SlideShare a Scribd company logo
HOW IMPORTANT IS THE CONCEPT OF DEIXIS TO LANGUAGE WRITTEN
                     FOR PERFORMANCE?

                               By Yusuf Kurniawan



I. Introduction

Language is one of the most fundamental aspects of human’s life. Without

language one can not communicate properly. Since the antiquity or prehistoric

time people had used language for communication. However, the form of the

language is of course different from what we recognise today. Every language

has been developing from time to time. They underwent evolution that people

never realised. Even we could not imagine how languages become so complex

as we speak today. Every tribe, nation and country has their own languages. Let

alone, there are also a lot of vernaculars in every country that make languages

become more varied and complex. We probably could not trace back how the

languages exist at present were previously formed and shaped.

     Besides the rapid progression of languages in the world, communication

devices like telegraph and telephone also have been diffusing so swiftly. People

now can communicate very easily and quickly. However, the essence of the

communication is actually not the devices but the message or information

delivered through language. In practice, language is used by people ‘to refer to

persons and things, directly or indirectly’. The first is called direct reference and

the latter is called indirect reference (Mey,1996:89). Such references are used

both in spoken and written language.



II. Background to the Essay Problem
2



Spoken and written language sometimes can be ambiguous to a hearer or an

addressee. He/she might misinterpret what a speaker says. Such case is often

related with deixis. The use of reference in an utterance that is not clear or

lacking of description often makes a hearer confused or even not understand.

Why? Because unclear reference can cause the utterance delivered by the

speaker ambiguous. In English there are finite and infinite nouns that both can

serve as references. Sometimes it is easy to understand a context of discourse if

the reference is clear, but sometimes it is difficult to comprehend because of the

lack of description in the reference. Besides, a hearer occasionally is not familiar

with the term, word or expression used by a speaker. And one might ignore the

use of finite nouns instead of the infinite ones. Moreover, one often forgets

especially in spoken language he/ she has a partner, that is the hearer. Or if it is

written, the writer has readers who read his writing. So, sometimes the speaker

has considered that the hearer has enough knowledge background and

reference about what he is talking about or what he is writing. If the hearer does

not have enough background of knowledge toward what is talked about, then it

makes the language uttered more difficult to understand. However, in language

written for performance, it is still not clear if the concept of deixis is important or

not, influential or not. So that in this essay I am going to analyse how important

the concept of deixis to language written for performance is. I shall use other

language, besides English, i.e. Indonesian as comparative examples.



III. Analysis

‘Deixis means different things to different people’ (Cruse,2000:319). Or according

to Davis (2000) ‘deixis is equivalent to pointing. It derives from the same Greek
3



root that occurs in Digit, Index, Indexical namely expressions whose reference is

a function of the context of their utterance’. Some deictic forms like here, now,

you, this and that are considered some of the most obvious linguistic elements

which require contextual information for their interpretation (Brown & Yule,

2000:27). In his Meaning in Language (2000) Alan Cruse introduces that there

are five main types of deixis: person deixis, spatial deixis, temporal deixis, social

deixis, and discourse deixis.     In order to be able to interpret elements of

discourse such as deixis, it is important to know who the speaker and the hearer

are, and also the time and place or location of the making of the discourse

(Brown & Yule, 2000:27). So in the rest of the analysis I am going to explain

further about deixis, especially the main types of deixis, in relation to language

written for performance.



III. 1 Person deixis

Person deixis refers to the use of pronouns of first, second and third person. The

first person is the speaker, and the second person is the addressee or the hearer.

While the third person is neither the speaker nor the hearer (Cruse,2000:319). In

this case we might look at the table below which shows the comparison between

personal pronouns in English and in Indonesian:



          English                    Singular                       Plural
   1st person                          I/ me                        we/ us
    nd
   2 person                             you                          you
   3rd person                    he/him/,she/her, it              they/ them

         Indonesian
   1st person                        saya/aku                     kami/ kita
4




   2nd person                        kau/ kamu                             kalian
    rd
   3 person                               dia                              mereka

(Cruse,2000:320 & the writer’s data,2000)

The first-person personal pronouns in English and Indonesian have the same

type. However, the Indonesian personal pronouns do not have special form in the

object pronouns. So ‘saya’ and ‘aku’ which mean ‘I’ are the same in their forms

when they are used as a subject or an object. Both of them can substitute each

other. Besides, ‘kami’ and ‘kita’ which mean ‘we/us’ also have no difference in the

forms when they are used in a sentence as a subject or an object. Then the

second-person personal pronoun in English and Indonesian also have the same

form. In the sense that they can be used as a subject or an object without altering

it. While the third-person personal pronouns in English and Indonesian have a

significant difference. English third-person personal pronouns have clear genders

or sexes when they occupy subject or object, for she/her, he/him, and it. So it is

quite clear and easy to find out what the personal pronoun refers to in a

discourse. But, in Indonesian there is no difference of using the third-person

personal pronoun. ‘Dia’ is neutral; it means that it can be used to refer to he, she,

or it. And when it becomes a subject or an object in a sentence it will not change.

