 3. wish = _________________________ 9. glass = ____________________________ 4. lake = __________________________ 10. city = _____________________________ 5. bunny = ________________________ 11. friend = ___________________________ 6. house = ________________________ 12. fox = _____________________________ Directions: Read each sentence and circle the correct plural form of the word in parentheses 1. We had to buy ( nailes, nails ) at the hardware store. 2. Please put the empty ( boxes, boxes ) in the house. 3. The ( dishs, dishes ) in the sink need to be washed. 4. My mother used ten ( matchs, matches ) to light the fire. 5. Sara bought some new ( dresses, dresss ) today. 6. Our sun is a ball of hot ( gases, gasss ). 7. There were many ( flyes, flies ) at the beach. 8. The bird spread its ( winges, wings ) before it flew into the air. 9. I like to read the ( funnyes, funnies ) in the newspaper. 10. I made three ( wishes, wishs ) last night List down at least 10 examples for each rule in the pluralisation of nouns. Inkblot
  16. 16. 16 Challenge Grammar Armchair Possessive Nouns A possessive noun is a noun that names who or what owns or has possession of some- thing. In most cases, for singular nouns to show that possession, we add an apostrophe and an a (‘s). For plural nouns we simply an apostrophe except for those few plural nouns that do not end in s.
  17. 17. 17 Grammar Rules for Possessive Nouns Five basic grammar rules cover the majority of instances where writers encounter pos- sessive nouns. Rule #1: Making singular nouns possessive Add an apostrophe + s to most singular nouns and to plural nouns that do not end in s. English has some words that are plural but do not add an ‘s’. Words like children, sheep, women and men are such words. These plural words are treated as if they were singular words when making noun possessives. Examples:  Singular nouns: kitten’s toy, Joe’s car, MLB’s ruling Plurals not ending in s: women’s dresses, sheep’s pasture, children’s toys Rule #2: Making plural nouns possessive Add an apostrophe only to plural nouns that already end in s. You don’t need to add an extra ‘s’ to plural nouns that already end with the letter ‘s’. Simply tuck the apostrophe onto the end to indicate that the plural noun is now a plural pos- sessive noun. Examples:  Companies’ workers  Horses’ stalls Countries’ armies Rule #3: Making hyphenated nouns and compound nouns plural Compound and hyphenated words can be tricky. Add the apostrophe + s to the end of the compound words or the last word in a hyphenated noun. Examples:  My mother-in-law’s recipe for meatloaf is my husband’s favourite. The United States Post Office’s stamps are available in rolls or in packets. Rule #4: Indicating possession when two nouns are joined together If two nouns share ownership, indicate possession only once, and on the second noun. Add the apostrophe + s to the second noun only.
  18. 18. 18 Grammar in Action Examples: Jack and Jill’s pail of water features prominently in the nursery rhyme. Abbot and Costello’s comedy skit “Who’s On First” is a classic act. Rule #5: Indicating possession when two nouns are joined, and ownership is separate When two nouns indicate ownership, but the ownership is separate, each noun gets the apostrophe + s. The examples below may help you understand exactly what this means. Example:  Lucy’s and Ricky’s dressing rooms were painted pink and blue. (Each owns his or her own dressing room, and they are different rooms). Senator Obama’s and Senator Clinton’s educations are outstanding. (Each senator owns his or her education, but they attained separate educations). Direction: Fill the gaps with the possessive case of nouns. Decide whether you have to use 's or an of phrase. 1. The boy has a toy. → It's the . 2. Peter has a book. → It's . 3. The magazine has my picture on its cover. → My picture is on . 4. Our friends live in this house. → It's . 5. There is milk in the glass. → It's . 6. This house has a number. → What is ? 7. The walk lasts two hours. → It's . 8. John has a sister, Jane. → Jane is . 9. The film has a name, "Scream". → "Scream" is . 10. This school is for girls only. → It's a .
  19. 19. 19 Direction: Change the phrases to possessive nouns the cheering of the children _______________________________ the laughter of the men __________________________________ the horn of the oxen _____________________________________ the jump rope of the girls ________________________________ the howling of the dogs __________________________________ the singing of the choirs _________________________________ the handbags of the women ______________________________ the cheese of the mice __________________________________ Direction: Write the singular and plural possessives form of the italicized nouns. Inkblot Write a 10 sentence paragraph about the advantage and disadvantages of technology in education. Be sure to use the singular and possessive nouns in your sentences.
  20. 20. 20 Mastery Test Underline the nouns that can be found in the selection below. THE TRANSFER Bienvenido Santos At the meaning of the Local Catholic Action Committee held that Sun- day morning at the Bishop’s Palace immediately after the High Mass, Mr. Conrardo Ara- bia, who has an old government employee as well as chairman of the CAC for the past five years, mentioned casually the need for a particular retirement system for the Church, patterned after the civil service. The committee had met to discuss the final details of the welcome program for the first Bishop of the diocese ever to reside in town. The bishop’s Palace stood outside the Cathedral grounds. Formerly the mansion of a Chinese dry goods merchant, it was now ready for its distinguished resident. It still smelled of paint and varnish, but the transformation was complete. The ground floor, formerly a recreation hall and bar, had been partitioned to serve as officers of the Chan- cery. File cabinets and chairs stood in appropriate corners. A huge mahogany table cov- ered with glass occupied an inner compartment for the Bishop himself. On a wall was a colored painting of His Holiness Pope. Typewriter under black leathery hoods, looking like Monks asleep at their desks, bookcases with jacket gay leathery volumes, had re- placed the open bar and the wine shelves; religious calendars, each page crowded with pictures of saints and fish in red, now hung on the walls where colourful targets for ar- chery practices used to be. On the first floor, the guest room adjoining the sala was now a chapel, beautiful with imported rugs and carrying and gleaming pews. From where he sat, Mr. Arabia could see the altar gravely austere in its simplicity, and the chandeliers. Resplendent in the day time. Father Simplicio Ruivivar had been parish priest of the town for nearly half a century anfd he was not strong enough anymore to carry on the growing complexities of his job. Grown fast and habitually shabby, he waddled about with effort. Old age had im- paired his senses. There were old priest who knew when it was time for them to retire and keep to corner, who allowed younger priest to take over their tasks even while they continued to be normal, at least, parish priest. But Father Ruivivar refused to acknowl- edgement what was obvious to everybody, that he was too old for this job. His retort every time someone in the parish dared to brook him or express contrary opinion: “Who are you to say so? You think you are wise, but I am old. Remember, didn’t baptize you myself?” assumed a meaning beyond its implication, indeed, he was a priest grown too old for his job.
