Antologia 11 ingles


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Antologia 11 ingles

  2. 2. El CONED agradece a OLMAN CANTILLO BADILLA por la elección y presentación de los temas de la presente antología, así como el aporte a la educación secundaria a distancia. Las denominaciones empleadas en esta publicación y la forma en que aparecen presentados los datos, no implican de parte del CONED o la UNED juicio alguno sobre la condición jurídica de personas, países, territorios, ciudades o de autoridades. MATERIAL SIN FINES COMERCIALES PARA USO EXCLUSIVO DE ESTUDIANTES DEL COLEGIO NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN A DISTANCIA CONED Dirección General: Clara Vila Santo Domingo Coordinación Académica: Jéssica Ramírez Achoy Coordinación Administrativa: Jéssica Vega Barrientos Asistente Coordinación Académica: Jonathan Soto Coordinación de Inglés: Olman Alfonso Cantillo Badilla Teléfonos 22-58-22-09 / 22-55-30-42 / 22-21-29-95 Página Web: http// © 2011, CONED. 2
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS. 11º LEVEL. Index. INDEX ................................................................................................................................ 2 I - TYPES OF FOOD, EATING HABITS AND BEHAVIOURS AT THE TABLE ....................................................................... 4 II- TOURIST ASPECTS WORLDWIDE ................................................................... 38 III -JOB DEMAND ......................................................................................................... 68 IV -CAREERS ................................................................................................................ 86 V- SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ........................................................................ 106 VI- GENDER: MEN’S AND WOMEN’S ROLES ................................................. 146 VII- SENIOR CITIZENS, MINORITY GROUPS ................................................... 169 VIII- MASS MEDIA AND COMMUNICATIONS ................................................... 176 ANSWER KEY ............................................................................................................ 184 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 ..................................................................................................... 208 BIBLIOGRAPHY2 ...................................................................................................... 210 DIGITAL LINKS .......................................................................................................... 211 3
  4. 4. FIRST UNIT TYPES OF FOOD, EATING HABITS, AND BEHAVIORS AT THE TABLE. THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: DIFFERENT KINDS OF FOODS, HABITS AND TABLE MANNERS. Functions:  Asking for and giving information about food.  Suggesting someone to do something.  Describing procedures.  Evaluating the results of an action or event. TOPICS: TYPES OF FOOD, EATING HABITS AND BEHAVIORS AT THE TABLE. LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Presentation Of Written Pieces Conveying Information About: Types Of Food, Eating Habits And Behaviors At The Table. 4
  5. 5. Eating healthy foods is one of the greatest ways you can live healthy and combat developing a disease. Some diseases are genetic and there's not much you can do about that. But others like diabetes 2, lung cancer, and heart disease and might be prevented with the proper diet. Below is a list of healthy foods and some of the body parts they affects. 1. Basil is a great herb to add flavor to just about anything you are cooking, but also has many other benefits that may cause you to add it to your diet. It is known to reduce blood pressure and ease the symptoms of emphysema and bronchitis. Basil also makes a good natural insect repellent when rubbed on your skin. 2. Dietary fibber promotes regularity, helps control caloric intake and promotes weight loss. It may also reduce the risk of certain cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and help people with diabetes control their blood sugar. 5
  6. 6. 3. Vegetables and fruits are our most nutrient-dense foods. They contain the greatest amounts of nutrients per calorie of any food. Many nutrients, including the ones that fight against cancer and heart disease are found in fruits and vegetables. 4. Vegetables have fewer sugars than fruits. 5. Spinach is an excellent example of a nutrient-dense vegetable. Spinach provides at least 50 % of the rdi for vitamin a, and about 20% of the rdi for vitamin c. spinach is a good source of iron, calcium, and folate. 6. Asparagus is high in folate content (20 to 50% of rdi per serving). folate is a nutrient identified as being important for pregnant women. 7. Pumpkin is an excellent source of vitamin a (as carotene), providing over 300 percent of the rdi. And canned pumpkin appears to have much more vitamin a than fresh-cooked pumpkin. this may be due to the fact canned pumpkin has more water cooked out of it than boiled pumpkin, and the varieties used for canning have intense orange color, a sure sign of carotene. Pumpkin is a good source of fibber and adds a little iron and folate to the diet as well. 8. Sweet bing cherries are a good source of fibber. They provide about two grams per 1/2 cup serving. 9. Apricots are a great source of beta-carotene, vitamin c, potassium and iron. Apricots are very good sources of vitamin a (as carotene). They provide about 35% of the rdi per serving. 6
  7. 7. 10. Apricots are low in calories. 3 apricots only contain 50 calories. 11. Strawberries are a good source of vitamin c. They provide between 35 and 136 percent of the rdi per 1/2 cup serving. Strawberries are also a good source of fibber and iron. They provide about two percent and 3.5 percent respectively per 1/2 cup serving. 12. Soy nuts are high in protein and isoflavones. EXERCISE 1. Read the sentences and mark with an x, the best alternative (a, b, c, d) according to the reading. 1. What is a good diet for? A. to avoid dangerous diseases B. to get dangerous diseases C. to buy dangerous diseases D. to make dangerous diseases. 2. How do people weight loss? A. using a fruit dietary B. using a fibber dietary C. using a fish dietary D. using a sweet dietary 3. What is an excellent source of iron and calcium? A. fruits B. fish C. bread D. spinach 7
  8. 8. 4. In what food do people can get carotene? A. bread B. pumpkin C. candies D. water 5. If you need vitamin c, in what food can you get it? A. candies B. spinach C. strawberries D. soy nuts TABLE MANNERS. 1. When you sit down to eat, use a napkin to clean your mouth if necessary. 2. Clean your hands on the tablecloth or your clothes. 3. Put only small pieces of food into your mouth. 4. Eat big pieces of food. You’ll finish faster. 5. Eat with your mouth closed. 6. Don’t close your mouth when you chew. 8
  9. 9. EXERCISE 2. 1. Suggestions with the numbers _________ are good table manners. A) 1 and 2 B) 1 and 3 C) 3 and 4 D) 2 and 5 2. Recommendation Nº 6 is considered ______________ in Costa Rica. A) gracious B) impolite C) decent D) funny EXERCISE 3.Read the information and choose the alternative that best completes each sentence. RICE AND VEGETABLES - 2 cups of rice - 2 Tbsp of cooking oil - 1 Tbsp minced garlic - 1 cup of green peas - 1 Tbsp chopped onions - 4 cups of water - ½ cup of chopped red pepper - 2 cubes of beef - ½ cup of finely chopped carrots - 2 Tbsp of salt Fry the garlic and onion, add the red pepper, carrots and green peas. Remove from heat when all ingredients are fried sufficiently. Add water, beef, salt and rice. Mix and cook until the Multi-Use-Rice cooker turns off automatically. 9
  10. 10. 1. In this recipe, you need a half cup each of _______________________. A) water and salt B) rice and onions C) green peas and oil D) red pepper and carrots 2. The first step to follow is to ______________________. A) add pepper B) fry the garlic C) add green peas D) mix the ingredients 3. The recipe needs two vegetables: ________________________. A) salt and oil B) rice and meat C) beef and cubes D) carrots and peas 4. In recipes, ―Tbsp‖ stands for _______________________. A) tiny table spoons B) tablespoons C) total spoons D) teaspoons 5. Once all the ingredients are well fried, they should be _____________ the heat. A) moved away from B) located on C) placed on 10
  11. 11. D) put on 6. When the rice is already cooked, ______________________________. A) you put the beef B) you add the water C) the appliance has all the ingredients D) the appliance turns off automatically "Fish and chips" is deep-fried fish in batter with deep-fried potatoes, and a popular takeaway food. Fish and chips is originally from the United Kingdom, but also very popular in Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and some coastal towns of the Netherlands and Norway; and also increasingly so in the United States and elsewhere. For decades it was the dominant (if not the only) take-away food in the United Kingdom. The fried potatoes are called chips in British and international usage; and while American English calls them French fries, the combination is still called "fish and chips". (Potato chips, an American innovation, are a different potato-derived food, and are known as crisps in the United Kingdom.) Fish and chips have separately been eaten for many years – though the potato was not introduced to Europe until the 17th century. The originally Sephardi dish Pescado frito, or deep-fried fish, came to Netherlands and England with the Spanish and Portuguese Jews in the 17th and 18th centuries. The dish became popular in more widespread circles in London and the south-east in the middle of the 19th century (Charles Dickens mentions a "fried fish warehouse" in Oliver 11
  12. 12. Twist) whilst in the north of England a trade in deep-fried "chipped" potatoes developed. It is unclear when and where these two trades were merged to become the fish and chip shop industry we know today. The first combined fish and chip shop was probably the one opened in London by Joseph Malin in 1860. During World War II, fish and chips were one of the few foods that were not rationed in the UK. This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Fish and chips". You can explore more on the Wikipedia website. The text and the images are used here only for educational purposes. EXERCISE 4. 1. Fish and chips are popular only in England. True. False. We don't know. 2. Americans call "French fries" what British call "chips". True. False. We don't know. 3. Americans call "chips" what British call "crisps". True. False. We don't know. 12
  13. 13. 4. The potato was introduced to Europe in the 18th century. True. False. We don't know. 6. The dish became popular in the 19th century. True. False. We don't know. 6. The first fish and chip shop was opened in the 19th century. True. False. We don't know. 7. Fish and chips were not eaten during World War II. True. False. We don't know 13