For more details let us look at some examples in the following sentences:

a. - I              gave          her a gift     on         her birthday            last

   year.

   - Saya          memberi dia hadiah pada hari ulang tahunnya tahun lalu.

b. - He     lent           me    some      books      for       his lecture.

   - Dia    meminjami saya beberapa buku              untuk     mata kuliahnya.

c. - Mom left               us          frozen        outside     the house.
5



     - Ibu   membiarkan kami/kita kedinginan di luar                   rumah.

d. - We           could not           go   to     the party because of        the rain.

     - Kami/kita tidak jadi      pergi ke         pesta       karena          hujan.

e. - You      never            tell                me      about    your girlfriend.

     - Kamu tidak pernah memberitahu saya tentang pacarmu.

f.   -I          will   tell               you      when      we    will   leave.

     - Saya/aku akan memberitahu kamu kapan kita akan berangkat.

g. - She     kissed      me       and      then           cried.

     - Dia   mencium saya dan              kemudian menangis.

h. - I       kissed      her and           then           left immediately.

     - Saya mencium dia dan                kemudian segera pergi.

(The writer’s data, 2000).

In the examples a and b there is no difference between the first person personal

pronoun in Indonesian when it is as a subject or an object. Also in the first person

plural in c and d, kami/kita is similar in use while it is as a subject or object in a

sentence. In the examples e and f it is the same of using the second person

personal pronoun in English as well as in Indonesian. However, in the third

person personal pronoun, the use of he, she, it, compared to the use of dia in

Indonesian differs very much.

      From the examples given, it is clear that there is no difference in the use of

the first and second-person personal pronouns in English and Indonesian. The

difference is in using Indonesian third-person personal pronoun, since it merely

has one form namely ‘dia’ for any gender and thing. Moreover, all of the

Indonesian personal pronouns can be used as a subject and an object in a

sentence. Therefore, it is quite difficult in Indonesian to trace the reference of the
6



personal pronouns especially in a long discourse. Moreover, what makes the

Indonesian personal pronouns more difficult is the possessive pronoun for the

third person. The suffix ‘-nya’ that is embedded in a noun is sometimes difficult to

know, to what person or pronoun it refers to. Unlike the English possessive

pronouns, for example ‘he’ will change into ‘his’, ‘she’ becomes ‘her’ and so on.

To make it clearer we can look at the sentences below:

(i)    Amanda came           to   my flat   but   her book   was left.

(ii)   Amanda datang ke flat saya tetapi bukunya             tertinggal.

(The writer’s data, 2000).

The suffix ‘nya’ that shows the possessive pronoun of Amanda is not very clear

since it has only one form, whatever the subject is. In the sentences above it is

still clear that the suffix refers to Amanda. However, in a long text or discourse

that involves more subjects and objects it will be sometimes difficult to know the

suffix ‘-nya’ refers to. Now, look at the other example:

(i)    Baru-baru ini para ahli sosiologi menemukan sebuah fenomena baru

       bahwa banyak gadis Indonesia dibawah umur yang ‘menjual tubuhnya’

       demi sesuap nasi. Santi dan Nela mengaku dia melakukan itu karena

       terpaksa, disebabkan perekonomian keluarganya yang sangat pas-

       pasan. Mereka menduga bahwa hal ini disebabkan oleh krisis ekonomi

       yang berkepanjangan di negeri ini. Dampaknya sangat terasa dalam

       kehidupannya.

(ii)   Recently, some sociologists discovered a new phenomenon that there are

       a lot of Indonesian adolescent girls who practise prostitution for the sake

       of some food. Santi and Nela confessed that they had to do that because

       of their family’s bad economy. They thought that it is caused by the
7



       endless economic crisis in this country. Its impact is badly felt in their life.

