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Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction

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Introduction to mindfulness
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Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction

  1. 1. Rezvan Ameli, Ph.D. Chief Psychologist and Director of Clinical Training, MAP-NIMH May 2009 [email_address]
  2. 2. Some Facts About Mindfulness <ul><li>Mindfulness does not require any particular religious or cultural belief system. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not something we acquire. </li></ul><ul><li>It is simple but not easy! </li></ul><ul><li>There has been and explosion of interest in mindfulness. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition # 1 <ul><li>&quot;Mindfulness is to be aware . To be aware when you are breathing in and to be aware when you are breathing out…it is the capacity to be aware of what is here . Anything can be the object of mindfulness. Your breath. The sky. It is to be in touch with our felt experience in each moment“ </li></ul><ul><li> Thich Nhat Hanh </li></ul><ul><li>Book recommendation: Peace is Every Step </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definition # 2 <ul><li>&quot; Mindfulness is paying attention , </li></ul><ul><li> on purpose, </li></ul><ul><li> in the present , and </li></ul><ul><li> non-judgmentally , </li></ul><ul><li>to the unfolding of experience moment by moment” </li></ul><ul><li> Jon Kabat-Zinn </li></ul><ul><li>Book Recommendation: Full Catastrophe Living </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definition #3 <ul><li>“ Mindfulness is to distinguish </li></ul><ul><li>awareness from mental activity </li></ul><ul><li>it is to learn to be aware of our own mental states without being caught in them “ </li></ul><ul><li>Jack Kornfield </li></ul><ul><li>Book Recommendation: Wise Heart </li></ul>
  6. 6. Influential scientist of mindfulness: the Buddha <ul><li>Subject: Human Condition </li></ul><ul><li>Finding: Suffering is universal. </li></ul><ul><li>We suffer because of the way in which we relate to our human condition (not the human condition itself). </li></ul><ul><li>There is hope of liberation from suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestion: Replace the word “suffering” with “stress” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pain vs. Suffering <ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><li>First Arrow </li></ul><ul><li>Inevitable </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Impermanence (Sickness, old age, death) is inherent in human condition </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Second Arrow </li></ul><ul><li>Optional </li></ul><ul><li>Pain + resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment to the outcome (Avoidance/Clinging) </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is the Solution? <ul><li>Accept what is, including impermanence </li></ul><ul><li>Let go of attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Stay “present” (live in our bodies not in our heads) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a kind & friendly attitude towards ourselves and others </li></ul>
  9. 9. Attitudinal Foundations of Mindfulness <ul><li>Non-Judging </li></ul><ul><li>Patience </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Non-striving </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Letting go </li></ul><ul><li>Beginner’s Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted from Full Catastrophe Living by Kabat-Zinn </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Be empty of worrying </li></ul><ul><li>Think of who created thought </li></ul><ul><li>Why do you stay in prison </li></ul><ul><li>When the door is so wide open </li></ul><ul><li>Move outside the tangle of fear thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Live in silence </li></ul><ul><li>Flow down and down </li></ul><ul><li>Into always widening </li></ul><ul><li>Rings of being - Rumi </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stress Reaction Vs. Response <ul><li>Stress reaction: External event  internal event  alarm reactivity  stress reaction  acute hyper arousal  increases chance of survival in a dangerous and hostile situations </li></ul><ul><li>Stress Response: introducing conscious process that influences the flow of events that are likely to bring about automatic reactivity. </li></ul>
  12. 12. We can make a choice: React or Pause and Respond <ul><li>“ Between the stimulus and response, there is a space and in that space lies our freedom and power to choose our response.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Victor Frankl </li></ul><ul><li>We can choose not to throw the second arrow at ourselves </li></ul>
  13. 13. The President pauses . . .
  14. 14. Adverse impact of stress <ul><li>Immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular system </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Increases inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Increases negative mood states </li></ul><ul><li>Increases adrenaline and cortisol levels </li></ul><ul><li>Sky is the limit </li></ul>
  15. 15. Stress <ul><li>Changeable aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Problem focused strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching skills/ providing information </li></ul><ul><li>Unchangeable aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Compassion </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping count of positives in life </li></ul>
  16. 16. Familiar? <ul><li>God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change; courage to change the things I can; and wisdom to know the difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Positive & Negative Affect <ul><li>Are not on the same continuum. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact physiological , behavioral and social domains </li></ul><ul><li>They impact disease outcome (Grant, et al 2009) and longevity (Nyklicek & Kuijpers 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness decreases negative affect and increases positive affect (Ludwig & Kabat-Zinn 2009, Greeson 2008, Baer 2003) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Mindfulness Research <ul><li>Pain management/pain reduction (Kabat-Zinn) </li></ul><ul><li>Immune functions (Kabat-Zinn, Creswell) </li></ul><ul><li>Brain function changes with mindfulness (Davidson) </li></ul><ul><li>Depression (Segal, Williams, Teasdale) </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorders (Wansink) </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy/reduction in physician error (Epstein, Santorelli) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Mindfulness: Major Impact Third Wave of Psychotherapies <ul><li>Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) (Jon Kabat-Zinn) </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) (Zindel Segal, John Teasdale, Mark Williams) </li></ul><ul><li>Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) (Marsha Linehan) </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance Commitment Therapy (ACT) (Steve Hays) </li></ul>
  20. 20. What do people report after a course in mindfulness training? <ul><li>Lasting decrease in physical and psychological symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in ability to relax </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in pain/or enhanced coping with pain </li></ul><ul><li>Greater energy and enthusiasm for life </li></ul><ul><li>Improved self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society, UMASS School of Medicine </li></ul>
  21. 21. How do we do it? simplified RAIN of Compassion <ul><li>R ecognition- NOTICE what is happening </li></ul><ul><li>A cceptance – say “yes”, allow, make room for the experience. </li></ul><ul><li>I nvestigate –be curious, even familiar experiences do not repeat. </li></ul><ul><li>N on-identification –become a witness to the experience. Do not get caught in it. </li></ul><ul><li>+ Compassion: maintaining at attitude of kindness, friendliness, and gentleness towards self and others. </li></ul>
  22. 22. To what do we apply Mindfulness? <ul><li>Start with a pause and a heartfelt smile of course : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating Walking Standing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing Listening Seeing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain Anger Fear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cravings … … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sky is the limit! </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Practice, practice, practice <ul><li>Developing and cultivating a mindfulness practice is simple but not easy. Most likely you will need teachers and fellow travelers along the way. </li></ul><ul><li>Formal practice </li></ul><ul><li>Informal practice </li></ul>
  24. 24. Practice & Research resources <ul><ul><li>NIH- R&W –Next course beginning May 15 th . ( [email_address] ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NIH Mind Body Week Sept 8-11, 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insight Meditation Community of Washington DC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Maryland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NCCAM </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Other practice & research resources <ul><li>University of Massachusetts Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society </li></ul><ul><li>UCLA Semel Institute, Mindful Awareness Research Center </li></ul><ul><li>Insight Meditation Society -Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit Rock - California </li></ul><ul><li>Omega Institute – New York </li></ul>