  14. 14. When it comes to potentially lethal eating disorders, adolescent girls are the highest risk category. Many simply don't survive and while 28-year-old-basque writer espido freire lived to tell the story - literally – of her seven-year-fight with the binge-and-purge eating disorder bulimia, the experience has left her scarred for life. in her new book cuando comer es un infierno, released yesterday, freire painfully retraces those seven long years because, as she says, "if a writer isn't able to lend a voice to those who aren't capable of expressing themselves, then part of their vocation has been lost." according to freire, cuando comer es un inferno "offers a realistic and personal view of bulimia - the seven years of suffering and the strength it took to get over them." arriving at barajas airport earlier this week from scotland, where she has spent the last two months as a visiting writer to various universities, freire headed straight for her home in Madrid but couldn't avoid noticing the billboards filled with skinny models advertising next season's fashion on the road home. They immediately reminded her of her book and the exhaustion she felt after writing about the darkest period of her life. Freire has a strong desire to tell her story - but still, she warns, she doesn't want to become a poster girl for bulimia. she doesn't just have that story to tell, she stresses. As a writer, she was the youngest-ever winner of the planeta award with her second novel melocotones helados in 1998. Her first two books were works of fiction but now, in cuando comer es un infierno, she has gone down the autobiographical road to recount, with some bitterness, her difficult adolescence - cataloguing her terrible daily battles with the weighing scales. (EL PAIS English edition with the International Herald Tribune, March 7, 2002) 14
  15. 15. EXERCISE 5.Read the text and answer the following questions: 1. Guessing vocabulary from context. Read each definition below and choose the word from the list that matches the definition. There are two left. Lethal, scarred, released, retraces, headed, skinny, bitterness. (a) Very thin: ________________ (b) Went, moved in a particular direction: ___________________ (c) Marked, wounded: __________________________ (d) Anger, resentment: ___________________________ made available to the public: _______________________ EXERCISE 6. (PERSONAL ANSWERS)Answer the following questions according to the text. Try to use your own words. (a) Why is bulimia defined as a deadly eating disorder? ______________________________________________________________ (b) What did Freire think when she saw the billboards with skinny models? ______________________________________________________________ (c) What literary prize did Freire received for one of her books? ______________________________________________________________ (d) How does Cuando comer es un inferno differ from Freire's previous two books) ______________________________________________________________ 15
  16. 16. EXERCISE 7. Rewrite the following sentences maintaining the same meaning. (a) While Espido Freire lived to tell the story of her bulimia, the experience has left her scarred for life. (However) __________________________________________________________ (b) According to Freire, Cuando comer es un infierno "offers a realistic and personal view of Bulimia." (Freire says ....) __________________________________________________________ (c) Freire has spent the last two months as a visiting writer to various universities. (For) ___________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 8. Complete the following paragraph with the correct form of the verb in brackets. In order to write Cuando comer es un infierno, Freire____________________ (1. have) to relive her own difficult past. She also ____________________ (2. Listen) to 20 case histories from other bulimics, some ____________________ (3. tell) to her directly, others over the Internet, and some via telephone. In one of the book chapters, Freire ____________________(4. Describe) her life after the eating disorder. "For almost the last eight years, I____________________ (5. Live) an absolutely normal life," she says. 16
  17. 17. British food best in the world. A British restaurant that serves bacon and egg ice cream has been voted the best place in the world to eat in Restaurant magazine’s list of The World’s 50 Best Restaurants. The Fat Duck restaurant, which was runner-up last year, claimed the coveted top spot. Owner and head chef Heston Blumenthal opened his restaurant ten years ago and soon developed a reputation for highly experimental and unorthodox dishes. The menu includes leather, oak and tobacco chocolates, sardine on toast sorbet, snail porridge, and mousse dipped in liquid nitrogen. He is self-taught and has pioneered the art of “molecular gastronomy” experiments with chemistry, physics, food and flavour that result in unique and unusual taste combinations. Nearly 600 international restaurant owners, chefs and journalists participated in the poll to rank the best restaurants worldwide. A further thirteen British restaurants made it onto the elite eateries list, four in the top ten. This gives the home of fish and chips an unusual reputation as a culinary paradise. Britain is infamous for its bland and uninspiring food, which is scoffed at by the more sophisticated palates of its French neighbours. However, it seems the tide is turning: France had only eight restaurants in the top fifty and London was named in March by Gourmet magazine as the Gourmet Capital of the World. Ella Johnston, editor of Restaurant magazine, said British people are now “becoming more adventurous eaters”. 17
  18. 18. QUESTIONS. EXERCISE 9. (PERSONAL ANSWERS).Answer the following questions using your own words. a. Did Blumenthal go to a cooking school in the past? _________________________________________________ b. How does Blumenthal get these original tastes? _________________________________________________ EXERCISE 10. Are the following statements True or False? a. France had only eight restaurants in the top fifty _________________ b. All the judges that participated in the poll were British: _______________ EXERCISE 11. Find a word or expression in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to: a. Tasteless: _______________ b. Prized: _______________ EXERCISE 12. Choose a, b, or c in each question below. Only one choice is correct. ―Last year, the restaurant mentioned in the text was voted...‖ A. in the third position. B. in the second position. 18
  19. 19. C. in the first position. ―Tobacco is important in this restaurant because...‖ A. you can smoke it. B. you can eat it. C. you can chew it. ―Great Britain has always been famous for‖ A. its bad food. B. its good food. C. its good cuisine. McDonald’s boss dies suddenly. The Chief executive of McDonald’s, the world’s largest fast-food chain, has died from a suspected heart attack. Jim Cantalupo, 60, was taken ill during a meeting of franchise owners in Orlando, Florida, the company said. His death is a severe blow to McDonald’s at a time when the chain is trying to shed its image as a supplier of high-fat, high-salt and high-sugar food. In his 16 months at the helm, Mr Cantalupo turned the company’s fortunes round. As well as slowing its breakneck expansion programme and closing hundreds of under-performing 19
  20. 20. outlets, he tried to address criticisms that McDonald’s was contributing to the obesity epidemic in the US and Europe. When Mr Cantalupo became chairman and chief executive in January last year after a management shake-up, Mc Donald’s was in the doldrums. Changing tastes, the mad cow disease scare and the perception that its menu was tired had hit sales, particularly in Europe and Asia. In December 2002, McDonald’s went into the red for the first time in its 48-year history. Mr Cantalupo, a former vice-chairman and president, who had retired a year earlier, was brought back as the new boss. TAKEN FROM: EXERCISE 13. Answer the following questions using your own words. a. What impression do people have about McDonald’s food? ___________________________________________________________________ b. What did Mr Cantalupo achieve in the 16 months he was in charge of McDonald’s? ___________________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 14. Are the following statements True or false? a. Mr Cantalupo felt ill while meeting with French clients in Orlando.__________ b. Mr Cantalupo was already retired when he became McDonald’s boss again. __________ EXERCISE 15. Find a word or expression in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to: a. A group of shops or restaurants owned by the same company: _____________________________________________________________________ b. Provider: _____________________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 16. Choose a, b, or c, in each question below. Only one choice is correct 1. In order to save the company Mr Cantalupo tried to a. promote the company’s fast expansion. b. defend the company from accusations of contributing to obesity. c. change people’s tastes. 20
  21. 21. 2. Mr Cantalupo a. broke his neck in Orlando. b. worked for the company for 48 years. c. had been McDonald’s president before. 3. McDonald’s sales had declined specially in Europe and Asia due to a. scare mad cows. b. a change in people’s food preferences. c. a change in McDonald’s menu. 4. In December 2002 McDonald’s a. was in debt for the first time in its history. b. was furious with Mr Cantalupo. c. forced Mr Cantalupo to retire. EXERCISE 17. Composition. What are the advantages or disadvantages of fast food? Give reasons. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ TAKEN FROM: 21
  22. 22. Fast food is good for you. Not only fast food is delicious, it is also nutritional. Fast food contains many of the nutrients all human beings require to lead active, healthy lives. Some fast food also, contains vitamins, and everybody knows how important vitamins are. Fast food comes in many forms. The most common kinds of fast food are hamburgers and hot dogs, but there are many other varieties. Fish and chips have been popular in England for centuries, and now Americans too are enjoying this wonderful, nutritional delicacy. If we take a little time to examine the history of fast food we can learn a lot about many different cultures. For instance, did you know that a Chinaman invented pizza? There are many people who feel that fast food is not good for you. They have a right to their opinions, because America is a free country, but they are wrong. They are wrong because fast food is good for you. EXERCISE 18. After reading the above passage, read the following sentences and mark with a ―X‖ the best option (a, b, c, d) 1. A good title for this passage would be: a) America, Land of the Free. b) Foods of the World. c) The Truth about Pizza. d) Eating Sensibly. 2. The main idea of this passage is: a) Fast food is good for you. b) Vitamins are important. c) Free speech is an important right which many people abuse. d) You can have your cake and eat it too. 22
  23. 23. 3. Fast food contains: a) Nutrients. b) Vitamins. c) Fish and chips. d) Many different cultures. 4. America is a free country because: a) Ignorant people have the right to their opinions. b) Fast food is good for you. c) Fast food is free. d) Americans can eat other people's food. This was originally published in Condensed Book, along with other reading comprehension quizzes. It was, of course, inspired by the educational materials of my Cold War youth. TAKEN FROM: 23