       (The writer’s data, 2000)

       Note: ‘menjual tubuhnya’ = ‘selling their bodies’ = practising prostitution

Suppose that the example given is a TV or radio news, there is a little bit

confusion in the use of ’mereka’ as the plural personal pronoun that may refer to

the sociologists or the girls. And the use of possessive adjective –nya embedded

at the word keluarganya, dampaknya, kehidupannya can be ambiguous because

the deictics is not quite clear. However, the ambiguity can be overcome if the

hearer knows the context and has background knowledge of the topic being

spoken.




III.2 Spatial deixis

According to AlanCruse (2000), spatial deixis refers to locative adverbs like here

and there and demonstrative adjective like this and that. The use of such space

markers is sometimes not clear, especially if the hearer is not directly involved

face to face with the speaker during the conversation happen. In performance the

use of adverbs and demonstrative adjectives can be ambiguous if it is not used

appropriately. Usually, here, there, this and that can cause ambiguity when they

are used in a long discourse. Moreover, if the hearer does not have enough

background of reference about what is being talked about may think that the

discourse ambiguous. The following examples give clearance that spatial deixis

might cause ambiguity: I want to buy this, this and that. Even though the

sentence is short, but it consists of deictic words. Somehow, a hearer will not
8



know what this and that really refer to if he is not at the same place when the

speaker speaks. We just recognise that the speaker wants to buy something.

And he could be anywhere when he utters such sentence, maybe in a butcher

shop, in a market etc.



III.3 Temporal deixis

‘Temporal deictics function to locate points or intervals on the time axis, using the

moment of utterance as a reference point’ (Cruse,2000:321). Furthermore, Cruse

says that the time axis is divided into three major groups, namely: a) before the

moment of utterance, b) at the time of utterance, and c) after the time of

utterance (2000:321). When we are talking about time it is something that we

have to pay attention very well. Because if we do not clearly mention the time

markers in a discourse, written or spoken, then it might be ambiguous to the

hearer. The most common temporal deixis in English is now and then (Cruse,

2000). These two words are very flexible to use in a discourse. And they are very

relative. For example, when I say : Now I am pursuing MA of Communications

Studies in the University of Leeds. ‘Now’ refers to a certain length of time when I

start the program until I hopefully can finish my program. ‘Now’ is not merely

interpreted as at that moment when I uttered the sentence. However, let us

compare with the following sentence: I am reading a book now. ‘Now’ in the

sentence just refers to a point of time that is relatively short. If it is compared to

Indonesian, there is not much difference in meaning. As is the case with ‘then’. It

is a relative time marker in a discourse. Sometimes, in a certain context ‘then’

does not point to a definite time that make the hearer exactly sure. For instance,

when I say: Ok, I will see you then. How could we interpret the word then
9



exactly? In this case the meaning of then is quite relative. One may interpret it as

still on the same day but on the other occasion, or one may interpret it as on the

different day, say the next day, on the same occasion. However, now and then do

not cause much ambiguity in a discourse as long as the addressee know the

context.

     The tenses in English can also be considered deictic (Cruse,2000).

Especially when an utterance is not accompanied with definite time markers. For

example in the sentence: She was very beatiful. ‘Was’ refers to the past time

which the hearer does not exactly know when it was. It is different from when I

say: When she was 20s she was very beautiful, it is much clearer. Another

example: Last year my friend graduated from Leeds. Even though it can be quite

clear to the hearer, and I think the hearer will not ask when it was exactly, there is

an unclear point of time here. Last year might be inferred to the month on which

the speaker says to the month in year before, or it can be interpreted on any

month in the year before.



III.4 Social deixis

Social deixis according to Cruse (2000:322) ‘is exemplified by certain uses of the

so-called TV (tul vous) pronouns in many languages.’ It is used to point out to a

reference based on the class of the speaker and the person that he refers to.

Such deixis is not too significant in English since it does not have distinct

differentiation of referring to other person who has higher social level. But in

Indonesian, social deixis plays an important role in indexing. Compare the

following sentences:
10



(i)     President Suharto founded the foundation in 1982. He resigned from

        presidency in May 1997.

(ii)    Presiden Suharto mendirikan yayasan itu pada tahun 1982. Beliau

        mengundurkan diri dari jabatan kepresidenan pada bulan Mei 1997.

(The writer’s data,2000)

The use of he that refers to President Suharto in (i) is not a problem in English.

There is no indication of being impolite or improper to refer to such high social

level of person. However, in Indonesian such use of pronoun does matter.