  21. 21. 21 I. Classify the following nouns accordingly. _____ 1. Love _____11. Hacienda Luicita _____2. Sack of rice _____12. train _____3. Market _____13. A kilo of cotton _____4. Steve Jobs _____14. subway _____5. Happiness _____15. Channel Bag _____6. SM Hypermart _____16. governor _____7. Sugar _____17. Jessica Soho _____8. Sweetness _____18. books _____9. Fear _____19 .hate _____10. Trainor _____20. Water II. Write the following nouns in their plural form. _____1. Fact _____11. cupful _____2. Cameo _____12. knife _____3. Lasso _____13. appendix _____4. Ally _____14. ghetto _____5. Dwarf _____15. radius _____6. Mouse _____16. scenery _____7. Child _____17. lion _____8. Axis _____18. flash _____9. Man _____19. louse _____10. Son-in-law _____20.buoy IV. Add an appropriate nominal qualifier to indicate the plural form of the non- count nouns. 1. Corn 6. Thunder 2. Dust 7. Work 3. Oil 8. Grass 4. Rice 9. Bread 5. Tea 10. Paper
  22. 22. 22 V. For each of the following, write the singular and possessive forms. Singular Possessive Plural Possessive the front of the ox ________________ ________________ the iPod of the woman ________________ ________________ the watch of the teenager ________________ ________________ the label of the box and the can ________________ ________________ the dialysis machine in the hospital ________________ ________________ the tooth of the crocodile ________________ ________________ the curriculum of the nurse ________________ ________________ the office of the editor-in- chief ________________ ________________ the bikes of Mitch and Rose ________________ ________________ the requirement of Mathe- matics subject ________________ ________________ Write two sentences for each of the rules in forming the possessive form of a noun. 1. a.______________________________________________________________________ b.______________________________________________________________________ 2. a._____________________________________________________________________ b._____________________________________________________________________ 3. a._____________________________________________________________________ b._____________________________________________________________________ 4. a.______________________________________________________________________ b.______________________________________________________________________ 5. a.______________________________________________________________________ b.______________________________________________________________________ 6. a.______________________________________________________________________ b.______________________________________________________________________ 7. a.______________________________________________________________________ b.______________________________________________________________________
  23. 23. 23 Write the correct form the possessive noun in the blank in the blanks to correctly complete the sentences. None of the __________ (computers) processors are fast enough for this game. (9) Be careful, the ________ edges are very (knives) sharp. The lawyer proved that his ______ (client) rights were violated. (10) Our _________ batteries only last for a (cellphones) couple of hours. The ___________ glass was shattered (windows) shattered by the earthquake. (11) There is a telephone in my __________ (parents) bedroom. The __________ pages had been (textbook) extensively marked up. (12) When the ________ long hand reaches six, (clock) put down your pencils. You also need to paint the ___________ (windows) frames. (13) Shelby pulled back the drapes to let the ________ light in. (sun) The __________ manuals can be found on (programs) the shelf. (14) All of _____________ menus can be found (restaurants) in this book. The _________ surfaces need to be (desks) cleaned with soap and water. (15) The ____________ bindings are starting to (books) fall apart. The _________ lecture notes are available (professors) online. (16) The ___________ solutions are staring us (problems) in the face! Singular Possessive Plural Possessive Christian duty Brother opinion Church congregation Mother garden Family yard Worker uniform Day rest Money worth
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  25. 25. 25 After dealing with this chapter, the students must be able to:  Familiarize with the different kinds of pronouns;  Identify the different kinds of pronouns in a sentence;  Determine the cases of pronouns  Identify the pronoun’s antecedent isn a sentence P ro n o u n s
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  27. 27. 27 Check It Out!!! Pronoun Underline the pronouns that you found in the song entitled “Lean on Me”. Sometimes in our lives We all have pain We all have sorrow But if we are wise We know that there's always to- morrow Lean on me, when you're not strong And I'll be your friend I'll help you carry on For it won't be long 'Til I'm gonna need Somebody to lean on Please swallow your pride If I have things you need to bor- row For no one can fill those of your needs That you won't let show [ Lyrics from: http:// www.lyricsty.com/bill-withers- lean-on-me-lyrics.html ] You just call on me brother, when you need a hand (Chorus) We all need somebody to lean on I just might have a problem that you'd understand We all need somebody to lean on Second Verse (Chorus) If there is a load you have to bear That you can't carry I'm right up the road I'll share your load If you just call me (Chorus) Call me (if you need a friend) Call me (call me) Call me (if you need a friend) Call me (if you ever need a friend) Call me (call me) Call me Call me (if you need A friend) “Lean on Me” By: Bill Withers
  28. 28. 28 Grammar Armchair Pronouns comes from the two words pro which means “for” and noun. A pronoun is traditionally defined as a noun replacement. A pronoun is used in place of a noun or a whole noun phrase, that is also known as noun—substitutes. Pronouns are commonly used. 1. In place of a noun or noun phrase that has already been mentioned, when the repeti- tion of the noun or noun phrase would be very strange. Example: Mandy has to go the airport. Can you give her a lift? 2. When we know perfectly well who or what to referred to. When, foe example, I use the pronoun I, it is because it would be unusual to referred to myself by name. Example: I’m sorry I’m late. 3. When the name of someone to our office yesterday. Example: She’s the woman who came to our office yesterday. ANTECEDENTS An antecedent is a noun phrase that gives it meaning to another noun phrase in the sentence. Antecedents usually occurs before the pronoun. Here are some examples: Adeline bit her lip. Adeline = antecedent; her = personal pronoun. Our carnivorous friends will not attend the picnic be- cause they despise tofu hotdogs and black bean burgers. Friends = antecedent; they = personal pronoun. When Kris sprained his ankle, Coach Ames replaced him with Jasper, a much slower runner. Kris = antecedent; him = personal pronoun. Eating with your mouth closed has several benefits. Most im- portantly, itkeeps people from turning away in disgust. Eating with your mouth closed = phrase as antecedent; it = personal pronoun. Karline hopes that her roommates remember to walk the new pup- py. It will mean less urine to mop up when she gets home.
  29. 29. 29 Direction: Underline the correct pronoun in each sentence below. 1. During early rehearsals, an actor may forget (his or her, their) lines. 2. The Washington team was opportunistic; (it, they) took advantage of every break. 3. A person needs to see (his or her, their) dentist twice a year. 4. The committee members put (its, their) signatures on the document. 5. If any one of the sisters needs a ride, (she, they) can call me. 6. When someone has been drinking, (he or she, they) may drive poorly. 7. If the board of directors controls the company, (it, they) may vote for a raise. 8. Neither the pilot nor the attendants gave (his or her, their) opinion about the mishap. 9. Each of these companies had (its, their) books audited. 10. Some of the china has lost (its, their) luster. Grammar in Action Proofread each sentence for errors in pronoun/antecedent agreement. Correct the in- correct pronouns. Write a C next to sentences that use correct pronoun/antecedent agreement. 1. One of the boys had tears in their eyes. 2. Somebody left their books on the counter. 3. A student should see an advisor if they have any questions. 4. Any injured athlete should see a trainer as soon as they are injured. 5. Many of us love the movies, but you seldom have time to go to them. 6. Everyone has his or her own way of studying. 7. Teachers are responsible for providing their students with accurate grades. 8. Someone had blocked the driveway with their car. 9. When I asked the teacher why I failed the test, he said that I had not studied the proper ma- terial. 10. Each woman must do their best to take care of their health. 11. Each of the apartment owners had his or her apartment repainted. 12. As the weather got colder everyone wished they had brought a coat. 13. Everyone gets angry when someone accuses him or her of voting for the wrong candidate. 14. Jill told Reagan that she had to get more sleep. 15. A person needs to learn how to read or you will not do very well in school.
  30. 30. 30 Case refers to the form a word takes and its function in a sentence. The English language has just three cases: subjective, possessive and objective. Most nouns, many indefinite pronouns and “it” and“you” have distinctive forms only for the possessive case. For most nouns and indefinite pronouns, that form usually is indicated by an apostrophe: John's coat; states' powers; someone's house; another's task. For “it.” the possessive is formed by adding “s”; for “you” the possessive is formed by adding “r” or “rs” to the word. (Never use an apostrophe to form a possessive for it, you or the personal pronouns noted below.) Six personal pronouns have a distinctive form for each of the three cases: Subjective “I,” “we,” “he,” “she,”“who” and “they” are the forms used for subjects and subject comple- ments. Examples: Subjects — He and I were great friends. We grew uptogether. They lived next door. Who teaches that course? Complements of the subject — The ones responsible are Joe and she. It is I. Joe Smith, that's who. Possessive “My/mine,” “our/ours,” “his,” “her/hers,” “their/theirs and “whose” are the formsused to show ownership. Examples: Before noun — My car broke down. Our boat leaks.His dog is ugly. Her back is wet. Their name is Mudd.Whose job is that? Possessors in the noun position — Mine is green. Ours is over there.His looks heavy. Hers was last inline. Theirs sank yesterday.Whosewill be chosen? Objective “Me,” “us,” “him,” “her,” “them” and “whom” are the forms reserved for use as objectsof verbs or prepositions. Examples: Sue likes me. Elaine drove to the airport to meet us. For him this is no problem. Sam wanted her to leave. Jim was introduced to them. Finding whom I was looking for, I re- turned to my favorite pastime. Grammar Armchair CASES
  31. 31. 31 Determining the Case of Pronouns Underline the correct form from the choices given in the parenthesis. 1. (Who, Whom) did you say you saw at the park. 2. If it is (he, him), why don’t you bother to tell us. 3. (Whoever, Whomever) you vote will represent us in Congress. 4. Philippines and (you, yourself) are the official candidates. 5. Are you astonished at (us, our) winning the Championship. 6. There’s enough for you and (she, her) to fix your relationship. 7. That is one beautiful lady (who, whom) I like so dearly. 8. The box should be returned to either Joan or (me, myself). 9. Between you and (I, me), they should not be here at all. 10. They triumphantly won at least two or more games than (we, us). Grammar in Action Inkblot Write an essay about your prized possession as of this moment. Take note to use pronouns and cases of pronouns and underline it. Grammar in Action Choose the correct pronoun for each sentence below. Read the entire sentence before making your choice. 1. Five of (we, us, ourselves) took a cab to the play. 2. Are you and (they, them, themselves) attending the meeting. 3. No one is more concerned about the matter than (she, her, herself). 4. (Who, Whom) can I go out with tonight? 5. Margaret and (I, me, myself) hope to be roommates. 6. The committee told Smith and (they, them, themselves) to write a new resolution. 7. Is he the one for (who, whom) the note is intended? 8. We discovered that it was (they, them, themselves) who started the fire. 9. Everyone asked Joan and (he, him, himself) to speak at the convention. 10. A person as young as (she, her, herself) should not be given too much responsibility.
  32. 32. 32 Types of Pronoun There five types of pronoun 1. Personal Pronoun 6. Indefinite 2. Possessive Pronoun 7. Reciprocal 3. Reflexive Pronoun 8. Interrogative 4. Relative Pronoun 5. Demonstrative Pronoun Personal Pronouns Personal pronoun describes a particular person or thing or group. Personal pronoun describes the person speaking (I, me, we, us), the person spoken to (you), or the person or thing spoken about (he, she, it, they, him, her, them). Example. He helps poor. The pronoun “he” in above sentence describes a person who helps poor. Possessive Pronouns Possessive Pronoun indicates close possession or ownership or relationship of a thing/ person to another thing/person. e.g. yours, mine, his, hers, ours, theirs, hers, Example. This book is mine. The pronoun “mine” describes the relationship between book and a person (me) who pos- sesses this book or who is the owner of this book. Grammar Armchair Reflexive Pronoun. Reflexive pronoun describes noun when subject’s action affects the subject itself. e.g himself, yourself, herself, ourselves, themselves, itself are reflexive pronouns. Reflexive pronouns always act as objects not subjects, and they require an interaction be- tween the subject and an object.