  24. 24. Table manners. Your youngsters may know how to sit still, use a napkin, and how to cut with a knife and fork, but do they really know proper table manners? The holidays, weddings, anniversary celebrations, school dances, and other social events are prime occasions for kids to demonstrate appropriate table manners. However, far too many parents somehow assume that their kids will know how to act, what to do (and not to do), and how to exhibit proper table manners--only to be embarrassed by a youngster's double-dipping, slurping, or demonstrations of finger-lickin' good! You've taught them most everything they know up to now, so take time and teach them table manners basics that will dazzle at the next occasion. Here's how to get started:  Teach kids how to greet relatives and guests. Many kids simply don't know what to say or the appropriate action to take. If the occasion is at your home or you're serving as host, instruct your kids about properly opening the door and taking any coats. (Show them how to hold them and not to roll them up in a wad.) Teach them how to properly shake hands and how to appropriately hug relatives, especially elderly or individuals with disabilities.  If you're serving appetizers, ask your youngsters to act as a host/hostess. Instruct them what to ask, how to not interrupt conversations, and to tell them what the choice is. If they are on the receiving end of an offering of hors d'oeuvres, be sure to tell them how to say hors du'oeuvres and what it means to avoid the normal kid reaction of "what's that?" Instruct them how to take one or how to graciously refuse. If it is an item that  sounds unappetizing to a kid's palate (and many do), tell them to simply decline without offering any commentary about how it looks, smells, or seems to taste. 24
  25. 25.  At the table, show them how to pull out a seat for a guest and to hold it and help them scoot to the table. Boys can do this for ladies or girls, and boys or girls can do the same for older guests as a sign of respect.  Teach kids how to place the napkin in the lap and how to sit up straight and near the table. Be sure to let youngsters know not to plop their elbows on the table.  Practice table manners such as passing food, asking for something rather than reaching across the table to get it (and risk spilling a drink or worse), and to take only as much as they know they'll eat. The proper table manners protocol is to pass food from left to right (counterclockwise).  Talk with kids about how tables are set up, where forks, knives and spoons go, why sometimes there are utensils above the plates and what particular order means (using the outside utensil first). Emphasize that proper table manners are for everyone to be served and the host/hostess to pick up a fork to begin eating.  Talk about the no-no's of "double-dipping," slurping, licking fingers, or the evertempting dragging a finger across the side of an item to taste it (i.e. icing on the cake).  Practice sitting up straight and not hunched over, and remind them to bring food from their plate to their mouth and not hunker down over it.  Explain bread etiquette and how bread plates are positioned to the upper left of a dinner plate. Kids need to learn not to butter the entire piece of bread; rather, butter is placed on the bread place, and then a bite-sized piece is to be buttered only. Explain how some breads are to be "torn off" with your hands while other types may need to be cut. Younger kids won't be apt to understand the differences, but older ones should be able to make a distinction.  Practice napkin use about how they should wipe their mouth appropriately, and where to put the napkin if they need to get up or go to the bathroom. Taken from: EXERCISE 19. After reading the text above, make a written report about table manners, according to the passage; try to use your own words. 25
  26. 26. Table manners. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ EXERCISE 20. Read the text and choose the correct alternative to answer the questions. 26
  27. 27. HONEY BUTTER FROSTING. Procedures: You will need: Beat the butter, which should be at room temperature, until 3 oz (85g) butter soft but not oily. 7 oz (200g) icing sugar 1 tbsp honey 1 tbsp lemon juice Gradually, shift in about 6 oz (170g) icing sugar. Mix well 1 sponge cake Add the honey and beat again. Add the lemon juice and beat again. Take the sponge cake you bought or baked (or other cake suitable for frosting) Carefully cut the cake into two layers. Spread your frosting on top of the bottom layer. Put the top layer back on and sprinkle icing sugar over the cake. Taken from Play and Learn 1. How many ingredients do you beat when preparing the frosting? ____________ . A) All of them B) None of them C) Four ingredients D) Only two ingredients 27
  28. 28. 2. What kind of texture should the butter have? ______________ . A) Liquid B) Juicy C) Soft D) Icy 3. Which ingredient is used at two different moments in the recipe? __________ . A) Lemon juice B) Icing sugar C) Honey D) Butter EXERCISE 21. Read the article and choose the correct alternative to complete each sentence. FAST FOOD. Fast food is the food people sell in many inexpensive restaurants. The food is called ―fast‖ because you get it quickly. Often, you can go in the restaurant, order your food, eat it, and leave the place, all in 20 minutes. The kind of food you get in fast food restaurants is hamburgers, cheeseburgers, hot dogs, French fries, and fried chicken. Other kinds of fast food like the pizza are not prepared so fast. To drink, you get sodas or milkshakes. Since families like to come to these restaurants, they are also called family restaurants. Fast food is a big business in the United States and many countries because it’s cheap, fast and popular. Every day, more than 48 million people visit these restaurants. They are, mainly, people who don’t have time to cook at home. In the past, fast food restaurants worked from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m., so they were a good choice for lunch, a coffee break or dinner. At present, most of them are usually open 24 hours which includes snack breaks and breakfast. Business people say that one important aspect about fast food restaurants is that they have the chance of buying the food in the restaurant, but eating it somewhere else. That’s called the ―to go service.‖ Another possibility is to stay home and order by means of the ―express service.‖ Taken from PRISM. 28
  29. 29. 1. Another name people give to fast food restaurants is _____________ restaurants. A) expensive B) business C) popular D) family 2. It is impossible to order ______________, eat it, and leave the restaurant, all in 20 minutes. A) a cheeseburger B) fried chicken C) a hot dog D) a pizza 3. In the past, it was impossible to enjoy ____________ in a fast food restaurant. A) lunch B) dinner C) breakfast D) a coffee break 4. People can use _________________ if their time is too limited to stay in the restaurant. A) the family B) a good excuse C) a big business D) the ―to go service‖ 5. In the past, fast food restaurants had a shorter ____________________. A) soda B) schedule C) kind of food D) breakfast time 29
  30. 30. Lasagna comes from Italy. It is made of pasta, meat, tomato sauce and cheese. Sometimes, people add eggplant. Omelet is popular in the UK. You can mix ham, onions, leeks and asparagus into the egg to make a delicious omelet. Sweet and sour pork is from China. In this dish, there are small pieces of pork, mixed with sugar, onion, garlic, pineapple and soy sauce. The sauce tastes very sweet. Curry comes from India and Thailand. You can use different meats and vegetables like broccoli and cauliflower. EXERCISE 22. Questions. 1. Where does lasagna come from? _____________________________________ 2. What is it made of? _____________________________________ 3. Where is omelet popular? ______________________________________ 4. What can you mix to make a delicious omelet? ______________________________________ 30
  31. 31. 5. Where is sweet and sour pork from? ______________________________________ 6. What is the dish made of? ______________________________________ 7. Where does curry come from? ______________________________________ 8. What different things can you put in curry? ______________________________________ Costa Rica food. You'd think with the thousands of miles of coastline available and the country's heavy exportation of shrimp and lobster that these items would be amongst the most inexpensive when considering food from Costa Rica. But you'd be wrong. Pick either of these delicacies on the menu with caution, since they are often pricy and prepared listlessly. If you visit soon, you may still be able to take advantage of the free appetizers still offered in some Costa Rican bars. Once found in nearly every location, the opportunity to get some free food (with drink order, of course) is diminishing, with many bars now charging normal prices for items such as fried plantains, minced pear with corn, tamales and fried yuca. But any budget traveler can expound on the beauty of a free meal - so ask around, most locals are happy to point you in the right direction. 31
  32. 32. Food from Costa Rica is not for the health conscious, obviously, but there are still a few things for those who shun large portions of meat or fried foods. Untold amounts of wealth have been derived from the country's banana and coffee exports, and for good reason. The bananas here are nothing like you've had before, and none of the other abundant tropical fruits found here are likely to disappoint. Mangoes are one of the most popular foods in Costa Rica, along with pineapples, papayas and a variety of melons. The coffee, however, is served extremely haphazardly throughout the country. Since the highest quality coffee is usually set aside for export, this beverage is all over the map in terms of taste and preparation. If the cafe you're in serves their coffee weak and sugary, go down a few blocks and you will likely find the exact opposite. The finest drink to go along with Costa Rica foods is called Horchata, a rice drink mixed with cinnamon and sugar, with emphasis on the cinnamon. Wildly popular throughout all of Central America, one taste and you'll know exactly why. EXERCISE 23. Answer the following questions about the reading, use long answers. 1. What happens if you visit soon, some of the bars in Costa Rica? _____________________________________________________ 2. How is food from Costa Rica? ______________________________________________________ 3. What about the coffee? ______________________________________________________ 4. Can you write what horchata is? ______________________________________________________ 32
  33. 33. Breakfast. Tom wants to eat breakfast. He goes to the restaurant. He is hungry. He orders a slice of pizza, a cup of tea and a carton of milk. The waiter asks Tom if he wants something else. Tom says, he wants a piece of cheese and a bowl of soup. Tom eats all his food and pays the bill. He is full now. He goes to work. EXERCISE 24. Answer the following questions: 1. Where does Tom go? _________________________________ 2. What does he order? __________________________________ 3. What does the waiter ask him? ___________________________ 4. How does Tom feel after eating? _________________________ 33
