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Video: Mediengeschichte und Archivierungsfragen

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MAS ALIS Ergänzungsmodul 2015: Audiovisuelle Unterlagen Archivieren: Theorie und Praxis, 18.9.2015, UniS, Bern

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Video: Mediengeschichte und Archivierungsfragen

  1. 1. Video: Mediengeschichte und Archivierungsfragen MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul  2015:   Audiovisuelle  Unterlagen  Archivieren:   Theorie  und  Praxis   18.9.2015, UniS, Bern Yves Niederhäuser, Memoriav Bereichsverantwortlicher Video/TV 1  
  2. 2. Programm Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser   Grundlagen (Kontext und Technik)   Videoformate (Identifikation)   Erhaltung   Weiterführende Informationen 2  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  3. 3. Grundlagen: Entstehungskontext Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser 3  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015     1990ff   2000ff   Professionelle Produktion: Öffentliche TV Prof. Prod.: Private TV Semiprof. Prod.: Auftrags-, Kunst-, Bewegungsvideo Private Prod.: Familien-«Filme» etc. 1970ff   1980ff  1956  
  4. 4. Grundlagen: Überlieferung Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser 4  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015     1990ff   2000ff   Professionelle Produktion: Öffentliche TV Prof. Prod.: Private TV Semiprof. Prod.: Auftrags-, Kunst-, Bewegungsvideo Private Prod.: Familien-«Filme» etc. 1970ff   1980ff  1956   Fernseh-Archive (öff. und priv.) Museen (Kunstvideo, Privatnachlässe etc.) Spezialarchive (z. B. Bewegungsvideo, Oral History) Unternehmensarchive (z. B. Werbung oder Instruktions-«Filme») Bibliotheken (kommerziell vertriebene Videos) Verwaltungsarchive (z. B. Kampagnen-«Filme»)
  5. 5. Grundlagen: Definition Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser «Die  Videotechnik  […]  umfasst  die  elektronischen   Verfahren  zur  Aufnahme,  Übertragung,  Bearbeitung  und   Wiedergabe  von  bewegten  Bildern  sowie  ggf.  des   BegleiTons  […].  Dazu  gehören  ferner  die  eingesetzten   Geräte,  wie  Videokamera,  Videorekorder  und  Bildschirm.   Aber  auch  die  rein  digitale  Verarbeitung  opXscher  Signale   wird  zur  Videotechnik  gezählt.» [«Videotechnik», in: Wikipedia, 24.8.2015] 5  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  6. 6. Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser   «elektronische «Verfahren»   «Aufnahme»   «Übertragung»   «Wiedergabe» Grundlagen: Definition 6  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  7. 7. Grundlagen: Das Videoband Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser 7  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  8. 8. Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Grundlagen: Aufnahmetechnik 8  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  9. 9. Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Grundlagen: Wiedergabetechnik 9  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  10. 10.   Enge Verbindung von Video- und TV-Technik   Sukzessive Ausbreitung und Ablösung von Filmtechnik   Magnetband als Träger   Zeilensprungverfahren (interlaced) Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Grundlagen: Zusammenfassung 10  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  11. 11. Videoformate: TV-Normen Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser NTSC HD 11  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  12. 12. Videoformate: TV-Normen Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser source:  „Vidéo“  in: Wikipédia, 7.11.2011   12  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  13. 13. Videoformate: Bänder Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser 13  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  14. 14. Videoformate: Geräte Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser 14  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  15. 15. Videoformate: Meilensteine Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Analoges, professionelles Format: 2“ 1956 2“ Ampex Quad 15  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  16. 16. Videoformate: Meilensteine Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser 16  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  17. 17. Videoformate: Meilensteine Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Analoge, semi-professionnelle Formate: ½" 1965 1/2“ Portapak Sony;" 1969 1/2“ EIAJ Sony et al. " 17  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  18. 18. Videoformate: Meilensteine Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Analoges, professionelles Format: U-Matic 1971 U-Matic, Sony, JVC, Panasonic et al. 18  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  19. 19. Videoformate: Meilensteine Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Digitales Video DVD 1995; (re-)writable" 2000 MPEG IMX Sony" 19  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  20. 20. Videoformate: Videofiles Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser   DV (mini-DV), DVCAM, DVCPRO (.dv)   MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG4/h.264 (.mpg, .vob, .mp4)   Real Media (.rm)   Windows Media (.wmv)   Quicktime (.mov)   Audio Video Interleave (.avi)   Flash Video (.flv)   Motion JPEG 2000 (.mj2)   MXF (.mxf) >>Achtung: Codec, Fileformat, Containerformat sind nicht dasselbe! 20  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  21. 21. Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Codec, Fileformat, Containerformat sind nicht dasselbe! aus:  Chris  Lacinak,  A  Primer  on  Codecs  for  Moving  Image  and  Sound  Archives,  2013   Videoformate: Videofiles 21  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  22. 22. Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Videoformate: Videofiles 22  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  23. 23. Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser uncompressed   lossless  compressed   1h  ≅  100  GB   1h  ≅  30-­‐50  GB*   *  z.  B.    MoXon  JPEG2000   lossy  compressed   1h  ≅  1,5  GB**   **  MPEG-­‐4/AVC  (iPhone  3S)   1h  ≅  CHF  420.-­‐/y     Videoformate: Kompression 23  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  24. 24. Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Räumliche (spatial) Kompression ©  David  Pfluger,  Memoriav   Videoformate: Kompression 24  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  25. 25. Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Zeitliche (temporal) Kompression Videoformate: Kompression 25  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  26. 26. Videoformate: Digitales Video Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser 26  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015     DeconstrucXng  Digital  Video  for  AcXvists:  hTps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rm4O0w31uUY  
