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  1. 1. Egypt<br />
  2. 2. Objective<br />SWBAT Describe the legacies left behind by ancient civilizations<br />Egypt<br />
  3. 3. Where in the World are We?<br />
  4. 4. More specifically<br />
  5. 5. Early Agricultural Society in Africa<br />
  6. 6. Climate and Agriculture in Africa<br />10,000 BCE<br />Sahara was a grassland<br />Rivers and lakes<br />Sustained people<br />5,000BCE<br />Societal organization <br />Small monarchies <br />Semi divine kings<br />
  7. 7. It’s getting hot in here!<br />Climactic change<br />Region is hot and dry<br />so NOW WHAT?<br />Forced to settle by water<br />Lake Chad<br />The Nile<br />
  8. 8. D’Nile is just a river in Egypt<br />River floods on a schedule<br />Recedes <br />Level of fertile soil<br />
  9. 9. We Get Presents!<br />The gifts of the Nile<br />Egypt and Nubia<br />Affected by others<br />Mesopotamia-grains and wheat<br />Sudanic people-cattle, donkeys, <br />Irrigation improved<br />Move to higher lands further from the Nile<br />By 4,000BCE many villages along the Nile<br />
  10. 10. Menes the Great Unifier<br />Egypt and Nubia like bickering neighbors<br />3100 BCE <br />Menes-Minor official<br />Unified Egypt into one large centralized state<br />Nubia continued to be decentralized<br />Egypt tried to conquer Nubia<br />Kush<br />More cordial with trade<br />
  11. 11. The Old Kingdom<br />Pre 2040BCE<br />Pharaohs were considered gods <br />Deserved massive tombs<br />Built pyramids<br />
  12. 12. The Middle Kingdom<br />2040BCE-1550BCE<br />Hyksos <br />Semitic speaking people invaded<br />Eventually Egyptians drove them out<br />Started the New Kingdom<br />
  13. 13. 1550BCE<br />Bureaucracy vastly expanded<br />New pharaohs<br />Building projects<br />temples<br />Palaces<br />And statues<br />Conquered coastal regions of the Mediterranean<br />Down through Nubia<br />The New Kingdom<br />
  14. 14. But what had happened was…<br />Egyptian decline<br />1100BCE<br />Upper Egypt fell to Nubian forces<br />7th century BCE<br />Assyrians(M) invaded the Northern Nile Valley<br />Commencing a continual pattern of foreign domination<br />
  15. 15. The Formation of Complex Societies and Sophisticated Cultural Traditions<br />
  16. 16. Civilization is so complex<br />Egypt is very prosperous<br />Growth of cities<br />Complex<br />Religion<br />Writing systems<br />Specialized labor<br />Social stratification<br />
  17. 17. Cities<br />Several Large cities serves as political, cultural and economic centers<br />Memphis & Thebes<br />Notable for political roles<br />
  18. 18. Social strata<br />Pharaoh <br />No nobility <br />Military bureaucracy-high social positions<br />Urban middle class<br />Peasants <br />Slaves<br />Nubian society developed similarly<br />
  19. 19. Where my girls at?<br />More authority than (M-women)<br />Some ladies gained power as regents to young rulers<br />Queen Hatshepsut –co ruler<br />Depicted w/ a beard<br />Priestesses and scribes<br />Nubia had many women rulers<br />
  20. 20. Economy<br />Specialization & trade<br />Slow to adopt metallurgy<br />Did so because of the Hyksos<br />
  21. 21. Cont’d<br />Egyptians travel much by boat<br />Some long distance overland trade routes<br />Adopted wheeled vehicles (m)<br />Trade<br />Nubia, Mediterranean, and Ethiopia<br />Cotton , pottery & wine<br />For ivory, ebony, animal skins, gold, and slaves<br />Import trees from the middle east<br />
  22. 22. Writing<br />Possible borrowed from M.<br />Appeared around 3200BCE<br />papyrus<br />Carved into monuments<br />Hieroglyphs<br />Eventually adopt Greek alphabet<br />Professional scribes-prestigious social status<br />Nubians have hieroglyphs that evolve into alphabet<br />
  23. 23. Religion<br />Polytheistic<br />Gods Amon, Ra, Osirus<br />Associated with nature & super natural (sun, moon etc.)<br />Massive temple complexes dedicated to gods<br />Pharaohs associate with gods<br />1473-breif period of monotheism after Akenaten<br />Mummification<br />Nubians polytheistic and adopts some Egyptian gods<br />