  34. 34. 5. Where does Tom go after eating? ________________________ At the Restaurant – Ordering food. EXERCISE 25.With the following scrambled words, make a good question or an affirmative sentence. 1. Ready Are you order? To __________________________________________ 2. I'd like a soup. Yes. A small onion soup. __________________________________________ 3. the want I also sandwich. chicken __________________________________________ 4. want Do drink ? you to something 34
  35. 35. __________________________________________ 5. tea, Yes. some like I'd please, __________________________________________ 6. What for you? get can I __________________________________________ 7. large a of bottle I'd like beer. __________________________________________ 8. . a I'd large like salad. __________________________________________ 9. like Would cream? ice you __________________________________________ 10. french you want ? Do fries __________________________________________ EXERCISE 26. FOOD EXERCISE VOCABULARY. FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH THE APPROPIATE WORD FROM THE BOX. A. B. C. ____________________________________ __________________________________________ ______________________________________ 35
  36. 36. D. ______________________________________ E. _______________________________________ F. _______________________________________ G. _____________________________________ H. I. J. ___________________________________ _____________________________________ ________________________________________ /A BANANA. /A PUMPKIN / AN EGG / A COOK /AN APPLE / BEANS / CHESSE / A GLASS OF JUICE / A COFFEE / MUSHROOMS/ 36
  37. 37. SECOND UNIT TOURIST ASPECTS WORLDWIDE. THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: IDENTIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF DIFFERENT ASPECTS RELATED TO WORLWIDE TOURISM. Functions:  Identification of news, brief items, and non factual materials about tourism.  Use of some advice and reports about tourism including current issues of tourism.  Evaluation of content related to tourism, etc.  Identification and validation of different aspects related to tourism.  Identification of relations between ideas within texts related to tourism TOPIC: worldwide tourism. LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Identification of registers and evaluation of content.  Identification of main points, ideas or important information.texts, ideas etc.  Identification and use of cognates and derivatives. 37
  38. 38. Taming the tourists. The era of mass tourism in the mountain regions of industrialized countries began soon after World War II. This new phenomenon was a result of many factors, including increases in urban populations, income, vacation time, and mobility. Today, in the era of cheap, global air travel, almost no mountains in any corner of the world are out of reach. Moreover, `adventure tourists' and `ecotourists' are willing to pay well, and their money is very welcome to poor governments and communities. Although stories about the problems caused by tourism have become increasingly frequent in recent years, it is not necessarily a destructive force. The situation could be far better if tour operators and legislators considered how best to integrate tourism into the existing culture, with a minimal impact on the environment, and without host countries becoming too dependent on it. Merely restricting tourism cannot be the solution, because people's desire to see new places will not just disappear. But the real key to the problem lies in giving indigenous communities greater control over the rate at which tourism grows, and the paths it takes. Encouragingly, more and more communities are demonstrating that, with firm decision-making, this is possible. EXERCISE 27.(PERSONAL ANSWERS) Answer the following questions using your own words. a) Why did mass tourism in the mountains begin? ___________________________________________________________ b) According to the text, what is the principal way to reduce the negative effects of ecotourism? ___________________________________________________________ 38
  39. 39. EXERCISE 28. Are the following statements true (T) or false (F)? a) There are still a lot of inaccessible areas in the mountains. ( ) b) Some people are controlling the growth of tourism in their communities. ( ) EXERCISE 29. Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to: a) Inexpensive __________________________ b) Increases ____________________________ EXERCISE 30. Choose a, b, or c, in each question below. Only one choice is correct. 1. Mass tourism in the mountains... a) Was a result of World War II. b) Occurred partly because people had more money. c) Helped to improve income and mobility. 2. Nowadays, mountain communities... a) Are happy to receive money from tourism. b) See tourism as an impossible problem. c) Are willing to pay well to visit new destinations. 39
  40. 40. 3. Tourism is not necessarily a problem if... a) It is integrated into the local culture. b) It is not accepted by the community but integrated into its culture. c) It can be avoided, causing minimal impact on the environment. 4. According to the text, we need to... a) Reduce people's desire to see new places. b) Restrict tourism in rural areas. c) Control the growth of tourism and how it develops. 40
  41. 41. Tourism. Tourist attractions are places of evoking interest which are impregnated with a high degree of historical significance as well as cultural value including original or built and is beautiful. These may also be the places evincing amusement opportunities. some instances of tourist attractions are historical places, zoos, museums, aquaria, buildings as well as structures, botanical gardens, forests, national parts, national and international railways, airways, theme parks, cultural pageants, carnivals, as well as exhibits of defense services including cultural events. Tourist attractions may include imaginary descriptions of various events happening in the country with their pictures as well as these descriptions will enable giving the desired fillip to these tourist attractions by viewers from worldwide. These can be exhibited in the form of exhibitions or trade fairs which will take care of all these attractions and its viewer ships. There can be a stall on the various ethnic communities prevailing in the country as well as their activities and their cultural values as well as hobbies. These will impregnate these exhibitions with the other forms of exhibits as outlined above to attract large viewer ships from worldwide. For these tourist attractions, a lot of promotional brochures and detailed informations from diverse activities outlined above can be provided to viewers for their easy viewing and also 41
  42. 42. appreciating the cultural heritage behind it for the purposes of enlightenment of knowledge on all round basis. These can be supplemented by a plethora of fast food restaurants, hotels, motels, or lobbies, and lounges. These tourist attractions can also include various memorials of top dignitaries which will enable proper assembling as well as assimilations of various subjects from varieties of angles for nurturing these tastes, choices, and preferences. Many companies can design a lot of brochures, plan, advertising activities, as well as bring about a whole range of products and services which will enable proper pricing of their goods and services from the point of view of making seasonal sales and marketing efforts for driving business growth and profitability. These tourist attractions places are also known as traps of tourists for the purposes of constructive marketing. To conclude, worldwide there are plenty of tourist attractions places which cannot be visited in one visit at a time. Therefore, you will have to plan meticulously your travel plans as well as your budget, from time to time, to visit all these places to entertain yourself as well as your families. There are a lot of travel agents who are interested in organizing your trips to all these places and such agents should be tapped. EXERCISE 31. Read the following questions and mark with an ―x‖ the correct option (a, b, c, d) according to the reading. 1. What are some examples of tourist attractions worldwide? A. museums, international railways and national parks. B. international railways, zoos and religious activities. C. zoos, historical places and homemade food. D. cultural pageants, a parrot and national railways. 42
  43. 43. 2. How can people get information about tourist attractions worldwide? A. eating homemade food at home. B. reading their special recipe. C. watching special issues in magazines. D. buying food at the corner store. 3. What is a tourist trap for? A. For the specific purpose of being happy. B. for the specific purpose of making marketing. C. for the specific purpose of doing food. D. for the specific purpose of drinking water. 4. Can people visit tourist attractions places in one visit at a time? A. no, they do not do it. B. no, they will not do it. C. no, they would not do it. D. no, they can not do it. 43
  44. 44. 5. Who is interested in making trips to tourist places worldwide? A. All the people worldwide. B. All the travel agents. C. All the teachers worldwide E.All the musicians worldwide. Eiffel Tower. • • • • • • This is a very famous land mark worldwide, it is in Paris downtown, France. It is named: Eiffel Tower , you can get to the top using an elevator or stairs. When you are onthe top, you have a beautiful view of Paris and the Seine river. This land mark was built with the tinking of a very important engineer , named : gustave eiffel . The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Now days is a famous icon in the world of tourism. 1 44
  45. 45. EXERCISE 32. France • Writing: Write a short paragraph about France. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Answer the following questions, use long answers. 1.Why is it The Eiffel tower a fomous landmark worldwide? 2.Write some important facts about this landmark. 3.Would you like to visit France and visit this monument ? Explain why 1 This glass pyramid is in the entrance of the famous Luovre Museum in Paris. The pyramid was build to conmemorate the year 2000 45 1
  46. 46. EXERCISE 33. France ANSWER THE QUESTIONS,USE LONG ANSWERS. 1.Where is The Louvre museum ? 2.What is The louvre museum famous worlwide for ? 3.Do you like to go to see this famous museum ? 1 46
  47. 47. Tourism worldwide. Around the world, there are many man-made constructions that are considered famous landmarks. Some, like the Great Wall of China, are leftovers from the seven wonders of the ancient world. Others, like Big Ben in London, are more modern than the wall, but still of significant historic importance. Most designate something about their country of origin that the world wants to remember. In France, with a rich history of culture and art, among the most famous landmarks are the Louvre art museum and the Eiffel tower. Marvels of ancient science including the pyramids in Egypt and the great sphinx as well as the aqueducts and great coliseum are among the most famous landmarks in the world. Other historical and famous landmarks include the Parthenon in Greece, red square in Moscow, and Westminster abbey in London. In recent years, sites have also become famous landmarks because they remind the world of the atrocities that occurred there including tienamen square in china and Auschwitz in Germany. Famous landmarks across the world sometimes become famous because of the developments to international society that occur there, as with the United Nations building in New York City. Or, it becomes a landmark because society never wants to forget the tragedy and horror of a location, like many battlefields, ground zero in New York City and the Nazi prison camps in Germany. 47
