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L’archivage de la vidéo, Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012

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Cours: Conservation des documents audio-visuels, L’archivage de la vidéo, par Yves Niederhäuser, coordinateur Memoriav section video/TV

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  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
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L’archivage de la vidéo, Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012

  1. 1. Lʼarchivage de la vidéoYves Niederhäuser, coordinateur Memoriav section video/TV Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 1  
  2. 2. Plan du cours   Définitions   La technique: bande vidéo, l’enregistrement   Standards et formats   La conservation / la restauration   La reproduction / la numérisation   Accès / Communication   RessourcesMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 2  
  3. 3. Avant-propos: La production vidéo Prod. professionnelle   TV publiques dès les années 1950   TV privées dès les années 80 Prod. (semi-)professionnelle   dès les années 1970 env.   Vidéos de commande (entreprises, organisations, éducation)   Vidéos d‘art   Vidéos socioculturelles Prod. « consommateur »   dès les années 1980 env.   « films » de famille etc. =>  Très  grande  variété  de  formats  et  expansion   successive  de  l’usage  Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 3  
  4. 4. Avant-propos: Fonds et collections vidéo   Archives TV (publiques et privées)   Archives d‘entreprises, organisations, institutions de l‘éducation, administration publique (« films » de campagnes ou d‘instruction, publicité etc.)   Ensembles d‘enregistrements scientifiques (ethnologie, médecine etc.)   Bibliothèques (vidéos de vente)   Archives publiques et privées   Musées (vidéo d‘art, histoire orale, fonds/collections privées) =>  Partout  dans  le  domaine  de  l‘informa<on  et  de   la  documenta<on!  Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 4  
  5. 5. Définitions « La vidéo regroupe lensemble des techniques permettant l‘enregistrement ainsi que la restitution d‘images animées, accompagnées ou non de son, sur un support électronique et non de type photochimique. » [« Vidéo », in: Wikipédia, 3.12.2012]Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 5  
  6. 6. Définitions « La vidéo regroupe lensemble des tech- niques permettant l‘enregistrement ainsi que la restitution d‘images animées, accompagnées ou non de son, sur un support électronique et non de type photochimique. » [« Vidéo », in: Wikipédia, 3.12.2012]Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 6  
  7. 7. La technique: La bande vidéo La bande vidéoMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 7  
  8. 8. La technique: Enregistrement Lʼenregistrement du signal vidéo sur bande magnétiqueMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 8  
  9. 9. La technique: Lecture La lecture de la bande (ex. VHS)Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 9  
  10. 10. Standards et formats: Normes TVMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 10  
  11. 11. Standards et formats: Normes TV Distribution géographique des normes de télévision source:  „Vidéo“  in: Wikipédia, 7.11.2011  Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 11  
  12. 12. Standards et formats: Bandes Différents types de bandesMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 12  
  13. 13. Standards et formats: Machines Différents types de machinesMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 13  
  14. 14. Standards et formats: Etappes importantes Vidéo analogique professionnelle 1956 2“ Ampex QuadMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 14  
  15. 15. Standards et formats: Etappes importantesMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 15  
  16. 16. Standards et formats: Etappes importantes Vidéo analogique semi-professionnelle 1965 1/2“ Portapak Sony;# 1969 1/2“ EIAJ Sony et al. #Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 16  
  17. 17. Standards et formats: Etappes importantes Vidéo analogique professionnelle 1971 U-matic, Sony, JVC, Panasonic et al.Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 17  
  18. 18. Standards et formats: Etappes importantes Vidéo numérique, production en fichier MPEG IMX Sony, 2000# DVD 1995; réinscriptible# Cartes mémoires, 2000#Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 18  
  19. 19. Standards et formats: Etappes importantes Fichiers vidéo   DV (mini-DV), DVCAM, DVCPRO (.dv)   MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG4/h.264 (.mpg, .vob, .mp4)   Real Media (.rm)   Windows Media (.wmv)   Quicktime (.mov)   Audio Video Interleave (.avi)   Flash vidéo (.flv)   Motion JPEG 2000 (.mj2)   MXF (.mxf) >>Attention: Codec, format du fichier, fichier container ne sont pas (toujours) la même chose!Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 19  
  20. 20. Standards et formats: Etappes importantesMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 20  
  21. 21. La conservation: Problèmes principaux   Obsolescence!!   Etat du magnétoscope   Salissures (bande et tête vidéo)Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 21  
  22. 22. La conservation: Problèmes principaux   Obsolescence!!   Etat du magnétoscope   Salissures (bande et tête vidéo)   Hydrolyse au niveau du liant («sticky shed syndrom»)   Déformation des bandes   Champs magnétiquesMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 22  
  23. 23. La conservation: Problèmes principaux   Obsolescence!!   Etat du magnétoscope   Salissures (bande et tête vidéo)   Hydrolyse au niveau du liant («sticky shed syndrom»)   Déformation des bandes   Champs magnétiques   Parasites, moisissuresMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 23  
  24. 24. La conservation: Conditions climatiques   Température et humidité relative (hr) stable   Idéal à long terme: 8°C / 25%hr; acceptable: de 10°/20-50% à 20°/20-30%Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 24  