  27. 27. Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser   Dynamische Technikentwicklung: >> immense Vielfalt an Formaten, rasche Ablösung   Gleichzeitigkeit des Ungleichzeitigen: >> grosse Bestände analoger/physischer Träger sowie digitaler Videos   Herausforderungen für die Erhaltung: >> Identifikation, Obsoleszenz, Migrationszyklen, Kenntnisse, Dokumentation etc.   Digitalisierung: >> Herausforderungen werden grösser (Potentiale auch!) Videoformate: Zusammenfassung 27  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  28. 28. Erhaltung: Hauptprobleme Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser 28  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015     [«Obsoleszenz», in: Wikipedia, 24.8.2015]  
  29. 29. Erhaltung: Hauptprobleme Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Verschmutzung (des Bandes) 29  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015     Bild:  Atelier  für  Videokonservierung,  Bern  
  30. 30. Erhaltung: Hauptprobleme Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Alterungsschäden 30  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015     Bandkleben  («sXcky  shed  syndrom»)  verursacht  Bildverwellungen,   verstopr  Videoköpfe  bis  zum  Bildausfall,  quitscht.   Bild  aus:  „Video  2“,  in:  Gfeller,  Johannes,  Jarczyk,  Agathe,  Philips,   Joanna,  Kompendium  der  Bildstörungen  beim  analogen  Video,  2012  
  31. 31. Erhaltung: Aufbewahrungsbedingungen Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Klima   Stabilität: <5%RH / 2°C in 24 Std.   ideal: 8°C bei 25%RH   akzeptabel: zwischen 20°C bei 20–30%RH und 10° C bei 20– 50% 31  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015     hTps://www.imagepermanenceinsXtute.org/webfm_send/301  
  32. 32. Erhaltung: Aufbewahrungsbedingungen Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Lagerung   Bänder/Kassetten gut zurückgespult und vertikal lagern   Kopierschutz aktivieren 32  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  33. 33. Erhaltung: Restaurierung Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser 33  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015     Erhaltung/Restaurierung des Originalträgers u. a. zur Vorbereitung/ Ermöglichen einer Überspielung auf neue Träger Erhaltung/Restaurierung des Inhalts so «originalgetreu» oder nah am aktuellen Zustand wie möglich Archivkopie, Benutzungskopie   reinigen,  trocknen,   erhitzen,  neue  KasseTe,   chem.  behandeln   TBC,  Retouche,   Signalverstärkung/-­‐ einstellung,  etc.  
  34. 34. Erhaltung: Dokumentation Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser   Begleitdokumente   Dokumentation Erhaltungsmassnahmen 34  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  35. 35. Erhaltung: Digitalisieren Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Grundprinzipien   ≥3 Kopien: «Original» (aufbewahren!), Archivkopie, Benutzungskopie   Getrennte Aufbewahrung (geografisch, technisch)   Formatwahl: kontextabhängig (Ziele, Möglichkeiten)   Qualitätskontrolle: Erstdigitalisierung bestimmt oft künftige Möglichkeiten 35  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015     Bestand   Videos   Video01   Video01Archivkopie.mov   30–100GB/Std.   Video02   Video01Benutzungskopie.mp4   1–5GB/Std.   Video03   Video01Prüfsumme.md5  
  36. 36. Erhaltung: Zusammenfassung Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser   Haupterhaltungsprobleme: >> Obsoleszenz, Verschmutzung, Zerfall, Schäden   Gute Aufbewahrungsbedingungen: >> helfen Erhaltungsprobleme vermeiden   Restaurierung: >> Originalträger (Band) und Videosignal können bearbeitet werden (möglichst viel vor und während Digitalisierung!)   Digitalisierung: >> höchstmögliche Qualität für Archivkopien 36  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  37. 37. Weiterführende Informationen (Auswahl) Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Allgemein   Memoriav Empfehlungen Video. Die Erhaltung von Videodokumenten, Bern, 2006. <http://memoriav.ch/video/empfehlungen-video/>   Memoriav Empfehlungen Digitale Archivierung von Film und Video: Grundlagen und Orientierung, Bern, 2015   <http://memoriav.ch/neue-memoriav-empfehlungen-online/>   <http://prestocentre.eu>   <http://www.film-tv-video.de/glossar.html> Identifikation Formate   http://www.arts.state.tx.us/video/identify.asp Erhaltung   Image Permanence Institute, IPI Media Storage Quick Reference, Rochester NY, 2009. <https://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/store/media-preservation/media- storage-quick-reference>   Gfeller, Johannes, Jarczyk, Agathe, Philips, Joanna, Kompendium der Bildstörungen beim analogen Video, 2012 Überspielen und Digitalisieren   Wright, Richard, Preservation Guide, Roadmap: Migration Paths for Video Media. <http://www.preservationguide.co.uk/RDWiki/pmwiki.php>   KOST/CECO, Katalog archivischer Dateiformate <http://www.kost-ceco.ch/wiki/whelp/KaD/> 37  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    
  38. 38. Kontakt Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Danke für Ihre Aufmerksamkeit! www.memoriav.ch yves.niederhaeuser@memoriav.ch +41 (0)31 380 10 80 Diese Präsentation ist (bald) online verfügbar unter: slideshare.net/yvesnie 38  MAS  ALIS  Ergänzungsmodul,  Video:  Medium  und  Archivierung,  Bern,  18.9.2015    

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