  48. 48. Other famous landmarks are famous simply because they exist and are different from other parts of the world. The Grand Canyon, redwood forests in California, the la brea tar pits and various meteor craters around the world fall into this category. These sites are world-famous landmarks because they represent an element of nature not seen often in the remainder of the world. In the United States, famous landmarks also include monuments made to the nation’s history and progress. among the most famous are those surrounding Washington D.C., the Vietnam wall, the Lincoln, Washington and Jefferson memorials, Arlington national cemetery, the national cathedral and, of course, the government buildings including the white house, the U.S. capitol and the pentagon. Outside of Washington, D.C., landmarks tend to be tied to the history of the region more so than the entire nation, with some notable exceptions including the statue of liberty in New York. For example, one of the most famous national landmarks in the midwest is the arch in st. Louis. The arch was constructed in the 20th century to commemorate the nation’s movement toward westward expansion and the role of the Mississippi river and st. Louis as the gateway to the west. T 115 48
  49. 49. EXERCISE 34. Mark with an ―x‖ the correct option (a,b,c,d) according to the text 1. Are there many landmarks worldwide? A. Yes, there is. B. yes, they are. C. yes, there are. D. yes there does. 2. Two examples of landmarks in France are: A. Eiffel tower and Louvre museum. B. Eiffel tower and Great Wall of China. C. Louvre museum and art museum. D .Louvre museum and Nile River. 3. Why is the grant canyon a landmark? A. Because it is nice. B. Because it is long. C. Because it represents Nature.. D.Because it is in Usa. 4. Are meteor craters land marks? 49
  50. 50. a. Yes, there are. b. yes, there is. c. yes, there does. d.yes, they are. 5. When was constructed the arck? a.In the twenty-one century. b.In the twenty century. c.In the twelve century. d.In the twenty first century. Going to Japan. To enter Japan, visas are not required for tourists or business visitors of many nationalities for stays of not more than 90 days. Travellers from Germany, Ireland or Mexico can stay up to six months without a visa. Travellers from Canada, France, Italy and the Usa can stay up to three months. South African and Australian visitors cannot enter without a visa. Passport and return tickets are required to get a visa. Visas are free. Taken from prism 50
  51. 51. EXERCISE 35. Mark with an ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text. 1. Italian and French tourists can stay in Japan for _______________________. A) Six months. B) three months. C) ninety months. D) more than ninety days 2. Visitors have to ______________________ in order to get a visa A) Pay some money. B) Stay more than six months. C) Stay less than three months. D) Present their passport and return ticket. 51
  52. 52. 3. People from Australia _________________________. A) Can stay without their visas. B) Pay for a business visa. C) Always need a visa D) Never need a visa 4. Would you like to visit Japan? A. Yes, I do B. Yes,I am C. Yes,I was D. Yes,I did 52
  53. 53. JOIN A PHOTOGRAPHIC SAFARI IN KENYA Choose a vacation that provides you with memories you’ll treasure for a lifetime. Our photographic safaris, which last two weeks, are designed for different levels of expertise. A beginner? Land package A: $ 2,500. For your first safari experience, choose the package which includes the most comfortable accommodations available, deliciously prepared meals, motor transportation, guides and an expert photographer to advise you. Experienced? Land package B: $1,800. For your next safari experience, choose the package that provides you with a true challenge! You’ll build your own shelter, prepare your own food, and track your animals on foot. Guide included. Call Adventure Travel Service at 1-800-555-8452 today. Our agents are available for consultation from 9 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. every day except on Sunday. Adapted from Grammar Strategies and Practice. 53
  54. 54. EXERCISE 36.Mark with an ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text. 1- The tour company offers tours according to the __________________. A) guides’ work B) prices of the tours C) length of the tours D) experience of the traveler 2- Package A will include ________________________. A) adequate accommodation B) building your own shelter C) tracking animals on foot D) just air transportation 3- One difference between packages A and B is _____________. A) the currency used to pay B) the company in charge C) the included guides D) the price 4-If you are interested in getting information, you should call ___________________. A) before 7:00 p.m. on weekdays B) Any time after 7:00 p.m. C) before 9 a.m. D) on Sunday 54
  55. 55. Dan’s latest adventures in South Africa. Hola hola! So I figured this would be a good email to send considering today and yesterday have been two of the most Interesting and intense days at the Treatment Action Campaign, which is my internship. Yesterday I arrived to be reminded that the executive of UNAIDS was speaking in Khayelitsha. This was a huge deal because UNAIDS is a powerful international org. which I think is based in Geneva and the fact that he was coming to speak in one of the poorest districts in Cape Town first got everyone excited and riled up. Before it started I tried to stay out of the way of the busy people in my office or offer some help. I ended up being asked to highlight some files which was more busy work than anything else. However, I left early to get into the big tent that had been set up and was surprised to see an extremely well organized set up. TAC is an AIDS activist organization and they have a new set of shirts yearly which they give out at demonstrations or rallies. Around the stage they had set up the old and new shirts and it was interesting to be able to see the issues that had changed from year to year just by looking at the text on a shirt. I sat in the 2nd row next to a journalist (media was all over the place). Finally, the woman running the speaking introduced everyone and made it clear that it was being run on a tight schedule. However, once a person stood up to speak that the crowd either recognized or appreciated rather than just clap loudly a woman in the crowd would cry out a chant which would immediately get picked up by the surrounding audience. This would then lead to dancing circles throughout the hastily thrown together chairs. 55
  56. 56. Eventually the speaker would settle everyone down by gaining their attention through the typical rally chant which begins with "Viva TAC Viva!" and the crowd replies strongly "Viiiva!" There's also a great chant which originated during apartheid protests - The speaker cries "Amonda!" then a powerful response - "Awaytu!" Although the spelling is definitely incorrect, it means "Power!" - "To the people!" This has to be said strongly because if not you'll be laughed out for saying 'power' in a weak way. One by one speaker came up. This included the Minister of Health, a man and a woman both openly living with HIV, a random guy that hopped on stage with a weird hoodie/doorag mix that rapped in Xhosa while pumping up the crowd with repeated rhymes to "Yes we can!" and finally the executive of UNAIDS. Instead of being the conservative head that has made it difficult in the past for AIDS organizations to succeed he congratulated Khayelitsha on the progress they had made and how they had become a model to the world. He also agreed to follow through with the fiscal needs of clinics treating HIV and TB patients. He was given loud applause and then the crowd, including myself, was fed with a bagged lunch consisting of two sandwiches - cheese and weird meat, a juice box, and an apple. Everyone was happy and excited and I ended my day becoming better friends with one of my co-workers who takes a big part in organizing the rallies. That was yesterday. Today I went to a rally in front of Parliament at 11. This rally was held because due to mismanaged budget issues, there is not enough money to care for newly diagnosed HIV patients only enough for those that have been currently taking the ARV's - Antiretrovirals. So there was a picket outside of Parliament. The day before I was given a shirt which boldly states HIV POSITIVE to wear to the rally. This shirt was created as a way to show solidarity and strength while diminishing the negative stigma for those with HIV. Before leaving I threw the shirt on and went into the city with 2 girls on the way to their internship. We split up and I walked the remainder by myself. I was given a few weird looks, some smiles, and a few people read the shirt out loud. The most remarkable reaction was at a point when I thought I had gotten lost in the city, an old black woman stopped me to tell me how courageous I was for wearing that shirt. She explained how her son was HIV positive and too scared and ashamed to wear the shirt. She explained more about her life and how the fact that there's now medicine to aid HIV has improved the life of people with AIDS and people affected by AIDS. I continuously thanked her without informing her that I was just a white kid wearing the shirt for a rally. I continued to walk on and thought that despite the fact I don't have HIV, by wearing the shirt it is a shout to others with HIV not to be worried and to boldly accept their life and know that they can still live enjoyably. 56
  57. 57. I walked with a slight strut after that little meeting and after asking a few people how to get to Parliament I found the picketing rally and joined in. I was aware of the fact I was the only white guy but still excitedly chimed in with everyone’s chants. There was at one point a chant that involved some dancing and while I stood on the outskirts of the circle clapping and singing, my co worker Amelia somehow scoped me out and brought me into the middle. I danced about laughing and clapping (making sure to be on rhythm) and attempted the dances that the people next to me were doing. I eventually backed out and rejoined the sign holding and yelling. The head of TAC, Zackie Achmat, who I have not met as of yet showed up and was talking to one of my co-workers, Gilad. I walked over and introduced myself. He was an extremely nice guy and I was lucky enough to get some pictures with him. After some speakers spoke out on the megaphone and a miscellaneous man from congress signed the memorandum the rally was basically over. I walked back to the train with another great experience etched into my mind. Ciao and mucho love. -Dan 57