  33. 33. 33 Reciprocal Pronouns. Reciprocal Pronouns are used when each of two or more subjects reciprocate to the other. or Reciprocal pronouns are used when two subjects act in same way towards each other, or, more subjects act in same way to one another. For example, A loves B and B love A. we can say that A and B loves each other. There are two reciprocal pronouns Each other One another. Demonstrative Pronouns. Demonstrative pronoun is a pronoun that points to a thing or things. e.g. this, that, these, those, none, neither These pronouns point to thing or things in short distance/time or long distance/time. Short distance or time: This, these. Long distance or time: That, those. Demonstrative pronouns “this and that” are used for singular thing while “these or those” are used for plural things. Relative Pronouns Relative Pronoun describes a noun which is mentioned before and more information is to be given about it. Or Relative pronoun is a pronoun which joins relative clauses and relative sentences. For example, It is the person, who helped her. In this sentence the word “who” is a relative pronoun which refers to the noun (the per- son) which is already mentioned in beginning of sentence (It is the person) and more in- formation (he helped her) is given after using a relative pronoun (who) for the noun (the person). Similarly, in above sentence the pronoun “who” joins two clauses which are “it is the per- son” and “who helped her”.
  34. 34. 34 information (he helped her) is given after using a relative pronoun (who) for the noun (the person). Similarly, in above sentence the pronoun “who” joins two clauses which are “it is the per- son” and “who helped her”. Indefinite Pronouns Indefinite pronoun is used when you do not know or do not need to say precisely who or what you are referring to. Examples: Many are called, but few are elected. Each of us has his own share of protecting the environment. Singular indicators: anybody, anymore, anyone, anything, everybody, everyone, everything, somebody, someone, something, another, each, either, neither, nobody, nothing, none, one. Plural indicators: all, any, both, enough, few, more, none, plenty, several, some Portion Indicators: all, any, enough, less, little, more, much, none, plenty, some. Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative pronoun allows us to build a question around the thing that the pronoun refers to. Examples: Who is dancing with Helen in the movie? Which of these development theories would you recommend for reading? Whose are these artefacts? Circle any pronouns that you see in the narrative below. Jane and Jack went out to play. It was a hot Saturday afternoon as they played ball. After playing with the ball, they went on the swings in the backyard. Jane ran ahead of Jack. “I wonder where she is going,” Jack said quietly. Waiting for a moment, Jack then ran after Jane quickly. “Wait for me!” he yelled. As Jane looked back, she smiled sweetly. “I will meet you at the top of the hill,” she yelled back as she kept running. Jack was out of breath, but he still managed to catch up with her. “Hey,” he said panting. “You run fast,” he continued. “I know!” said Jane giggling loudly as she poked Jack’s arm playfully and he laughed as well. Grammar in Action
  35. 35. 35 In each of the following sentences a pronoun has been highlighted. What type of pronoun is it? 1. Let's contact one another once we've made some progress. 2. She wants to do it herself. 3. I can't find them. 4. I can't believe it's finally ours. 5. The girl who usually cuts my hair has won the lottery. 6. He wants to go to Scarborough. 7. Why are you shouting at me? 8. Jim gave me the last copy. 9. Nobody said a word all night. Inkblot Write your plan and highlight the pronouns by underlining it and the antecedents by writing it in bold letters. Grammar in Action Directions: Choose the correct pronoun in each sentence below. 1. During early rehearsals, an actor may forget (his or her, their) lines. 2. The Washington team was opportunistic; (it, they) took advantage of every break. 3. A person needs to see (his or her, their) dentist twice a year. 4. The committee members put (its, their) signatures on the document. 5. If any one of the sisters needs a ride, (she, they) can call me.
  36. 36. 36 6. When someone has been drinking, (he or she, they) may drive poorly. 7. If the board of directors controls the company, (it, they) may vote for a raise. 8. Neither the pilot nor the attendants gave (his or her, their) opinion about the mishap. 9. Each of these companies had (its, their) books audited. 10. Some of the china has lost (its, their) luster. Direction: Look for the pronouns in the poem and box it out. The Lover’s Death By Ricardo Demetillo He who had lived the earth with a firm love Is now, being infirm, laid in the earth That covers him with green grass quietly. Once when he walked the fields, he suddenly knelt And with an avid gesture clasped the earth. His sun-lit fingers sifted dust. Lovers would write their incoherent view On passionate pages; but he, on pads of meadow, Wrote with his plow a tongue tied love. Fields understood, for when the harvest ripened, Fruits lay like brown breasts for his hands to pluck, And he with lightness, touched each pregnant stalk. His house was quiet, like the one who closed. The gate-behind him when the lamplight glowed He knew no woman’s touch except the earth’s. We thought it fitting that the sun should touch With quite fingers the rice-fronds in the field When he, after a fever, gave himself to dusk. We could not salvage breath, but we could swathe His body and lay it in the earth he loved He may returned and beckon from sheaf.
  37. 37. 37 Mastery Test Write an A over the antecedent for the pronoun choice in parentheses, then write S or P next to the number of the sentence to indicate singular or plural. Finally, circle the pro- noun that agrees with its antecedent. ____ 1. A reporter talked to Mrs. Bea Zwack after (her, their) home was struck by a tor- nado. ____ 2. Jack Zwack spent most of (his, their) time cleaning up the yard. ____ 3. Nick, Mack, and Patty Zwack are staying with (his or her, their) neighbors for the time being. ____ 4. The Zwacks now have a healthy respect for tornadoes and (its, their) power. ____ 5. The reporter finally submitted (her, their) assignment to the editor of the paper. ____ 6. The newspaper featured tornadoes on (its, their) front page. ____ 7. Subscribers that read the story and saw the pictures realize that (he or she, they) could have been the victims of the storm. ____ 8. A mature person is responsible for (his or her, their) actions. ____ 9. The detective told (his or her, their) chief that (he or she, they) had caught the criminal. ____ 10. Each of the Olympic champions proudly wore (his, their) medal. ____ 11. Either the professional craftsmen or the amateur woodworkers enjoyed working with (his or her, their) hands. ____ 12. Almost anybody who has worked with wood would say that woodworking soothes (his or her, their)s spirit. ____ 13. Each of the Hopi Indian fathers carved (his, their) daughter a kachina doll from cottonwood root. ____ 14. Every one of the Iroquois carvers used basswood for (his or her, their) healing ritual mask. ____ 15. One of the wooden masks from the Pacific Northwest shows by (its, their) detail the customs of the tribe. ____ 16. Each of my sisters has tried (her, their) hand at whittling. ____ 17. Neither cut (herself, themselves). ____ 18. Everybody used to buy (his or her, their) tobacco at the store with the carved wooden Native American in front. ____ 19. Anybody who likes (his or her, their) home uncluttered with detail would appre- ciate the simple wooden furniture made by the Quakers. ____ 20. Everyone, including Queen Victoria, wished (he or she, they) could own the fancy Victorian furniture painstakingly carved by William Bartels.
  38. 38. 38 Box the correct pronoun from the choices given in brackets. 1. How many times has Bill told a lie to (his / him) father? 2. Where did Sally go with (she / her) friends yesterday? 3. I love going to the park with Mark, even though (he / him) is a little odd. 4. The cat was taking care of (its / his) young. 5. The dog was chasing (her / its) tail. 6. Many students wonder where (they / them) will end up after college. 7. A parent always wonders if (he or she / they) are doing the best for the kids. 8. How many times did Mr., Johnson have to tell you to stay out of (his / he / him) yard? 9. I don’t know what’s gotten into the dogs but (them / they) have been barking all day. 10. Look at the mother and father bird building (their / its) nest in the tree. Proofread each sentence for errors in pronoun/antecedent agreement. Correct the incorrect pronouns. Write a C next to sentences that use correct pronoun. 1. One of the boys had tears in their eyes. 2. Somebody left their books on the counter. 3. A student should see an advisor if they have any questions. 4. Any injured athlete should see a trainer as soon as they are injured. 5. Many of us love the movies, but you seldom have time to go to them. 6. Everyone has his or her own way of studying. 7. Teachers are responsible for providing their students with accurate grades. 8. Someone had blocked the driveway with their car. 9. When I asked the teacher why I failed the test, he said that I had not studied the proper Each woman must do their best to take care of their health. 10. Each of the apartment owners had his or her apartment repainted. 11. As the weather got colder everyone wished they had brought a coat. 12. Everyone gets angry when someone accuses him or her of voting for the wrong candi- date. 13. Jill told Reagan that she had to get more sleep.
  39. 39. 39 14. A person needs to learn how to read or you will not do very well in school. 15. The children insisted on doing it theirselves. I. PERSONAL PRONOUNS Fill in the correct personal pronouns. 1. She is very handsome. I envy _____. 2. They are not reliable. He doubts ______. 3. I taught her. ________ learned it from ______. 4. We asked for his advice. ______ advised ______ not to come. 5. He dislikes her, and ______ hates ______; it’s evident. 6. You should be there on time. I want _____ to come on time. 7. She is English; _____ gave me lessons in English. 8. They are our friends. We invited _____ to the party. 9. It was him who wrote this letter. I recognized _____ by _____ handwriting. 10. Did you see the snake? – Yes, I saw _____ and _____ saw _____. II. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Fill in the correct possessive pronouns. 1. This book belongs to me. This is _____ book. 2. Whose book is that? It is not _____. 3. The cat ate _____ food. 4. She took out _____ purse and gave it to me. 5. A friend of _____ gave me that toy. 6. This is their car. That car is _____ too. 7. May I introduce to you one of _____ colleagues? 8. Has anyone here lost _____ books? 9. Every season is beautiful in _____ own way. 10. They would like a house of _____ own. III. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS Fill in the correct demonstrative pronoun. 1. What is _____? 2. _____’s how he does it. 3. They talked about _____ and _____. 4. _____ is his book, isn’t it? 5. _____’s why they accepted his proposal.
