Week Iii (Middle Period)


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Week Iii (Middle Period)

  1. 1. History of English Literature Middle English Period (  1150 – 1400)
  2. 2.  The Disputes <ul><li>1066 Edward the Confessor died </li></ul><ul><li>William, Duke of Normandy in France demanded the throne </li></ul><ul><li>He landed in Hastings </li></ul><ul><li>In 1066 William was enthroned </li></ul>
  3. 3.  The Importance of William’s Invasion <ul><ul><li>The penetration of Norman Royal to England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most English Royal families died in the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French became dominant language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norman people didn’t want to study English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French  employers >< British  employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small number but powerful  local dialect “Anglo-Normandy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Until the mid 13th century </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4.  The Return of English Language <ul><ul><ul><li>Dispute between British Royal families & French Royal families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The French dialect (Anglo-Normandy) gradually faded away & completely disappeared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>English language had vast opportunity in use (especially among the employers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the 14th century English regained its former position </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developing into Middle English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many words borrowed from French </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early literary works reflected the history of English language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formerly, books & literary works (poems) were written in French </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5.  Early works (poetry) <ul><li>English was not accepted amongst the rich employers </li></ul><ul><li>Authors did not get material incentive, but spiritual support </li></ul><ul><li>The monks  working hard in the midst of society  disseminate gospels & tenets </li></ul><ul><li>Many works based on the Bible born: Ormulum (  1225), Ancren Riwle  how to live based on Religious values, fables containing lessons: The Owl and the Nightingale (  1195), Brut (  1200) by Layamon not contain religious tenets but history. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Next……. <ul><li>Ballads  spread from mouth to mouth  unknown author & origin, e.g. Robin Hood </li></ul><ul><li>Many works written in French began to be translated into English  mostly romance (a story about enormous events which most unlikely happen in real life). Themes: love, knight & religion  centred on a perfect, clean, brave person who could respect women, willing to help the helpless & loyal to employers & companions. E.g.: Chanson de Roland . Some others from Greece & Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Stories of King Arthur: Sir Gawain, Green Knight , Cleanness, Patience & The Pearl (humanistic & realistic lyrics which revealed a father’s pain toward his dead daughter) </li></ul>
  7. 7.  The Birth of New Artists <ul><li>The resurgence of English became the peak time for English literary period </li></ul><ul><li>Geoffrey Chaucer (  1340 – 1400) main artist </li></ul><ul><li>Troilus & Criseyde  popular love story in the Middle Age </li></ul><ul><li>Canterbury Tales  the biggest work  depicting various types of people in the society, from Oxford scholars to farmers.  tends to be realism  big change in English literatures </li></ul><ul><li>William Langland (born in 1332)  Piers Plowman  intended for common people, not entertaining. </li></ul>
  8. 8.  New Prosaic period <ul><ul><ul><li>John Wyclif (  1324 – 1384), a religion leader & scholar, popular as the translator of the Bible. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The translation did not only give vast influence in morals but also in the language. This helped the making of standard English. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was helped with the prose: Voyage and Travail of Sir John Maundeville or Mandeville’s Travels </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9.  French Influences <ul><li>Thousands of words borrowed </li></ul><ul><li>Types of literary work: romance on its mood, style and form </li></ul><ul><li>Bright mood and bright and simple language </li></ul>
  10. 10.  Drama <ul><ul><li>Formerly in churches as the medium for speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The monks’ speeches were in Latin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Illustrations were needed to make people far more understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The story about the birth of Jesus Christ, the Crucifixion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin was gradually replaced with English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows were moved to church yard & road </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common people could join </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secular tendencies interfered amongst the “strict” religious tenets under church’s supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinds: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Miracles”: about Saints </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mysteries” taking themes from the Bible </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread out in England since the 13th century. </li></ul></ul>