  58. 58. EXERCISE 37. QUESTIONS. Paragraph 1 a. Why was it a good moment to send an e-mail? ______________________________________________________________ b. What kind of organisation is UNAIDS? ______________________________________________________________ c. Who was speaking in Khayelitsha? ______________________________________________________________ d. Did Daniel manage to get rid of his work? ______________________________________________________________ Paragraph 2 a. What was there on display at the tent? ______________________________________________________________ b. Where did Daniel sit when he was in the tent? ______________________________________________________________ c. How did people react when someone spoke at the meeting? ______________________________________________________________ d. What kind of chants did they sing 58
  59. 59. Paragraph 3 a. Who was given loud applause after speaking? ______________________________________________________________ b. What did the audience eat after the speeches? ______________________________________________________________ Paragraph 4 a. What kind of rally did Daniel attend? _______________________________________________________________ b. What time was the demonstration? _______________________________________________________________ c. What kind of T-shirt did Daniel wear at the demo? _______________________________________________________________ 59
  60. 60. d. Who did Daniel meet on the way to the demo? What did he/she tell him? _______________________________________________________________ e. How did Daniel feel wearing that T-shirt? ________________________________________________________________________________ Paragraph 5 a. What were the people at the rally doing? _______________________________________________________________ b. Who did Daniel take pictures of? _______________________________________________________________ c. What did Daniel do after the rally was over? _______________________________________________________________ d. Did Daniel enjoy that day? _______________________________________________________________ 60
  61. 61. EXERCISE 38. Vocabulary. Find words in the text that mean: A. To make agitated or angry (p1) _______________________________________________ b. Rapidly, in a hurry (p2) _______________________________________________ c. Jumped on, went on (p3) _______________________________________________ d. Financial plan, how much money an organisation will need or spend in a specific period of time (p4) ____________________________________________ e. Unfair treatment (p4) _______________________________________________ f. The rest or the part left of a way or distance (p4) _______________________________________________ g. Bravely, without fear (p4) _______________________________________________ h. To walk in a proud way trying to look important (p5) _______________________________________________ i. imprinted, engraved (p5) _______________________________________________ 61
  62. 62. An Elephant Ride. As the train left the station, Fogg noticed that Francis, one of the passengers from the ship Mongolia, was aboard. Francis, an English army officer, spent most of his time in India and knew the country as well as any local Indian. Fogg, however, was not interested in learning more about India. He was too busy figuring out how many days and hours of his round-the-world trip had gone by. "See those mountains?" asked Francis. "A few years ago, we would have met such delay here that you would have lost your bet. The railroad used to stop here and the passengers would have to cross the mountains on horses." "That wouldn't have ruined my travel plans at all," snapped Fogg. "I knew there would be certain problems." Just as he finished talking, the train came to a halt. The conductor ordered all the passengers to get off. They were in the middle of a forest! "Where are we?" asked Fogg. "At the village of Kholby," replied the conductor. "The railroad isn't finished. There is no track between here and Allahabad, a distance of 50 miles." "Then why do you sell tickets from Bombay to Calcutta?" protested Fogg. "With the understanding that passengers would find their own way of getting from Kholby to Allahabad." The reply was unbelievable to Fogg, but still, he had no choice and realized that arguing would get him nowhere either. He had better save his energy and find a way to Allahabad. Just then, Fogg saw a man with an elephant and decided to buy it at any cost. The owner didn't want to sell it at first but finally accepted two thousand pounds. Fogg then hired a young Indian man to serve as an elephant guide. Fogg and Francis sat on the elephant's neck; the Indian guide sat on its back. Together they started their journey to Allahabad. Taken from:;wap 62
  63. 63. EXERCISE 39. Answer the following questions: 1. On which two occasions did Fogg meet Francis? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 2. Where did Fogg board the train and where was his final destination? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 3. Why did the train come to a halt? _______________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ 4. What transport did Fogg arrange from Kholby to Allahabad? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 63
  64. 64. 5. What was Fogg doing when Francis was talking about India? _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Pyramids of Egypt. As soon as a Pharaoh came to power in ancient Egypt, his thoughts turned to one very important project. The building of a tomb to protect his body after death. Many Pharaohs chose pyramids to mark their tombs. Vast numbers of labourers and craftsmen were immediately set to work. First, the site was prepared and levelled. Large blocks of stone were brought along the River Nile by barges to the construction site. Once unloaded, they were dragged on sleds along a wooden pathway built on the desert sand. Armies of masons prepared the stones so they would fit together neatly. To raise heavy blocks, as the pyramid grew, ramps were built against the pyramid faces. The heavy work was done by peasants and slave labourers during the flood season when it was impossible to farm. Pyramid building was a long process. Work on the Great 64
  65. 65. Pyramids of Cheops lasted over thirty years. Inside the tomb chamber of the pyramid, artists and sculptors produced magnificent paintings, carvings and statues of the gods and the tomb's owner. The god Osiris was often shown watching, as the jackal-headed god, Anubis, brought the dead person before him for the judgement ceremony. Egyptians believed that their Pharaoh was the son of the Sun God, and that when he dies he would join the Sun God and sail with him in a boat across the skies each day. Not all Pharaohs built pyramids. Elaborate non-pyramid tombs were also built, many in the Valley of Kings. Other Pharaohs were commemorated by temples, huge statues called colossi, and obelisks. Taken from:;wap EXERCISE 40. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. Why did Pharaohs build pyramids? ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ 2. How were the large stones brought to the construction site? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 3. Who did the heavy work and when? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 65
  66. 66. 4. What can be found inside the tomb chamber? ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 5. Did all Pharaohs build pyramids? In what other ways could a Pharaoh be commemorated? ______________________________________________________ 117 66
  67. 67. THIRD UNIT JOB DEMAND. THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: Identification and comparison of job demand in Costa Rica and in English speaking countries. Functions: • Evaluation of content related to jobs. (Jobs and human rights, safety rules, etc) • Identification and validation of different aspects related to jobs. • Production of interviews and reports about job demand. • Interpretation of complex sentences and texts about JOBS. TOPIC: JOB DEMAND IN COSTA RICA. LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Summary of texts, ideas, etc.  Production of interviews and reports.  Production of ads, summaries and resumes 67
  68. 68. It’s March 20, 2004. Miss Durán is applying for a job. Mr. Taylor: Now tell me Miss Durán, what experience do you have in the fashion industry? Margaret: Well, I went to the School of Design, and at present I’m the manager of Lord’s Clothing Store. Mr. Taylor: Have you ever worked as a fashion designer? Margaret: No, I haven’t. Mr. Taylor: And how long have you been at your present job? Margaret: I have been working there since March 12, 2003. Mr. Taylor: Why do you want to quit? Margaret: Because I’m not learning anything new. Mr. Taylor: When can you begin? Margaret: Immediately. Mr. Taylor: Very well, Miss Durán. You can start a part time job right now, and after 3 months you should get a full-time job. Margaret: Thank you very much. 68
  69. 69. EXERCISE 41.Mark with a ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text. 1-What kind of interview did she have? A ___________ interview. A) Learning. B) School C) News D) job 2-How long has she been at her present job? For ____________. A) Ten years B) about one year C) about two years D) more than five years 3-Which position does she currently have? She’s a _______________. A) store designer B) store manager C) School manager D) Clothes designer 69
  70. 70. 4-Why does she want a new job? Because ____________. A) She wants to learn more B) she needs more Money C) she hates working D) her salary is low EXERCISE 42. Read the ads. Choose the best alternative to answer each question. HELP WANTED ELECTRICIAN: Part-time, experience, benefits. good with Call Mr. NURSES: Part–time, with or without experience. Call 869-7351. Brown. 933-1264. ENGINEER: With experience, 4 weeks SALESPEOPLE: Full-time and part-time, vacation. Call Ms. Wong. 765-4200. with or without experience. Call 645-9763. FLIGHT ATTENDANTS: With or without WAITER/WAITRESS: Full-time and part- experience. Training program. Call 359- time, with our without experience, training 5802. program. See Mr. Mazzela. La Strada Restaurant. MECHANICS: Part-time and full-time, with experience, excellent salary. Write Mr. Johnson, 258 Park Road, Winfield, N.Y. 10820 H ttp:// 70
  71. 71. 1-Which occupation requires a training program? The _________________. A) Nurse B) mechanic C) Salesperson D) Flight attendant 2-Which occupation offers good benefits? The one for a (n) __________ A) salesperson B) electrician C) mechanic D) nurse 3-Which option offers both, a full and a part time job, at the same time? The one for a (n) ___________________. A) Nurse B) Engineer C) Mechanic D) flight attendant 71
  72. 72. 4-How can an electrician contact Mr. Brown? By __________________. A) writing electronic mail B) writing a letter C) sending a fax D) making a call For recent college graduates or professionals beginning a new job search, a job hunt can be an exhausting process. One of the reasons is that, according to the experts, to be successful in your job search, you have to "market" yourself, and many people just don’t know how. According to Loribeth Dalton, director of career services for The Art Institute of Las Vegas, "The job search is very similar to sales and marketing. To be successful you must follow a linear strategic plan." For example, says Dalton, start with the two of the most important building blocks for a successful job search: the resume and cover letter. "The purpose of a resume is to tell an employer what a person has done in the past. The cover letter tells the prospective employer what skills and abilities the job seeker has that will allow them to be successful in the future with their company," she says. "Each cover letter should be crafted to be very specific to the job applied for." 72