  40. 40. 40 6. _____ is Ann speaking. 7. After _____ they decided not to come. 8. _____ will do. 9. I’ll take _____ books. 10. He’s been waiting _____ three weeks. ______ had the right love At the wrong time Guess ______ always knew inside ______ wouldn't have ______ for a long time ______ dreams of ______ Are shining on distant shores And if they're calling you away ______ have no right to make you stay But somewhere down the road ______ roads are gonna cross again ______ doesn't really matter when But somewhere down the road ______ know that heart of ______ Will come to see ______ you belong with ______ Sometimes good-byes are not forever ______ doesn't matter if you're gone ______ still believe in ______ together ______ understand more than you think ______ can ______ have to go out on ______ own So ______ can find ______ way back home And somewhere down the road ______ roads are gonna cross again ______ doesn't really matter when But somewhere down the road ______ know that heart of ______ Will come to see ______ belong with ______ Letting go is just another way to say I'll always love ______ so ______ had the right love At the wrong time Maybe we've only just begun Maybe the best is yet to come 'Cause Somewhere down the road ______ roads are gonna cross again ______ doesn't really matter when But somewhere down the road ______ know that heart of yours Will come to see That ______ belong With ______ Somewhere Down the Road By: Nina
  41. 41. 41 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Learn the various types of verbs  Improve their skills in using verb in a sentence  Construct meaningful sentences and composition employing correct verb use Ve rb s
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. 43 Check It Out!!! HOW STEVE JOBS CHANGED BY JAMES SUROWIECKI As seemingly everyone on the planet knows, Steve Jobs’s defining quality was per- fectionism. The development of the Macintosh, for instance, took more than three years, be- cause of Jobs’s obsession with detail. He nixed the idea of an internal fan, because he thought it was noisy and clumsy. And he wanted his engineers to redesign the Mac’s motherboard, just because it looked inelegant. At NeXT, the company Jobs started after being nudged out of Apple, in 1985, he drove his hardware team crazy in order to make a computer that was a sleek, gorgeous magnesium cube. After his return to Apple, in 1997, he got personally in- volved with things like how many screws there were in a laptop case. It took six months un- til he was happy with the way that scroll bars in OS X worked. Jobs believed that, for an ob- ject to resonate with consumers, every piece of it had to be right, even the ones you couldn’t see. This perfectionism obviously had a lot to do with Apple’s success. It explains why Apple products have typically had a feeling of integrity, in the original sense of the word; they feel whole, rather than simply like collections of parts. But Jobs’s perfectionism came at a price, too. It could be literally expensive: back in the eighties, Jobs insisted that in maga- zine ads and on packages the Apple logo be printed in six colors, not four, which was thirty to forty per cent more expensive. And there were more important costs: Jobs’s vision re- quired Apple to control every part of the user experience, and to make everything it possibly could itself. Its hardware was proprietary: the company had its own Mac factory and favored unique cables, disk drives, and power cords, rather than standardized ones. Its software was proprietary, too: if you wanted to run Apple software, you needed to own an Apple comput- er. This made Apple’s computers more expensive than the competition. It also made them hard to customize, which businesses didn’t like. So, while Apple changed the world of com- puting in the eighties, with machines that were more user-friendly and powerful than your typical I.B.M. clone, most users never touched a Macintosh. They ended up with P.C.s in- stead. When Jobs returned, he still wanted Apple to, as he put it, “own and control the pri- mary technology in everything we do.” But his obsession with control had been tempered: he was better, you might say, at playing with others, and this was crucial to the extraordinary success that Apple has enjoyed over the past decade. Take the iPod. The old Jobs might well have insisted that the iPod play only songs encoded in Apple’s favored digital format, the A.A.C. This would have allowed Apple to control the user experience, but it would also have limited the iPod market, since millions of people already had MP3s. So Apple made the iPod MP3-compatible. (Sony, by contrast, made its first digital music players compatible only with files in Sony’s proprietary format, and they bombed as a result.) Similarly, Jobs could have insisted, as he originally intended, that iPods and iTunes work only with Macs. But that would have cut the company off from the vast majority of computer users. So in 2002 Apple launched a Windows-compatible iPod, and sales skyrocketed soon afterward. And, while Apple’s designs are as distinctive as ever, the devices now rely less on proprietary hardware and more on standardized technologies. Direction: Look for the verbs in the selection and write it on a piece of paper.
  44. 44. 44 Grammar Armchair Verbs carry the idea of being or action in the sentence. It can be an action word, and auxiliary or a linking verb. 1. Action Verb. States the action performed by the subject. This can be transitive, which requires a direct object or intransitive, which does not need direct object and can stand alone as a predicate. Example: TV George plays basketball every weekend. IV The choir sings well. 2. Linking Verb. Connects the subject to its complement which can be a predicate noun or predi- cate adjectives. Verbs which appeal to senses are considered linking verbs. The commonly used linking verbs are the formed. Example: Jenny feels good upon seeing her high school friends. Ted is a physician. The children are excited to see the clown. 3. Auxiliary Verb. It may be formed from have, may be, shall, will, might, must, do and appears before the main verb in a verb phrase. The commonly used auxiliary verbs are: Example: Lucky is doing his assignment. The going will have their vocation in Vigan. She has been working in the university since 2003. She could have done better if she studied her lessons. Grammar in Action Underline the action verbs in the following sentences. 1. I assumed that you would bring your swimsuit because the invitation stated "pool par- ty." 2. As I walked home, I noticed a box of abandoned kittens on the sidewalk. 3. Many people have the ill-conceived notion that "natural" means pesticide-free. 4. They will close the theater for two weeks while workers install the new seats. 5. Let's go downtown and spend some time at the museum.
  45. 45. 45 6. Alex's laptop wouldn't reboot after the unexpected power surge at the office earlier in the day. 7. Brush corn on the cob with butter and salt, wrap it in heavy-duty aluminum foil, and roast it on the grill for a delicious treat. 8. Uncle Drew cast his fishing line off the edge of the pier. 9. Lexi considered Morgan to be her best friend. 10. Marcia watched the squirrel hop from limb to limb. Determine whether the boldfaced verbs in the following sentences are action or linking verbs. 1. "It appears that the only solution to this problem is starting over," said Trudy. 2. "The group appears dismayed at that prospect," she thought to herself. 3. Dennis was asked to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that the butler did it. 4. There was no doubt in his adversary's mind that his argument would prove faulty. 5. The sign says to stay behind the line when viewing the work of art. 6. We stayed quiet while the tour guide explained the painting. 7. We tasted the orange sherbet and ordered a pint to take home. 8. We decided that it tasted delicious. 9. Mom's chicken and dumplings taste too salty for some reason. 10. Charlotte grew green and yellow peppers in her container garden. Grammar Armchair Auxiliary Verbs Auxiliary Verbs are the verbs be, do, have, will when they are followed by another verb (the full verb) in order to form a question, a negative sentence, a compound tense or the pas- sive. The verb "be" The verb be can be used as an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verb for compound tenses and the passive voice. Note that be is an irregular verb: Simple Present: I am, he/she/it is, we/you/they are Simple Past: I/he/she/it was, we/you/they were Past Participle: been You can tell that in the following sentences be is an auxiliary because it is followed by another verb (the full verb). (For progressive forms use the "-ing" form of the full verb; for passive voice, use the past participle of the full verb.)
  46. 46. 46 Progressive Forms Present Progressive: He is playing football. Past Progressive: He was playing football. Present Perfect Progressive: He has been playing football. Past Perfect Progressive: He had been playing football. Passive Simple Present/Past: The house is/was built. Present/Past Perfect: The house has/had been built. Future I: The house will be built. "be" as a full verb The verb be can also be a full verb. In this case, it's not followed by another verb. If be is used as a full verb, we do not need an auxiliary in negative sentences or questions. positive sentence: They are fifteen years old. negative sentence: They are not fifteen years old. question: Are they fifteen years old? The verb "have" The verb have, too, can be used both as an auxiliary and as a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verb to form compound tenses in active and passive voice. (Use the past participle of the full verb.) Compound Tenses - Active Voice Present Perfect Simple: He has played football. Past Perfect Simple: He had played football. Present Perfect Progressive: He has been playing football. Past Perfect Progressive: He had been playing football. Compound Tenses - Passive Voice Present/Past Perfect: The house has/had been built. Note that have is an irregular verb, too: Simple Present: I/we/you/they have, he/she/it has Simple Past: I/he/she/it/we/you/they had Past Participle: had
  47. 47. 47 "have" in positive sentences As a full verb have indicates possession. In British English, however, we usually use have got (have being the auxiliary, got the full verb). full verb: I have a car. auxiliary verb: I have got a car. "have" in negative sentences and questions When we use have as a full verb, we must use the auxiliary do in negative sentences and questions. If we use have got, however, we do not need another auxiliary. have as a full verb: I do not have a car. Do I have a car? have as an auxiliary verb: I have not got a car. Have I got a car? The verb "will" The verb will can only be used as an auxiliary. We use it to form the future tenses. The auxiliary verb "will" Future I: He will not play football. Future II: He will have played football. The verb will remains the same for all forms (no "s" for 3rd person singular). The short form for negative sentences is won't.' Examples: I will, he will I will not = I won't The verb "do" The verb do can be both an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use do in negative sentences and questions for most verbs (except not for be, will, have got and modal verbs) in Simple Present and Simple Past. (Use the infinitive of the full verb.) The auxiliary "do" in negative sentences Simple Present: He does not play football. Simple Past: He did not play football. The auxiliary "do" in questions Simple Present: Does he play football? Simple Past: Did he play football?