Editor's Notes

  • Breath exercise – 3 minutes
  • It is a universal human capacity which needs practice and refinement In March there were 69, in May 78 funded studies by NIH under Mindfulness!
  • What he calls the “second arrow” ----pain + resistance =suffering. It is our reaction to the unpleasant realities inherent in human condition that causes the suffering.
  • Translation: We strive to control our experiences rather than to accept them as they are. Translation: We react rather than respond. We get caught up in our experience and lose our objectivity. Translation: Less pain + more pleasure = not accepting what is here = not accepting human condition = not happy in our skins = suffering
  • . The Monkey story—the problem is not the banana or the desire to have the banana—the problem is the inability to let go. --the human condition –the unchangeable aspects of our experience in a given moment. i.e. the investment and the energy that we put in to either clinging or avoiding things that are not under our control. Letting go is not to get rid of the human condition —it is to change our relationship to it. and notice what is going on right now rather than living in the illusion of the past or the future.
  • This thinking has been a part of the mystic traditions and thinking of the East for centuries. Rumi the Persian mystic poet 800 years ago wrote.
  • (cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous system, immune system )  fight, flight, freeze  Hypothalamus, pituitary, or adrenals  increase in blood pressure and pulse rate  resulting in physical and psychological exhaustion, loss of drive and enthusiasm, depression, or diseases related to bodily systems involved in stress reaction. We respond to social situations as if they were a threat to our lives. Much of our stress, real or imagined comes from real or imagined threat to our social status not to our lives. Our body reacts the same way. And so we get caught in stress reactivity.
  • To name a few
  • Talk about Margaret Chesney Susan Folkman talk about founing that you make matters worse if you apply the strategies of one column to the aspects of the other column.
  • They are two separate constructs. We can have positive and negative emotions at the same time with varying degrees .
  • We note pleasant and unpleasant experience –but neither to recoil or to grab on to
  • Not smirks! Mindfulness bell.
  • How do you get to Carnegie Hall? Practice, practice, practice