  73. 73. Michael Courteau, professional development instructor at The Art Institutes International Minnesota recommends never having a resume longer than one page. Anything beyond that won’t get read. "Conventional wisdom is that most resumes are read, on average, for eight seconds, so adding another page to your resume becomes unnecessary, since you’ll only be placing an even greater textual demand on the reader’s eight seconds," he says. If you have limited work experience, like a new college grad, consider creating a functional resume that emphasizes skills. For example, says Courteau, near the top of your resume you would list such skills as knowledge of specific software, bilingual skills, or relevant volunteer experience. In your cover letter, says Kirsten Wright, graduate employment advisor at The Art Institute of Washington, "point out the strengths of your resume and direct a potential employer to things that you cannot explicitly state in your resume but that make you stand out." In both resumes and cover letters, always use high quality paper. Stay away from slang language and avoid using contractions. You want to present yourself as a professional, even if you’ve never held a formal job before. Find out if your school has a career services department, and if so, ask for guidance. "That’s what they’re there for," says Diana Graves-Sharple, director of career services of The Art Institute of Atlanta. Graves-Sharple also recommends seeking out friends, family, professional organizations, trade journals, job boards, recruiters, staffing agencies and industry specific directories to help in your job search. "Research your city, or the city you’d like to work in, the job market, and know the industry and the companies that you are contacting for potential employment," she advises. 73
  74. 74. With the entire job seeking information available on the Web -- including Career,,, and -- are today’s graduates in better shape than a generation ago to find a job? "Overall, I’d have to say yes," says Jennifer Abramski, assistant director of career services of The Art Institute of Seattle. But, she adds, there are common mistakes she sees over and over again. For example, graduates need to respond quickly to job leads, i.e. within a day. They need to return a potential employers’ call immediately and be on time for interviews. Abramski adds, "five minutes late is not on time." Be enthusiastic. Often the recent graduate still has the "laid back" college mentality, but this doesn’t work well in a job interview situation. "Employers often end up thinking you’re not interested in the job or the company," she says. Remember, a first job is not necessarily a dream job. But it does add to your professional experience. All these experts agree, thank you notes for an interview need to be sent within one day of an interview. Thank you notes "can tip the scales in your favor," says Kristin Wright. "When all other skill sets and experiences are equal, this can be the factor that gets you hired," she adds. Thank you notes also give you the opportunity to point something out about yourself that you didn't make clear during the interview process. When it’s time to sit back and wait for the job interview calls to come in, remember to listen to the outgoing message of your home answering machine or cell phone. Edie Beattie, career services advisor at The Art Institute of Charlotte, remembers calling a graduate who was actively job searching and hearing an outgoing message of "What`s Up?" and then beep. If a potential employer hears that, your job offer could be doomed. So whether you’re a new college graduate or an experienced professional who has been recently downsized, the guidelines are the same. Write a good resume and cover letter, be organized and keep track of who you interview with, write thank-you notes and maintain a professional image, even if you’re just at home waiting for the phone to ring. You never know. Courtesy of ARA Content 74
  75. 75. EXERCISE 43. TRUE OR FALSE. 1. A resume describes how you can contribute to the company True: False: in the future. 2. A different cover letter should be written for each job you True: False: apply for. 3. Resumes are usually looked at only very briefly. True: False: 4. A functional resume mainly describes your experience. True: False: 5. Resumes and cover letters should use only formal language. True: False: 6. Interviews require a similar mentality to college. True: False: 7. Thank you notes give you the chance to add to what you said True: False: in the interview. TAKEN FROM: Reading Room Home. EXERCISE 44. Answer the following questions: 1. What is the purpose of a resume? ________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why should a cover letter be crafted? _______________________________________________________________________ 3. What is a functional resume? _______________________________________________________________________ 75
  76. 76. 4. What do people have to avoid in a resume? ________________________________________________________________________ 5. What does not work well in a job interview situation? ________________________________________________________________________ 6. What do thank you notes give? _______________________________________________________________________ 7. Have you been to a job interview? _______________________________________________________________________ 76
  77. 77. Interviewer: So, why do you want to be a computer programmer? Jason: Well, I don't like working in a fast food restaurant, and I want to make more money. Interviewer: I see. Do you have any experience? Jason: No, but I'm a fast learner. Interviewer: What kind of computer do you use? Jason: Computer? Uhm, let me see. I can use a Mac. I also used Windows 95 once. Interviewer: That's good. Jason: May I ask a question? Interviewer: Please, go ahead. Jason: Will I be able to find a job as a computer programmer? Interviewer: Umm, err, ahh.... EXERCISE 45. Mark with a ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text. 1-What job does Jason want? a. Cook b. Computer Programmer c. Cameraman 2-Where does Jason work? a. In a restaurant b. For a computer company c. At a school 3-Why does Jason want a new job? a. he's bored b. he quit his job c. he wants more money 77
  78. 78. 4-Does Jason have programming experience? a. yes b. no 5-Jason is a slow learner. a. true b. false 6-What kind of computer does Jason use? a. a Mac b. Unix c. Amiga 7-Has Jason ever used Windows 95? a.yes b. no 8-Will Jason get a new job? a. yes b. no c. I don't know. Copyright (C) 1997 by Jim Schweizer ( This quiz is part of the HTML-Only Self-Study Quizzes which is part of Activities for ESL Students, a project by The Internet TESL Journal. 78
  79. 79. Read the following job advertisements: 1. Needed: Full time secretary position 2. Are you looking for a part time job? We available. Applicants should have at least require 3 part time shop assistants to work 2 years experience and be able to type during the evening. No experience required, 60 words a minute. No computer skills applicants should between 18 and 26. Call 366 required. Apply in person at United 76564 for more information. Business Ltd., 17 Browning Street 3. Computer trained secretaries: Do you 4. Teacher Needed: Tommy's Kindergarten have experience working with needs 2 teacher/trainers to help with classes computers? Would you like a full time from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Applicants should have position working in an exciting new appropriate licenses. For more information visit company? If your answer is yes, give us Tommy's Kindergarten in Leicester Square No. a call at 56 5. Part Time work available: We are 6. University positions open: The University of looking for retired adults who would like Cumberland is looking for 4 teaching assistants to work part time at the weekend. to help with homework correction. Applicants Responsibilities include answering the should have a degree in one of the following: telephone and giving customer's Political information. For more information contact History. us by calling Science, Please Religion, contact Economics or University of the Cumberland for more information. 79
  80. 80. EXERCISE 47. Comprehension Questions Which position is best for these people? Choose ONLY ONE position for each person. A. Jane Madison. Jane recently retired and is looking for a part time position. She would like to work with people and enjoys public relation work. 1-The best job for Jane is __________________ Jack Anderson. Jack graduated from the University of Trent with a degree in Economics two years ago. He would like an academic position. 2-The best job for Jack is____________________ Margaret Lillian. Margaret is 21 years old and would like a part time position to help her pay her university expenses. She can only work in the evenings. 3-The best job for Margaret is _______________________________ Alice Fingelhamm. Alice was trained as a secretary and has six years of experience. She is an excellent typist but does not know how to use a computer. She is looking for a full time position. 4-The best job for Alice is __________________ Peter Florian. Peter went to business school and studied computer and secretarial skills. He is looking for his first job and would like a full time position. 5-The best job for Peter is ________________ Vincent san George. Vincent loves working with children and has an education license from the city of Birmingham. He would like to work with young children. 6-The best job for Vincent is _________________ 80
  81. 81. Looking for a Job It is 7.30pm. Emma phones a recruitment agency and leaves the following message on its answer phone: Emma: Hello. I wonder if you can help me. My name is Emma Heath. I am looking for a job as an administrator. At the moment I am working at a solicitor as a clerk. Do you know Blame, Payne and Co.? I have been working there for about two years but there doesn´t seem to be any chance of promotion, so I´m trying to find something else. The other thing is, I´m moving soon, so I´m looking for a job in Leicester. I would prefer it if it was in the city centre really. My current address is 23 Terraced Walk, Derby, DE23 3GP, but I´m going to be moving out on the 30th, and then I´ll be living with my mum until I´ve found a house to rent in Leicester. After the 30th you´ll be able to contact me at my mum´s. Her address is 8 Cedars Lane, Swinscote, and Derby, DE40 9UR. By the way, my mobile number is 079421 645784. If you do ring me on my mobile, please can you ring after six because I´ll be at work all day and my boss doesn´t know that I´m planning on leaving. My current salary is 11K per annum and I would like to find something for at least thirteen or more. I´ll bring my CV in to your office once I´ve finished updating it. Oh yes, last month I went on a four-day intensive first aid course, which makes me fully qualified to give first aid.? Taken from:;wap 81