  48. 48. 48 Grammar in Action Fill in each blank space with the correct auxiliary verb: 1. ________ the teacher explain this properly? 2. ________ the professor angry? 3. ________ you spoken to him before he called you? 4. If you ________ told me, I would have never found out. 5. ________ they seeing each other? 6. ________ they continue seeing each other? 7. ________ you learn anything? 8. ________ he in my American History class? 9. I realized that I ________ learned a thing (= anything). 10. ________ your sister living in Paris for a while? Identify the action verbs in the following sentences. 1. I assumed that you would bring your swimsuit because the invitation stated "pool party." 2. As I walked home, I noticed a box of abandoned kittens on the sidewalk. 3. Many people have the ill-conceived notion that "natural" means pesticide-free. 4. They will close the theater for two weeks while workers install the new seats. 5. Let's go downtown and spend some time at the museum. 6. Alex's laptop wouldn't reboot after the unexpected power surge at the office earlier in the day. 7. Brush corn on the cob with butter and salt, wrap it in heavy-duty aluminum foil, and roast it on the grill for a delicious treat. Determine whether the boldfaced verbs in the following sentences are action or linking verbs. 1. "It appears that the only solution to this problem is starting over," said Trudy. 2. "The group appears dismayed at that prospect," she thought to herself. 3. Dennis was asked to prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that the butler did it. 4. There was no doubt in his adversary's mind that his argument would prove faulty. 5. The sign says to stay behind the line when viewing the work of art. 6. We stayed quiet while the tour guide explained the painting. 7. We tasted the orange sherbet and ordered a pint to take home. 8. We decided that it tasted delicious.
  49. 49. 49 The verb do is irregular: Simple Present: I/we/you/they do, he/she/it does Simple Past: I/he/she/it/we/you/they did The full verb "do" As a full verb we use do in certain expressions. If we want to form negative sentences or questions using do as a full verb, we need another do as an auxiliary. positive sentence: She does her homework every day. negative sentence: She doesn't do her homework every day. question: Does she do her homework every day? Sentences without the auxiliary "do" In the following cases, the auxiliary do is not used in negative sentences/questions: the full verb is "be" Example: I am not angry. / Are you okay? the sentence already contains another auxiliary (e.g. have, be, will) Example: They are not sleeping. / Have you heard that? the sentence contains a modal verb (can, may, must, need, ought to, shall, should) Example: We need not wait. / Can you repeat that, please? the question asks for the subject of the sentence Example: Who sings that song? Grammar in Action The following sentences are taken from The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Underline the auxiliary verb in each sentence. 1. Tom was swimming in bliss. 2. Well, I’ve been pretty much so, too, Huck. 3. I been creeping all over, ever since I got here. 4. The boys were subdued by these solemnities, and talked little. 5. Now the raft was passing before the distant town. 6. Well, he’s mended kites for me, Huck, and knitted hooks on to my line.
  50. 50. 50 7. Daily Muff Potter’s gratitude made Tom glad he had spoken; but nightly he wished he had sealed up his tongue. 8. Aunt Polly was vexed to think she had overlooked that bit of circumstantial evidence, and missed a trick. 9. They’re coming right toward the door. 10. The family were still at table, but they had finished breakfast. The Other Woman by Virgilio Samonte It is almost a month since my uncle died. Nana Cecilia, his widow, has made up with my maiden aunt Cora, and now stays with her in San Nicolas. The suspicions -- for they proved to be mere suspicions after all -- she had entertained concerning Nana Cora and my late uncle, were dispelled at his death. I don't know the truth myself up to now. But I don't want to know. What matters now is that they are no longer young. Loida, I learned some time ago, is gone from the old house in Laoag. She stayed there for some days after my uncle's burial, and no one could make her go away then. No one knows where she had gone. Anyway it does not matter. She does no t matter anymore. As for the old house, it now stands bleak and empty, except for the thick, gathering shadows and the inevitable dust; the bats hanging from the tattered eaves like the black patches; the mice scampering freely within ; cockroaches and lizrds; and perhaps ghosts. The flower-laden cadena de amor, draped heavily on the rotting bamboo fence surrounding it, it is a huge funeral wreath around the deserted house. The same sense of desolation seemed to enshroud the old house even then, about a month ago, when I arrived from the city. I had come ahead of my father after we received the wire from Nana Cecilia, saying that my uncle was seriously ill, and that she needed my f a t h e r ' s a s s i s t a n c e . It was a cold grey dawn, and the clatter of the calesa as it left me, sounded loud and sharp in the yet deserted streets. the old house seemed to loom bigger than the others in the neighborhood, and it seemed to stand apart, squat and dark; light filtered through the closed or half opened windows of the other houses where early breakfast fires were al- ready burning. The large, gnarled trunk of an acacia tree beside it, rose like a phantom, its foliage blotting out a portion of the sky overhead. i knocked for what it seemed a long time on the closed door, the sounds echoing hollowly within as though the house was a huge, empty shell before I heard muffled footsteps coming down the stairway. Light glimmered through the cracks of the door. The sliding bar was moved noisily and then the door opened slowly, grating on the scattered pebbles on the cement floor. Read the selection below. Underline the auxiliary verb, box the linking verb and encircle the action verb
  51. 51. 51 Spot the verb used in the sentences and write whether it is Tr(Transitive), Intr(Intransitive), LV(Linking Verb), or Aux V(Auxiliary Verb). Electric Love Verb Kind _____ _____ 1. Some people still believe in love at first sight. _____ _____ 2. The internet has introduced a new way of meeting the love of one’s life. _____ _____ 3. The story of Garth and Pituca explains this phenomenom. _____ _____ 4. Garth Fairlight is a Londoner. _____ _____ 5. Pituca Chang hails from California. _____ _____ 6. They started to like each other through as online game. _____ _____ 7. According to them, they fell genuinely in love long before they met face to face. _____ _____ 8. It seems unbelievable. _____ _____ 9. In the online fantasy world, they appeared as avatars or cartoon versions of themselves. _____ _____ 10. They communicated by typing messages. _____ _____ 11. Their story sounds like a fairytale. _____ _____ 12. They are now engaged to be married in real life. _____ _____ 13. Though unusual, online relationships are becoming rampant. _____ _____ 14. One may not know it. _____ _____ 15. He or she might already be chatting with a future lifetime partner. Identify whether the sentences use a linking verb(LV) or an auxiliary verb(aux V). _____ 1. His passion is creating masterpieces for the museum. _____2. The removed sculptor is creating his twentieth masterpiece. _____3. He was last seen painting the sidewalks in Manhattan. _____4. His preferred activity is painting the sidewalks in Manhattan. _____5. The baby’s habit is nibbling his little fingertip. _____6. Amiel’s greatest joy is seeing his kids happy and healthy. _____7. The president is now seeing the fruits of his labor. _____8. Their only pressure is serving their countrymen. _____9. The organization is serving the people to the best of their abilities. _____10. His task is implementing the plans previously agreed upon. Mastery Test
  52. 52. 52 Write a two paragraph essay using action and linking verb with the theme “How To Make Your Life Interesting”. Each paragraph must contain a minimum of 7 sentences and maximum of 15 sentences. Inkblot Challenge VERB HUNT Direction: In ten minutes time, encircle the verb in the puzzle below Verb Verb Verb Verb S U R F K Q A R Z A T W J S X A E D F W A T E R P C E U D C F R S G E F E V B P U N M M L P J U H W I Y P P L R I P D A M P A N E T V B S U T P G N R L Z Z J N I N Q W A S M R E I C M X K T R O W I D N K O P S G I V E E T F E M E O E T S E C J C L E W R R J D C X Z B P O S V P R Q I T K G W O R E L M Q B A B I D E L H A Z U M B P W N O T B E Y P F S U N G K O E M I A M J U O D S B M R B S C A R R Y R I S W O R N C D E R I U Y L D M P E R F O R M
  53. 53. 53 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Distinguish the various types of simple sentences  Apply the rules of verb tenses in writing S i m p l e Te n s e s
  54. 54. 54
  55. 55. 55 Check It Out!!! One year ago this month, Lady Gaga arrived for an interview in the dark, oak pan- eled lobby of the Roosevelt Hotel, a massive Spanish-style place in the tourist dis- trict of Hollywood that was supposed to make the area chic but has largely failed. “Just Dance,” the lead single off her first album, The Fame, had reached No. 1 in Australia, Sweden, and Canada in early 2008, but in March 2009, she was still an up-and-coming artist in Amer- ica: a few thousand MySpace plays, a generic website, and a short tour as the opening act for New Kids on the Block. Gaga had a video, though. “My colleagues at radio in those three countries agreed to support her if I made a video,” says Martin Kierszenbaum, the president of A&R at her label, Interscope. The “Just Dance” video, shot a few miles from the Roosevelt, features Gaga shimmying with a disco ball in her hands while her friends drape themselves on a couch nearby—though most of those people were extras, not real friends. She didn’t know many people on the West Coast. “I don’t like Los Angeles,” she told me. “The people are awful and terribly shallow, and everybody wants to be famous but nobody wants to play the game. I’m from New York. I will kill to get what I need.” Before the meeting, I assumed that someone with a stage name like “Lady” (her given name is Stefani Joanne Germanotta) was going to be a bit standoffish—that’s the strategy employed by most nervous young musicians on the occasion of their first real interview, in any case. But I never thought she was going to actually be Lady Gaga. These days, very few artists play the media like Bob Dylan, or stay in character as Devo’s Mark Mothersbaugh did in his early career. In the age of VH1’s Behind the Music, tabloid culture, and reality televi- sion, musicians are aware that they should show themselves to journalists in as much mun- dane detail as they can muster. “But Lady Gaga is my name,” she said, amazed that I would have thought otherwise. “If you know me, and you call me Stefani, you don’t really know me at all.” Growing Up Gaga Direction: Write down the verbs you can see on the article below. Identify whether it’s on past, present pr future tense of the verb Direction: Write the past tense of the verb. 1.. rise ______________ 6. fix ________________ 2. swim ______________ 7. am ________________ 3. call _______________ 8. talk _______________ 4. is ________________ 9. run _______________ 5. write _____________ 10. eat ______________
