The Evolution of Value Chains and
Recycling Opportunities in the Informal
Management of Municipal Solid Waste of
Kaduna Me...
Outline
• Background
• Aim and objectives
• Methodology
• Kaduna metropolis
• The informal sector
• Waste Management Servi...
Kaduna Metropolis – background
• Location: 100 31" 23' N; 70 26" 25‘ E
• Population: 760, 084
• Area: 3, 080 Km2
• Local G...
Kaduna metropolis – facts n figures
 Kaduna is an evolving city
 Rapid urbanization
 Waste contractors have no technica...
Kaduna Metropolis, the current strategy
• Waste collected by contractors or the
informal sector
• 49 waste contractors as ...
Categories of Informal sector in
Kaduna Metropolis
• Door-to-door waste collectors (barrow
boys)
• Street waste pickers (w...
Recyclables
Recyclables
Solid waste Value chains – the evolutionary
trend
Plastics
• Status - Currently active
• Value chain actors: street sweepe...
Plastic conversion
Solid waste Value chains – the
evolutionary trend
Scrap metal
• Status – currently active
• Value chain actors – scavenger...
Scrap Metal Conversion
Lead conversion
Solid waste Value chains – the
evolutionary trend
Organic matter
• Status – passive
• Value chain actors - value-pickers/ ...
Dynamics of solid waste value chains in Kaduna metropolis
Iron & Steel
Lead
METALS

Ingots
Sheets
Billets

Brass
Copper
Al...
Conclusions and Recommendations
• Plastics, scrap metals and organic waste are
potential viable value chains in Kaduna
• P...
Thanks for Listening
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The Evolution of Value Chains and Recycling Opportunities in the Informal Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

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Third world countries, Nigeria in particular have become a dumping ground for end-of-use technologies and equipment from the developed world. Although the country is oil rich, it suffers from energy deprivation with erratic power/ fuel supply. The country relies on exports of its resources for foreign exchange thereby depriving local businesses the raw materials required for industrial development. Kaduna is an emerging city undergoing rapid urbanization. Degradable and combustible solid wastes, metal scraps and plastics can be separated at source and use as raw materials for local industries. The current strategy and infrastructure for solid waste management are grossly inadequate. The challenge therefore is to develop a sustainable strategy for optimized energy generation and resource recovery from the deprived slums to the affluent districts of the metropolis. This paper reviewed challenges of current strategies and proposed an integrated sustainable solid waste approach for the city. The community based approach emphasizes separation of waste at source and involved the use of anaerobic digestion and incineration for energy generation with the residues used as soil fertilizer. Central to the proposed strategy is the recycling market and the informal waste collectors. The informal sector can move up the waste hierarchy and optimize the value of end-of-waste resources while the recycling market is the place to recover value from various waste products. The strategy encourages integration and will eliminate the need for waste contractors, landfills or waste dumps.

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The Evolution of Value Chains and Recycling Opportunities in the Informal Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria

  1. 1. The Evolution of Value Chains and Recycling Opportunities in the Informal Management of Municipal Solid Waste of Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria By Abdullahi Yusuf Rigasa -KASU, Nigeria Badamasi, Abdul Gambo – Kadpoly, Nigeria Abdulkarim, Bala Isah - UniAbuja, Nigeria
  2. 2. Outline • Background • Aim and objectives • Methodology • Kaduna metropolis • The informal sector • Waste Management Services in Kaduna Metropolis • Solid waste Value chains – the evolutionary trend • Solid Waste Value Chain Management - Proposed Strategy • Conclusion and Recommendation
  3. 3. Kaduna Metropolis – background • Location: 100 31" 23' N; 70 26" 25‘ E • Population: 760, 084 • Area: 3, 080 Km2 • Local Governments: 23 • The people: multi-ethnic/multi-religious • Environmental Assets: Human diversity n Heritage, Biodiversity, arable soil, rivers n lakes, beautiful landscapes etc • Environmental challenges: urbanization, waste management, pollution, loss of soil fertility n communal conflicts, public health n sanitation etc
  4. 4. Kaduna metropolis – facts n figures  Kaduna is an evolving city  Rapid urbanization  Waste contractors have no technical background in WMS  N 110 million/monthly on WMS  Inadequate waste management (WM) infrastructure  No formal policy on sustainable WM  The need for Sustainability in WM  Waste could be a resource
  5. 5. Kaduna Metropolis, the current strategy • Waste collected by contractors or the informal sector • 49 waste contractors as @ 2011 • Collection by contractors is free • Informal sector abound but charge a fee • Waste dumps too far • Illegal waste dumps used for disposal • Resource recovery by informal sector • Little cost/resource recovery activities
  6. 6. Categories of Informal sector in Kaduna Metropolis • Door-to-door waste collectors (barrow boys) • Street waste pickers (women, almajiri) • Itinerant waste buyers (collect sorted wasted for cash or barter) • Scavengers – recover end-of-waste resources for recycling
  7. 7. Recyclables
  8. 8. Recyclables
  9. 9. Solid waste Value chains – the evolutionary trend Plastics • Status - Currently active • Value chain actors: street sweepers, scavengers → middlemen/ converters → plastic manufacturers • Price/ value is demand driven • Current prices N20/ kg for lowden N40/kg for Highden (US$1=N155)
  10. 10. Plastic conversion
  11. 11. Solid waste Value chains – the evolutionary trend Scrap metal • Status – currently active • Value chain actors – scavengers, itinerant buyers →middlemen/ converters→ steel rolling mills • Price is quality, quantity and demand driven N20/kg for iron/steel N600/kg for copper N100/kg for aluminium N150/kg for lead
  12. 12. Scrap Metal Conversion
  13. 13. Lead conversion
  14. 14. Solid waste Value chains – the evolutionary trend Organic matter • Status – passive • Value chain actors - value-pickers/ scavengers, compost plant operators and waste contractors • Value chain Components – food waste, green waste and Biowaste • No value • No price
  15. 15. Dynamics of solid waste value chains in Kaduna metropolis Iron & Steel Lead METALS Ingots Sheets Billets Brass Copper Aluminium LDPE PET PVC Co-mingled waste Sorted Waste NON METALS Plastics PP Pelletized raw mats PS HDPE Food waste ORGANIC Waste stream Value addition (sorting/ partial processing) Green waste Bio-waste ion ) dit ring ad u Waste resources alue fact V anu (M Biogas Compost Waste products
  16. 16. Conclusions and Recommendations • Plastics, scrap metals and organic waste are potential viable value chains in Kaduna • Plastics and scrap metals are currently active while organic waste is inactive • Government intervention is critical in stability of plastics and scrap metals • Anaerobic digesters and composting plants are required for activation of the organic waste value chain
  17. 17. Thanks for Listening

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