  82. 82. EXERCISE 47. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. Who is the paragraph about? _______________________________________________________________ 2. Why does she leave the message? _______________________________________________________________ 3. What job does she do at the moment? _______________________________________________________________ 4. What job would she like to do? _______________________________________________________________ 5. Name the company that she works for. _______________________________________________________________ 6. How long has she been working there? _______________________________________________________________ 7. Why does she want to leave? _______________________________________________________________ 8. Which city is she moving to? _______________________________________________________________ 82
  83. 83. 9. What is her address at the moment? _______________________________________________________________ 10. Is she planning to buy a house in Leicester? _______________________________________________________________ 11.What is her mum’s address? _______________________________________________________________ 12. When can she be contacted there? _______________________________________________________________ 13. When can she be contacted on her mobile number? _______________________________________________________________ 14. How much would she like her salary to increase by? _______________________________________________________________ 15. What is a CV? _______________________________________________________________ 16. What do the letters CV stand for? _______________________________________________________________ 83
  84. 84. 17. Is Emma’s boss upset that she will be leaving? _______________________________________________________________ 18. In your opinion, is Emma right to look for another job? Why? /Why not? _______________________________________________________________ 19. Do you think she will be happier living in Leicester? Why? /Why not? ________________________________________________________________________ 84
  85. 85. FOURTH UNIT CAREERS THIS UNIT INTRODUCES YOU TO GET INFORMATION ABOUT: Identification and comparison of careers worldwide. Functions: • Evaluation of content related to careers. • Identification and validation of different aspects related to careers. • Production of interviews and reports about careers. • Interpretation of complex sentences and texts about careers. TOPIC: CAREERS. LEARNING STRATEGIES:  Summary of texts, ideas, etc.  Production of interviews and reports.  Production of ads, summaries and resumes 85
  86. 86. Careers. What are these jobs like? Pharmacists give medicine to people when a doctor says that they need it. They tell people how to use the medicine correctly.Pharmacists are experts in medicine and its side effects. They sometimes help doctors choose which medicines to give patients. Pharmacists also warn doctors if the doctors have asked their patients to take any medicine that might hurt their patients.Sometimes, pharmacists mix the medicine 86
  87. 87. themselves. Most often, though, they use medicines that are already made.Pharmacists most often work in drug stores. These stores are clean and have a lot of light. Many pharmacists must stand while they work. Pharmacists must wear gloves and masks when they work with dangerous chemicals. Some pharmacists work at night or on weekends. This is because sick people may need medicine at any time. Most pharmacists work about 40 hours a week, but some work longer hours. EXERCISE 48. Write a five line composition about the reading above. ―Pharmacists‖ Use your own words. Pharmacists. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 87
  88. 88. Engineering technicians. Engineering technicians solve technical problems. Some help engineers and scientists do research and development. They build or set up equipment. They do experiments. They collect data and calculate results. They might also help to make a model of new equipment. Some technicians work in quality control. They check products, do tests, and collect data. In manufacturing, they help to design and develop products. They also find ways to produce things efficiently. Most technicians focus on one type of engineering. For example, some focus on civil engineering. They help engineers to plan bridges and roads. They might also get data about traffic. Other technicians focus on electrical engineering. They help to design or test electronics. Most engineering technicians work about 40 hours a week. They work in labs, offices, factories, or on construction sites. Some might be exposed to dangerous materials. EXERCISE 49. Write a five line composition about the reading above. ―Engineering technicians‖ Use your own words. ―Engineering technicians‖ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 88
  89. 89. Pilots fly airplanes and helicopters in order to get various jobs done. Most pilots fly people and cargo from place to place. Some pilots test new planes, fight fires, do police work, or rescue people who are hurt or in danger.Before they take off, pilots plan their flight carefully. They check their plane to make sure that it is working properly. They also make sure that baggage or cargo has been loaded correctly. They check the weather forecast to see if they will run into any bad weather on their trip. They then decide what route they should take and how high and fast they should fly. Takeoff and landing are the hardest parts. Pilots must be especially careful during those times. The rest of the flight is fairly easy, if the weather is good. Planes have indicators to tell pilots if their trip is going according to plan. These indicators show whether there is enough fuel, whether the weather is changing, and whether the plane is on course. Pilots must check these indicators often during the trip to be sure that all is going well. If problems come up, the pilots take steps to solve them. The law says that pilots who work for an airline cannot fly more than 100 hours a month or more than 1,000 hours a year. Most airline pilots fly about 65-75 hours a month, and work another 75 hours a month at other parts of the job. When they are flying, airline pilots must very often stay away from home overnight. Airlines have flights at all hours of the day and night. This means that airline pilots often are asked to work odd hours. Pilots who do not work for the airlines can have unusual work schedules, too. For example, they may fly 30 hours one month and 90 hours the next. Most of them do not have to stay away from home overnight, but they may have to work odd hours. Pilots who fly very long distances may have "jet lag." This is fatigue caused by moving through different time zones. The work of pilots who test new planes may be dangerous. Pilots who work on farms or who help police and fire fighters also might get hurt on their jobs. Flying does not involve much hard physical work. However, pilots can feel a lot of stress because they know that they are responsible for the safety of their passengers. They must be careful and quick to react if something goes wrong. 89
  90. 90. EXERCISE 50. Answer the following questions about the reading above. 1. What is the topic of this reading? _______________________________________________________________ 2-what do pilots do? _______________________________________________________________ 3-what does ―jet lag‖ mean? _______________________________________________________________ 4-How are pilots time table like? _______________________________________________________________ 5-would you like to be a pilot? Why? _______________________________________________________________ 6-is this occupation dangerous? Why? _______________________________________________________________ 7-what do you think about this job? _______________________________________________________________ 90
  91. 91. EXERCISE 51. Write a five line paragraph about pilots. PILOTS. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 91
  92. 92. The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Computer databases that store information on customers, inventory, and projects are found in nearly every industry. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the system as needed. Database administrators often plan security measures. Data integrity, backup, and security are critical parts of the job. Database administrators work in offices or labs. They usually work about 40 hours a week. But evening or weekend work may need to be done to meet deadlines. Telecommuting— working from home—is common for computer professionals. Like other workers who spend long periods in front of a computer, database administrators can suffer eyestrain, back discomfort, and hand and wrist problems. TAKEN FROM: BLS Career Information Home Computer Network Administrator. Read the ad. Choose the correct alternative to complete each sentence. Seeks experienced computer technician for maintenance and administration of Internet servers and customer service work stations. Must have experience with high traffic, mission critical servers. Must be available 24 hours, 7 days a week for emergency response. Windows NT Server experience is a MUST. Linux experience is desired, but not required. English speaking is a MUST. La Aurora, Heredia. Sent resume to FROM DIARIO LA NACION. 92
  93. 93. EXERCISE 52. Mark with ―x‖ the best option (a,b,c,d) according to the text. 1. One of the requirements for the job is to be able to ___________________. A) speak English B) serve technicians C) critique internet high traffic D) desire internet and its servers 2. The technician has to be available to work _____________ week. A) 24 hours every day B) 7 emergency days C) 7 hours of a week D) 24 weeks 3. The technician must be qualified to work with __________. A) traffic B) customers C) administrators D) windows NT server 4. The applicants are asked to send their resumes by _____________. A) fax B) car C) mail D) E-mail 93
  94. 94. Part Time Jobs. 1 As teenagers enter high school, they often strive to get every freedom available to them. They want to declare their independence from their parents. One of the most common ways to do this is to find a part-time job so that they can begin earning their own spending money. There are several different types of jobs available to teenagers. By researching these types of jobs, teenagers will be able to find the ones best suited to them and will be more likely to be successful. 2 The first type of part-time job is in the food service industry. These jobs are found at fast food and other restaurants. People working in the food service industry can be servers, cooks, dishwashers, hosts, table clearers and food 'prepares'. Generally, most of these positions require no previous experience because the managers like to train their employees to the intricacies of their establishment. Since this is a service industry, there is a lot of contact with the customers. 3 Manual labors can be physically exhausting. This involves construction, factory work, farming, and lawn care among other things. Part time jobs in this industry often don't require previous experience, but they do require people with a knack for the required skills. For example, people working in construction need to be detail-oriented. 4 Teenagers can also be seen working in shopping malls and other stores selling products. Often, they are selling clothing, shoes and other accessories 94