  56. 56. 56 Grammar Armchair Simple Tense Verb tense tells you when the action happens. There are three main verb tenses: pre- sent, past, and future. Each main tense is divided into simple, progressive, perfect, and per- fect progressive tenses. Things to remember about simple tense: a. Present tense is the original verb form. b. Past tense has a few patterns. c. Future tense needs will (shall) + verb. Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Pro- gressive Present finish am/is/are fin- ishing have/has fin- ished have/has been finishing Past finished was/were fin- ishing had finished had been fin- ishing Future will finish will be finish- ing will have fin- ished will have been finishing run I run a marathon this year. (present) I ran a marathon last year. (past) I will run a marathon next year. (future) eat I eat lunch now. I ate lunch an hour ago. I will eat lunch in one hour. see I see a movie once a week. I saw a movie yesterday. I will see a movie tomorrow. know I know it. I knew it the day before yesterday. I will know it by tomorrow. learn I learn English. I learned English the last two years. I will learn English next year.
  57. 57. 57 Past Present Future act leave lay wear understand read beat bind cost meet Direction: Write down the proper tenses of the verb. Inkblot Write a minimum of 3 paragraph article/essay about one of your most memora- ble experience during your childhood. Observe correct use of verbs. Grammar in Action
  58. 58. 58 Fill the gaps with the correct tenses. 1. I (learn) English for seven years now. 2. But last year I (not / work) hard enough for English, that's why my marks (not / be) really that good then. 3. As I (pass / want) my English exam successfully next year, I (study) harder this term. 4. During my last summer holidays, my parents (send) me on a language course to London. 5. It (be) great and I (think) I (learn) a lot. 6. Before I (go) to London, I (not / enjoy) learning English. 7. But while I (do) the language course, I (meet) lots of young people from all over the world. 8. There I (notice) how important it (be) to speak foreign languages nowadays. 9. Now I (have) much more fun learning English than I (have) before the course. 10. At the moment I (revise) English grammar. 11. And I (begin / already) to read the texts in my English textbooks again. 12. I (think) I (do) one unit every week. 13. My exam (be) on 15 May, so there (not / be) Grammar in Action
  59. 59. 59 any time to be lost. 14. If I (pass) my exams successfully, I (start) an apprenticeship in September. 15. And after my apprenticeship, maybe I (go) back to London to work there for a while. Fill the gaps with the correct tenses. 1. They (build) a new power station at the moment. 2. When I was buying the stamps somebody (call) my name. 3. 'What time (Kevin come) ?' 'An hour ago.' 4. I (not go) to the cinema last night. I was too tired. 5. Carol invited us to the party but we (not go) . We had other things to do. 6. I saw Bridget at the museum when I was going to the restaurant but she (not see) me. 7. 'Where (your parents live) ?' 'In a village near London. They have always lived there.' 8. She speaks English but she (not speak) French. 9. Jeff is from London. He (live) there all his life. 10. My favourite country is Canada. I (be) there four times. 11. I (never eat) bananas. 12. 'How long (you study) Photography?' 'For one year.' 13. 'Where are you going on holiday?' 'I don't know. We (not decide) yet.' 14. Who (invent) the washing machine?
  60. 60. 60 15. 'Where's Jill?' 'She (have) lunch at the moment.' 16. (Terry work) ? No, he is on holiday. 17. Somebody (steal) my sunglasses at the swimming pool last week. 18. (she wear) the nice jacket when you saw her? 19. Where (be) you yesterday? 20. As you (see / can) , I (become) a real London fan already. Inkblot Brainstorming: making a Sensory Table Before you begin to write your personal narrative, complete the following table that would help you recall all the significant details you may want to add your own story. The table should con- tain details that appeal to your five senses. This is similar to the you table completed at the beginning of the lesson. Recall the complete sentence you wrote after filling out that table. Write it on the space below and then proceed to write your sensory details. Sentence: ___________________________________________________________________ Senses Descriptive Sensory Details Sight Smell Touch Taste Hearing
  61. 61. 61 Review the past tense by changing the verb inside the parenthesis to complete each sentence. I (enjoy) ________ biking with my cousins in Baguio. I (look) ________ sad when my father (go) ________ on a business trip. I was glad when he (laugh) ________ at my joke. I (dream) _______ of being an Olympic swimmer when I was five years old. I (see) _______ my old playmates during my birthday last year. Choose the word that would best complete each sentence. Then change the form of your chosen verb to the simple past tense. I (make, wish, feel) ________ for a baby sister to be my playmate. Last night, I ( cry, show, pray) ________ for my mother to get better. I (want, start, give) ________ to live with my cousins in Pangasinan last summer. For one year, I (cover, smell, ask) ________ with joy when I was announced as the winner. Complete the paragraph below by changing each verb in the parenthesis to the simple past tense. It was July. Luis (walk0 ________ home from school very slowly. As he (cross) ________ the small bridge leading to his house, he (observe) ________ how strong the rain was the night before. Scat- tered leaves lay all over the path. Trees were bent sideways. As he (approach) ________ his house, he (pause) ________ to talk to his neighbour, Mang Rod. “we had such strong rain last night, didn’t we, Mang Rod?” “We sure did! Im glad no one got hurt.” Luis (wave)________ good-bye and (turn) ________ to walk indoors. He could smell the fried chicken his mother was cooking. Read the short paragraph below. Notice how simple past tense is used to describe and narrate an event that was completed in the past. You may underline the verbs to guide you. My father To the Rescue I stepped on a very sharp twig. I almost fainted in pain. I lifted my foot and saw that the twig planted itself firmly on the sole of my right foot. The twig was like a small sharp arrow. I pretended to be a shoulder wounded in battle. But the pain was too much to ignore. Then my father walked up from behind me and lifted me in his arms. I smiled at him weakly. He placed me on a very big log and rubbed my right shin briskly. Then he pulled the twig out with one sudden movement. I did not feel any pain at all. My father laughed and called me a brave little soldier! Now write your own paragraph . Use the simple past tense to describe your feelings for some- thing that happened to you in the past. Try to express your feelings clearly so that others may under- stand you easily. Mastery Test
  62. 62. 62 Choose the correct form of the verb in the parenthesis. Encircle your answer. 1. Either the cabinet members or the president (is, are) going to be transported to a safer ground. 2. (Is, Are) my partner or my brothers in the sect going to win this fight? 3. Every morning, the sheriff (take, takes) time to review all the reports. 4. One of my uncles (is, are) leaving for Italy soon. 5. Not only the trees but also the plants (was, were) destroyed when the storm came. 6. Peter’s fish and fried rice, my favourite dish, (remind, reminds) me of my childhood days in Manila. 7. A large number of sharks (was, were) seen sprawling the eastern coast. 8. Several of these lessons (need, needs) revision. 9. The owner of the house and host (welcome, welcomes) visitors at the garden. 10. The Liwanags and the Cruzats (entertain, entertains) the idea of leaving the village. 11. Neither the crocodiles nor the monkey (was, were) saved from the fire. 12. The number of casualties (was, were) relatively small. 13. A number of trucks (line, lines) up in this avenue every afternoon. 14. The committee (is, are) in favor of sending help to the refugee camps. 15. The group of choir directors (is, are) directly responsible for the delay. 16. The goose, as well as the ducks, (cross, crosses) the stream every spring. 17. Only one of the relatives (is, are) allowed to enter the emergency room. 18. All applicants but Pearson (is, are) accepted for the internship training. 19. The manager, together with the board of directors, (decide, decides) on matters affecting the cooperative. 20. Attending the assembly (is, are) council presidents from Luzon and Mindanao. Write the correct form of the verb in parenthesis on the space provided. Palawan! 1. Most people (to visit) ________ Palawan. 2. They (to like) ________ its breath-taking views 3. They (to call) ________ Palawan the country’s best natural frontier. 4. Either parents or children (to enjoy) ________ this paradise. 5. If one (to visit) ________ bat Island, one (to get) ________ the surprise of his life- thou- sands of bats land on the mangroves by day and fly by groups at night. 6. Lagoons and caverns (to make) ________ tourists wonder especially when they (to see) ________ the stalactites looking like chandeliers. 7. One who (to go) ________ to Palawan (to have) ________ many places to really spend time to enjoy nature. 8. The visitor, along with friends, (to get)________ to see the Crocodile Farming Institute. 9. Either boating or island hopping (to make) ________ the tourist’s day. 10. Others (to prefer) ________ to go to Butterfly Garden with its dazzling species of butter- flies.
