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Hist2 14 the commonwealth period and results of american rule

Philippine History

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Hist2 14 the commonwealth period and results of american rule

  2. 2. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH PERIOD • In accord with the independence law, the Filipinos elected delegates to the Constitutional Convention to frame a constitution. • Approved by President Franklin Roosevelt on March 23, 1934 Pres. Franklin Roosevelt 1933-1945
  3. 3. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COMMONWEALTH PERIOD • As of May, a plebiscite ratified the constitution. • The Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated on November 15, 1935, with Quezon as president and Osmeña as the vice president
  4. 4. PREPARATION FOR INDEPENDENCE National Security Social Concerns Economic Development
  5. 5. NATIONAL SECURITY •Orange Plan – drafted in Washington, designed for hostilities with Japan envisioned a conflict waged mainly in the sea and with few provisions for protection of the Philippines. Revised in 1924 and garrisoned the Manila Bay
  6. 6. NATIONAL SECURITY • The National Assembly passed Commonwealth Act No. 1 – the National Defense Act. • Quezon obtained the services of Ret. Gen. Douglas McArthur, named as field marshall, to set up the Philippine defense system. Douglas MacArthur
  7. 7. NATIONAL SECURITY • McArthur’s defense plan included the creation of a citizen army consist of two components: • A regular force of about 10,000 men, including the Philippine Constabulary • A reserve force to number 40,000 by the end of 10 years. Philippine Constabulary
  8. 8. NATIONAL SECURITY • A Philippine Navy and an Army Air Corps would also be established • Financial constraints and the problems on education, health, and public works prevented the full realization of the defense plan by the time war in the Pacific broke out in 1941
  9. 9. SOCIAL CONCERNS A Film in 1962 about Sakdalistas In May 1935, the Sakdal uprising broke out in Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, and Cavite as an answer to the land problem in those areas The peasant and labor unrests in the 1920s and early 1930s
  10. 10. SOCIAL CONCERNS • Movements or secret societies with semi- religious characteristics or colorums emerged not only in Luzon but also in Visayas and Mindanao • Quezon work for a Social Justice Program but was not totally successful because he was influenced by the powerful landed class
  11. 11. SOCIAL CONCERNS • Quezon pushed for a system of education focused primarily on primary and adult education • The Institute of National Language was created to study the different Languages of the Philippine languages for the purpose of adopting a national language. In 1937, it recommended the adoption of Tagalog as the basis of the national language
  12. 12. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Philippines became dependent on the United States and agriculture was developed but mainly for export By 1934, 80% of the total Philippine export went to the US and 65% of Philippine imports were from US
  13. 13. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Economic re-adjustment plan: • Diversification and increase in agricultural production • Development of the natural resources • Expansion of domestic market • Industrialization and development of markets outside of the US Another problem was the control of foreigners of the important businesses in the country Anti-Dummy law and immigration law was passed. The government also granted credit facilities and established the National Economic Council in March 1936.
  15. 15. RESULTS OF THE AMERICAN OCCUPATION Political Demo- cracy Partisan Politics Civil Service System Transpor- tation and Commu- nication Trade, Com- merce, and Industry Education Public Health and Welfare Social and Cultural Results
  16. 16. POLITICAL DEMOCRACY American policy provided for basic freedom •Freedom of religion •Freedom of the press and speech •Freedom to assemble peaceably for the redress of grievances •Freedom to change domicile The Philippine Assembly was “perhaps the most important single political novelty introduced by the United States in the Philippines” Americans made democracy applicable to all In 1937, Filipino women achieved political suffrage
  17. 17. PARTISAN POLITICS • Political parties were founded • Filipinos learned the ways of running the government under a policy of political education
  18. 18. CIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM Americans established an efficient and non-political civil service that would administer the affairs of the government An article written in India and reported in Manila Times, the Philippine Civil Service was in many respects superior to the Indian Civil Service, which in later years would serve as model for the rest of the world (Gleeck, 1976:136)
  19. 19. TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION • The Americans built roads, harbors, bridges, irrigation, and modern transportation and electricity systems • More telephones, telegraph lines, and radios linked towns and cities • Postal service was also improved • Materials, tools, equipment, cars, motor vehicles, and gasoline were imported from the United States
  20. 20. TRADE, COMMERCE, AND INDUSTRY • Establishment of free trade in the first decades of American rule led to increase in foreign and domestic trade. • Various industries were developed such as textile, cigar, and mining. • Sugar centrals, cordage, fishing and fish-canning factories, distilleries, and coconut mills were put up
  21. 21. TRADE, COMMERCE, AND INDUSTRY Negative effects Agriculture became “export- oriented” and industry “import- oriented” Philippine producers concentrated on few specialized exports Unlimited entry of American goods strengthened the Filipino’s colonial mentality Free trade made the Philippines dependent on the US
  22. 22. EDUCATION The establishment of secular and free public school system Stressed democratic traditions and the practical application of the laws Emphasized citizenship training and doctrine of character “building.” Extra- curricular activities such as athletics were encouraged Religious groups also played a significant role in education. The YMCA was established
  23. 23. EDUCATION The introduction of English, which became the lingua franca of the Philippines Use of English was supposed to promote the democratic concepts Filipino became conversant with the outside world Many English words were adopted into the Philippine languages Became the medium of instruction and language of business and government
  24. 24. EDUCATION •The University of the Philippines was established in 1908 as well as the Protestant-managed schools like Central Philippine University in Iloilo and Silliman University in Negros Occidental
  25. 25. EDUCATION • From 1903-1914, Filipinos with promising scholastic aptitude were sent to study in the US as scholars or pensionado. • Education system increased the literacy rate of the Filipinos (65% in 1935) • According to Constantino, the Filipinos were miseducated
  26. 26. PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE Americans introduced public health and welfare programs They introduced new methods of prevention and treatment of disease. Provided facilities and asylum for the orphans, insane, and juvenile offenders. Tropical diseases like small pox, cholera, leprosy, bubonic plague, beri- beri and malaria were either eliminated or reduce to effective control Life expectancy rose from 14 years in 1890 to 40 in 1940
  27. 27. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RESULTS • By the end of WWI, the American technology and media (newspaper and films) completed the Americanization of the Filipinos • Colonial mentality persisted • The Filipinos suffered a partial loss of their heritage.
  28. 28. THANK YOU!