  25. 25. La conservation: Conditions de stockage   Cassettes bien rembobinées, boîtes en plastique rangées verticalement   étagères à circulation de l’air suffisante   Protégées du feu, de l’eau, de la lumière, des champs magnétiques, de la fumée, des aliments et de la poussièreMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 25  
  26. 26. La restauration: La bande   Nettoyage   Séchage   Chauffage   Nouvelle Cassette   Traitements chimiques >> Buts: Sauvegarde de la bande originale et faciliter le transfert sur nouveaux supports (copies d’archivage)Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 26  
  27. 27. La restauration: Exemple nettoyageMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 27  
  28. 28. La restauration: Le contenu   Corrections, amplification du signal, améliorations de l’image/du son: Multitude de méthodes et outils très spécialisées   Utilisation d’un « time base corrector (TBC) » >> But: Sauvegarde du contenu aussi proche de l’état « d’origine » ou actuelMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 28  
  29. 29. La reproduction: Questions importantes   Qu‘est-ce qui doit être sauvegardé?   Est-ce que quelqu‘un d‘autre fait le même travail?   Quand est-ce qu’il faut procéder à la reproduction?   Est-ce que les droits (d‘auteurs et autres) sont réglés?   Qui peut faire la reproduction?Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 29  
  30. 30. La reproduction: Principes de base   Etat du magnétoscope et de la bande   ≥3 copies: > « Original » (à conserver!) > Copie(s) de sécurité, meilleure qualité possible possible > Copie(s) d‘accès, format aussi pratique que possibleMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 30  
  31. 31. La reproduction: Choix du format   K7 ou fichier? > Dilemme: Obsolescence des bandes vs. grand défi de conservation des données numériques à long terme (technique, savoir-faire, finances, gestion durable etc.)   Critères (différence sauvegarde / accès): > Qualité > Obsolescence > Prix vs. BudgetMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 31  
  32. 32. La numérisation: Compression   Sans compression (« uncompressed »)   Sans perte d‘information (« lossless »): p. e. JPEG2000   Avec perte d‘information (« lossy »): Formats répandus, moins « lourd », pertes irréversibles > Réduction de la taille > Réduction du nombre d’images par sec. > Compression spatiale (« intraframe ») > Compression temporelle (« interframe », GOPs)Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 32  
  33. 33. La numérisation: Compression spatialeMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 33  
  34. 34. La numérisation: Compression temporaleMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 34  
  35. 35. La reproduction / numérisation: Conclusions   Décisions sur le format et la qualité (compression) dépendent du contexte: > format original, état, importance, nombre du matériel à sauvegarder > buts (mission) de la conservation > moyens à disposition (budget, infrastructure, savoir-faire etc.)   Différence entre copies de sauvegarde (sécurité) et copies d’utilisation (pas les mêmes critères!)   Recommandations pratiques: PrestoSpace Roadmap; Catalogue des formats de données darchivage CECO (voir références)Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 35  
  36. 36. Accès / Communication: Principes de base   Pas d‘utilisation sans moyens de recherche et de consultationMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 36  
  37. 37. Accès / Communication: Principes de base   Pas d‘utilisation sans moyens de recherche et de consultation   Pas de synergies et pas de dissémination coopérative (plateformes) en ligne sans normes/ standardsMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 37  
  38. 38. Accès / Communication: Description / Cataloguage   Organisation des fonds/collections   Liaison entre documents textes et audiovisuels   Différents types de métadonnées: descriptives, contextuelles, structurelles, techniques, conservation/administratives   Utilisation de normes/standards, comme DC, ISAD (G), PREMIS etc. fortement recommandée! >> La réalité dans l‘audiovisuel aujourd‘hui: silos, peu d‘échange…Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 38  
  39. 39. Accès / Communication: Mise en valeur   Consultation sur place (p. ex. DVDs)   En ligne (p. ex. base de données, portails)Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 39  
  40. 40. Accès / Communication: Mise en valeur   Consultation sur place (p. ex. DVDs)   En ligne (p. ex. base de données, portails)   Expositions (réelles, virtuelles)   Publications (DVDs)   Manifestations (p. ex. « Réalitées Suisses »)Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 40  
  41. 41. Ressources (choix) Général •  Memoriav, Recommandations Video. La sauvegarde de documents vidéo, Bern, 2006. <http://fr.memoriav.ch/video/recommendations/ default.aspx> •  <http://prestocentre.eu> •  <http://www.tape-online.net/survey.html> Standards et formats •  <http://www.arts.state.tx.us/video/identify.asp> •  <http://www.digitalpreservation.gov/formats/index.shtml> La conservation •  Image Permanence Institute, IPI Media Storage Quick Reference, Rochester NY, 2009. <https://www.imagepermanenceinstitute.org/store/media- preservation/media-storage-quick-reference>Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 41  
  42. 42. Ressources (choix) La reproduction / la numérisation •  PrestoSpace, Roadmap: Migration Paths for Video Media. <http://wiki.prestospace.org/pmwiki.php? n=Main.Roadmap> •  KOST/CECO,  Catalogue  des  formats  de  données  darchivage   <hLp://www.kost-­‐ceco.ch/wiki/whelp/Cfa/> Accès / Communication •  <http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/> •  <http://blogs.loc.gov/www.loc.gov/premis>Memoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 42  
  43. 43. Contact Merci pour votre attention! N‘hésitez pas à me contacter si vous avez des questions! yves.niederhaeuser@memoriav.ch +41 (0)31 380 10 80 Visitez le site de Memoriav qui met à disposition plein d‘informations utiles sur le patrimoine audiovisuel! www.memoriav.ch Présentation consultable (bientôt) sur slideshare.net/yvesnieMemoriav: Video/TV Yves Niederhäuser Cours HEG, Lichtspiel Bern, 5.12.2012 43  

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