  63. 63. 63 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Analyze the subject—verb agreement through given examples Apply the rules on subject—verb agreement in exercises Construct an essay using the principles in the agreement of the subject and verb. S u b j e c t – Ve rb A g re e m e n t
  64. 64. 64
  65. 65. 65 Is, or are? Go, or goes? Whether a verb is singular or plural depends on any one of a compli- cated set of factors. Here is a roster of rules for subject-verb agreement (or “Here are some rules . . .”): 1. Use verbs that agree with a subject, not with a noun that is part of a modifying phrase or clause between verb and subject: “The pot of eggs is boiling on the stove.” 2. Use singular or plural verbs that agree with the subject, not with the complement of the subject: “My favorite type of movie is comedies,” but “Comedies are my favorite type of movie.” 3. Use singular verbs with singular indefinite pronouns — each, the “-bodies,” “-ones,” and “-things” (anybody, everyone, nothing), and the like: “Neither is correct.” (And, just as in rule number 1, the presence of a modifier is irrelevant: “Neither of them is correct.”) 4. Use plural verbs with plural indefinite pronouns: “Many outcomes are possible.” 5. Use singular verbs with uncountable nouns that follow an indefinite pronoun: “All the paint is dried up.” 6. Use plural verbs with countable nouns that follow an indefinite pronoun: “All the nails are spilled on the floor.” 7. Use plural verbs with compound subjects that include and: “The dog and the cat are outside.” 8. Use plural verbs or singular verbs, depending on the form of the noun nearest the verb, with compound subjects that include nor or or: “Either the dog or the cats are responsible for the mess.” (“Either the cats or the dog is responsible for the mess” is also technically correct but is awkward.) 9. Use singular verbs with inverted subjects that include singular nouns: “Why is my hat outside in the rain?” 10. Use plural verbs with inverted subjects (those beginning with the exple- tive there rather than the actual subject) that include plural nouns: “There are several hats outside in the rain.” 11. Use singular or plural verbs with collective nouns depending on meaning: “His staff is assembled,” but “Staff are asked to go to the conference room immediately.” (In the first sentence, the emphasis is on the body of employees; in the second sentence, the focus is on compliance by each individual in the body of employees.) 12. Use singular verbs for designations of entities, such as nations or organizations, or compositions, such as books or films: “The United Nations is headquartered in New York.” 13. Use singular verbs for subjects plural in form but singular in meaning: Grammar Armchair
  66. 66. 66 “Physics is my favorite subject.” 14. Use singular or plural verbs for subjects plural in form but plural or singular in meaning depending on the context: “The economics of the situation are complicated,” but “Economics is a complicated topic.” 15. Use plural verbs for subjects plural in form and meaning: “The tweezers are in the cupboard.” 16. Use plural verbs in constructions of the form “one of those (blank) who . . .”: “I am one of those eccentrics who do not tweet.” 17. Use singular verbs in constructions of the form “the only one of those (blank) who . . .”: “I am the only one of my friends who does not tweet.” 18. Use singular verbs in constructions of the form “the number of (blank) . . .”: “The number of people here boggles the mind.” 19. Use plural verbs in constructions of the form “a number of (blank) . . .”: “A number of people here disagree.” 20. Use singular verbs in construction of the forms “every (blank) . . .” and “many a (blank) . . .”: “Every good boy does fine”; “Many a true word is spoken in jest.” Grammar in Action Directions: Encircle the correct verb in the sentences below. 1. Each of the girls (look-looks) good on skis. 2. Everybody (was-were) asked to remain quiet. 3. Neither of the men (is-are) here yet. 4. (Is-Are) each of the girls ready to leave? 5. Several of the sheep (is-are) sick. 6. Some members of the faculty (is-are) present. 7. Nobody in the class (has-have) the answer. 8. Each of the girls (observe-observes) all the regulations. 9. All of the milk (is-are) gone. 10. Most of the seats (was-were) taken. 11. Statistics (is-are) interesting subject. It (is-are) often misleading. 12. Every single knife, fork and spoon (has, have) to be encountered. 13. The sheep (stray-strays) when the gate is open. She (stray-strays) when the gate is left open. 14. The committee (is-are) meeting today. 15. Building a good marriage and building a god log fire (is-are) similar in many ways.
  67. 67. 67 Directions: In the blank, use the correct present tense form of the infinitive given at the begin- ning of each sentence. to have: The cracked windshield, in addition to the torn upholstery and rusted body, __________ made Ruth’s old car difficult to sell. to be: This week's National Inquisitor claims that there __________ photographs of the Loch Ness Monster eating Elvis. to work: At Tito’s Taco Palace __________ friends who will stuff double meat into our burritos for free. to crawl: On the tables in the library __________ the many germs that have escaped in the hot breath of hardworking students. to be: None of this breakfast that Lilly Mae cooked __________ fit to eat. to taste: None of these chocolate-broccoli muffins __________ good, either. to have: The whole red ant colony, including the queen and all of her drones, __________ swarmed over Tommy's feet, stinging his ankles. to make: Fifteen gallons of chocolate milk __________ Herbert the elephant a happy pachyderm. to hope: Everyone on the roller coaster, including Martha and Angie, __________ that the hot dogs, onion rings, funnel cake, and cotton candy will stay down during the twisting ride to come. to bother: Neither Fred's ratty clothes nor his sullen attitude __________ Esmeralda, who lets Fred pick up the check every time they dine out. to hug: That pair of jeans __________ the curves of Hannah’s body as nicely as tinfoil on a baked potato. to annoy: Neither the coughing muffler nor the squeaky brakes __________ Ruth as much as the broken radio in her old car. to get: Florida alligators usually __________ severe indigestion after eating poodles. to cling: Every cat hair, candy wrapper, and loose thread __________ to the super- charged polyester pants that Theodora loves to wear. to know: Any one of Ms. Orsini's students __________ the rules that govern subject- verb agreement
  68. 68. 68 Inkblot Identify and revise the subject-verb agreement errors in this passage: Uncle Stanley and his girlfriend, Kira, is coming to visit me next weekend. Unfortu- nately, neither of them are very interesting. Every time they visit, Kira sleeps about eighteen hours a day, and Stanley tells childhood stories over and over. There is only about three sto- ries in his entire repertoire, and, although he finds them amusing, neither his stories nor his one and only joke are funny at all. I try to get him to discuss other topics, but economics are his only real interest, and I don’t find that topic very interesting either. I hate to admit it, but I hope the days they spend with me passes quickly. Challenge Direction: Create a paragraph regarding poverty in the country. Observe proper use of subject—verb agreement.
  69. 69. 69 Directions: In the blank, use the correct present tense form of the infinitive given at the beginning of each sentence. to take: The shine on my hardwood floors __________ abuse from the ragged toenails of Floyd, my dog. 1. to have: Neither of those students __________ a clue about the rules governing subject- verb agreement. Pity them both during the quiz. 2. to make: Patience and compassion, in addition to a wallet bulging with money, __________ everyone want Jordan as a friend. 3. to require: Statistics __________ so much homework that Michelle's poor fingers have permanent indentations from the calculator pads. 4. to come: The committee ___________ from all parts of the city, so we usually have to start late because so many members get stuck in traffic. 5. to believe: The committee ___________ that waiting until everyone arrives is more im- portant than starting on time. 6. to be: When Dad is angry, there __________ fire flickering in his eyes as well as smoke escaping from his ears. 7. to brighten: When Matthew is having a bad day, old episodes of The X-Files always __________ his mood. 8. to hit: Each of those opera singers regularly ___________ notes high enough to break glass and rupture eardrums. 9. to be: Either the fried oyster sandwich or shrimp pizza __________ the best choice for lunch at Crusty's Seafood Restaurant. Underline the correct form of the verb that agrees with the subject. 1. The English Club, as well as the Chemistry Society (need, needs) to submit a financial report. 2. Four and four (is, are) eight. 3. Forty percent of the students (is, are) in favor of changing the policy. 4. My pants (was, were) torn. 5. Somebody (has, have) left his wallet. 6. The jury (take, takes) their seats in the courtroom. 7. One of the instructors (has, have) written a letter of recommendation for her. 8. Everybody (is, are) required to bring the requirements. 9. The scholarship is awarded to the student who (need, needs) financial assistance most. 10. Neither the people nor the President (has, have) a voice in this matter. 11. One half of the sugar (is, are) brown. 12. The general, with the soldiers (is, are) entering at this moment. 13. My adviser and my friend (is, are) coming to visit me soon. 14. The committee (is, are) composed of prominent people in the community. 15. Five times two divided by two (is, are). 16. Forty percent of the student body (is, are) in favor of changing the policy. 17. Measles (is, are) a dangerous disease for pregnant women. Mastery Test
  70. 70. 70 18. Either my father or my brothers (is, are) attending the meeting. 19. The mayor together with his followers (are, is) distributing relief goods to the typhoon victims. 20. Andy or his sister (are, is) going to be responsible for this. 21. Economics (has, have) developed very fast in the last few years. 22. They (complain, complains) about their living conditions. 23. Both Lex and Sam (was, were) selected as contractors of the new project. 24. Neither husband nor wife (want, wants) to take a vacation. 25. Survey (show, shows) that one fourth of the viewers (prefer, prefers) programs on Sci- ence and Technology. 26. Everybody in the court (is, are) requested to keep silent during the trial. 27. One of the moral obligations (is, are) to help the needy. 28. His physical stamina (is, are) wonderful. 29. His dedication and courage (have, has) won him a medal of honor. 30. Several have, has) indicated their attention to help. 31. Half of the fortune they inherited (is, are) gone. 32. The secretary and treasurer (is, are) here to see the president. 33. A flock of birds (is, are) flying in the sky. 34. The basketball team (has been, have been) practicing all week. 35. Some of the information (is, are) exaggerated. 36. Husband and wife (has, have) many things in common. 37. He is one of the students who (has, have) no assignment. 38. None of them (know, knows) the lesson. 39. Therein (lie. lies) the truth of the whole matter. 40. Andrew, like Jun, (appreciate, appreciates) Philippine products. Inkblot Describe your own perspective on the use of social networking sites in bullying and other online crime. Observe the proper use subject—verb agreement.
  71. 71. 71 After dealing with this chapter, the students should be able to:  Familiarize with the different types of adjectives  Determine the appropriate degree of adjectives to be used in a given context Ad j e c t ive s
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  73. 73. 73 Check It Out!!! Direction: Underlined the adjectives in the following paragraphs. A Friendly Clown On one corner of my dresser sits s smiling toy clown on a tiny unicycle- a gift I re- ceived last Christmas from a close friend. The clown’s short yellow hair, made of yarn, co- vers its ear but it is parted above the eyes. The blue eyes are outlined in black with thin, dark lashes flowing from the brows. It has three red cheeks, nose, lips and its broad grin disappears into the wide, white ruffle around its neck. The clown wears a fluffy, two-tone nylon costume. The left side of the outfit light blue and the right side is red. The two colors merge in a dark line that runs down the center of the small outfit. Surroundings its spokes on the wheels of the unicycle gather in the center and expand to the black tire so that the wheel somewhat resembles the inner half to a grapefruit. The clown and unicycle together stand about a foot high. As a cherished gift from my good friend Tran, this colourful figure greets me with a smile every time I enter my room. The Magic Metal Tube By Maxine Hong Kingston Once in a long while, four times so far me, my mother brings out the metal tube that holds her medical diploma. On the tube are gold circles crossed with seven red lines each – “joy” ideographs in abstract. There are also little flowers that look like gears for a gold machine. According to the scraps of labels with Chinese and American addresses, stamps, and postmarks, the family airmailed the can from Hongkong in 1950. It got crushed in the middle, and whoever tried to peel the labels off stopped because the red and gold paint come too, leaving silver scratches that rust. Somebody tried to pry the end off before discovering that the falls apart. When I open it, the smell of China flies out, a thousand-year -old bat flying heavy-headed out of the Chinese caverns where bats are as white as dust, a smell that comes from long ago, far back in the brain.
  74. 74. 74 An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quanti- fying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies. In the following examples, the highlighted words are adjectives: The truck-shaped balloon floated over the treetops. Mrs. Morrison papered her kitchen walls with hideous wall paper. The small boat foundered on the wine dark sea. The coal mines are dark and dank. Many stores have already begun to play irritating Christmas music. A battered music box sat on the mahogany sideboard. The back room was filled with large, yellow rain boots. An adjective can be modified by an adverb, or by a phrase or clausefunctioning as an adverb. In the sentence My husband knits intricately patterned mittens. for example, the adverb "intricately" modifies the adjective "patterned." Some nouns, many pronouns, and many participle phrases can also act as adjectives. In the sen- tence Eleanor listened to the muffled sounds of the radio hidden under her pillow. for example, both highlighted adjectives are past participles. Grammarians also consider articles ("the," "a," "an") to be adjectives. Grammar Armchair Grammar in Action In the following sentences, underline each adjective. Then circle the word it describes or modifies it. 1. Most new Presidents are cautious when they deal with Congress. 2. The window of the store was full of attractive new clothes. 3. The blue ribbon was given to the best gardener. 4. Several tall boys are members of the team this year. 5. That program is a good comedy. 6. Little work can be done on the project now. 7. The long trip on the famous Orient Express took one from Paris to Istanbul. 8. Two people can set up camp in a short time. 9. Because she was energetic, Sally jogged for two hours. 10. Some authors attract the attention of the reader with the first paragraph. 11. The new neighbors are friendly. 12. The melon was large and sweet. 13. Joyce is never conceited about winning. 14. A hundred people turned up for the first meeting.
  75. 75. 75 15. Many students study foreign languages. 16. The teacher sounded angry when he spoke to the noisy students. 17. The woman seems worried about finances. 18. Karen is popular with old and young people. 19. Those long questions were hard for me. 20. Much rain fell during the month of June. Inkblot Your mind may be full of ideas right now about what you can do to show your power and energy as a young person. Remember that before you start doing anything for others, you must understand who you are and how you see yourself. In this way, your efforts are more fo- cused and more organized. Writing a simple profile or character sketch about yourself may be a start in getting to know yourself more deeply. A character sketch is a description of the qualities one sees in a person. Answer the question below as many ideas as you can. Spend 15-20 minutes in doing this; What are the things you enjoy doing the most? What do you have that it is most important to you? What are the things you can do very well? What have you always wanted for yourself? What do you need right now to make your life better? Grammar Armchair Possessive Adjectives A possessive adjective ("my," "your," "his," "her," "its," "our," "their") is similar or identi- cal to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase, as in the following sentences: I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook. In this sentence, the possessive adjective "my" modifies "assignment" and the noun phrase "my assignment" functions as anobject. Note that the possessive pronoun form "mine" is not used to modify a noun or noun phrase. What is your phone number. Here the possessive adjective "your" is used to modify the noun phrase "phone number"; the entire noun phrase "your phone number" is a subject complement. Note that the pos- sessive pronoun form "yours" is not used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. The bakery sold his favourite type of bread. In this example, the possessive adjective "his" modifies the noun phrase "favourite type of bread" and the entire noun phrase "his favourite type of bread" is the direct object of the verb "sold." After many years, she returned to her homeland. Here the possessive adjective "her" modifies the noun "homeland" and the noun phrase
  76. 76. 76 "her homeland" is the object of the preposition"to." Note also that the form "hers" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. We have lost our way in this wood. In this sentence, the possessive adjective "our" modifies "way" and the noun phrase "our way" is the direct object of the compound verb"have lost". Note that the possessive pronoun form "ours" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. In many fairy tales, children are neglected by their parents. Here the possessive adjective "their" modifies "parents" and the noun phrase "their parents" is the object of the preposition "by." Note that the possessive pronoun form "theirs" is not used to modify nouns or noun phrases. The cat chased its ball down the stairs and into the backyard. In this sentence, the possessive adjective "its" modifies "ball" and the noun phrase "its ball" is the object of the verb "chased." Note that "its" is the possessive adjective and "it's" is a contraction for "it is." Demonstrative Adjectives The demonstrative adjectives "this," "these," "that," "those," and "what" are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases, as in the following sentences: When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books. In this sentence, the demonstrative adjective "that" modifies the noun "cord" and the noun phrase "that cord" is the object of the preposition "over." This apartment needs to be fumigated. Here "this" modifies "apartment" and the noun phrase "this apartment" is the subject of the sentence. Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these. In the subordinate clause, "those" modifies "plates" and the noun phrase "those plates" is the object of the verb "preferred." In theindependent clause, "these" is the direct object of the verb "bought." Note that the relationship between a demonstrative adjective and a demonstrative pronoun is similar to the relationship between a possessive adjective and a possessive pronoun, or to that between a interrogative adjective and an interrogative pronoun. Interrogative Adjectives An interrogative adjective ("which" or "what") is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own (see also demonstra- tive adjectives and possessive adjectives): Which plants should be watered twice a week? Like other adjectives, "which" can be used to modify a noun or a noun phrase. In this exam- ple, "which" modifies "plants" and the noun phrase "which plants" is the subject of the com- pound verb "should be watered": What book are you reading? In this sentence, "what" modifies "book" and the noun phrase "what book" is the direct ob- ject of the compound verb "are reading." Indefinite Adjectives An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase, as in the following sentences: Many people believe that corporations are under-taxed. The indefinite adjective "many" modifies the noun "people" and the noun phrase "many peo- ple" is the subject of the sentence.