Therefore, in sentence (ii) I use ‘beliau’ instead of ‘dia’. The word ’beliau’ in the

sentence is equal to dia or he but it has higher social level. It will be improper or

impolite if I use dia to address someone who has a higher social level. Or it can

also be used to show a politeness of a speaker to someone he addresses,

directly or indirectly.



III.5 Discourse deixis

Discourse deixis deals with the use of some words like ‘this to point to future

discourse elements, that is, things which are about to be said’ (Cruse,2000:323).

For example in ‘Watch this!’ And the word that to point to past discourse

elements (Cruse,2000:323), such as in ‘That is not a good idea.’ Moreover, Cruse

(2000) says that the sentence adverbs like therefore and furthermore can also

generate ambiguous meaning. It means that if a hearer does not follow a

discourse from the beginning, then if he finds such adverbs, he might find them

deictic in the discourse.



IV. Conclusion
11



In conclusion, based on the analysis, the concept of deixis to language written for

performance is very important. One must look at what type of performance that

deixis would be used. If it is intended to deliver information, like TV or radio news,

the written language should not use deixis that are too complicated. The

description of the reference should be clear, because the aim of this performance

is not to entertain listeners, but to present information. Therefore, the language

used must be clear and straightforward in order not to make them misled or

misunderstood. However, if the performance has a purpose of entertaining, like a

film, a theatre or an opera, then the language used may be combined with deictic

words. Because in a fiction or story deixis can generate a thrill and curiosity of the

readers or listeners. And even this can be manipulated as an attracting power

toward the listeners to keep on watching a film or reading a novel.

       One thing that differentiates between spoken and written language is that

we can not repeat what a speaker says. Even though it is possible to request the

speaker to repeat what he said, if it happens in a conversation. However, we can

not ask a TV broadcaster to repeat what she said on TV or it is impossible to

request an actor in an opera or film to repeat what he says.          But, in written

language we can review the discourse as many times as we want in order to

understand what the speaker says.
12



REFERENCES


Brown, Gillian & Yule, George (1983). Discourse Analysis. Cambridge:
     Cambridge University Press.
Cruse, Alan (2000). Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and
     Pragmatics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Davis, B (2000). Discourse Analysis Lecture: Lecture 3 – Deixis and Reference.
     Lectured on October 2000.
Mey, Jacob L (1996). Pragmatics: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers
     Ltd.

More Related Content

What's hot

Presentation of deixis
Presentation of deixisPresentation of deixis
Presentation of deixis
MASUD RANA
 
Discourse analysis new
Discourse analysis newDiscourse analysis new
Discourse analysis new
Harry Subagyo
 
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.ShadiaPresupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Pragmatics georgeyule-
Pragmatics georgeyule-Pragmatics georgeyule-
Pragmatics georgeyule-
Hifza Kiyani
 
Reference: Pragmatics
Reference: Pragmatics Reference: Pragmatics
Reference: Pragmatics
شفاء الزهراء
 
Politeness (Pragmatics)
Politeness (Pragmatics)Politeness (Pragmatics)
Politeness (Pragmatics)
Humaira Flair
 
Presentation on deixis and distance
Presentation on deixis and distancePresentation on deixis and distance
Presentation on deixis and distance
Taiba Arooj
 
Deixis and Distance
Deixis and DistanceDeixis and Distance
Deixis and Distance
syerencs
 
Pragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
Pragmatics II by Dr. ShadiaPragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
Pragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
Deixis And Distance
Deixis And DistanceDeixis And Distance
Deixis And Distance
hermionemars
 
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
Ijaz Ahmed
 
Chapter 3 reference & inference
Chapter 3 reference & inferenceChapter 3 reference & inference
Chapter 3 reference & inference
Tahira Munir
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
Radia Ali
 
Pragmatic Referece and Inference
Pragmatic Referece and InferencePragmatic Referece and Inference
Pragmatic Referece and Inference
Febri Shandy
 
Reference And Inference By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Reference And Inference  By Dr.Shadia.PptxReference And Inference  By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Reference And Inference By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Dr. Shadia Banjar
 
03 reference and inference
03 reference and inference03 reference and inference
03 reference and inference
gadis pratiwi
 
Deixis and distence
Deixis and distenceDeixis and distence
Deixis and distence
Mamoona Shahzadi
 
The nature of reference in text and in powerpoint presentation
The nature of reference in text and in powerpoint presentationThe nature of reference in text and in powerpoint presentation
The nature of reference in text and in powerpoint presentation
Rafaqat Hussain Rafaqat
 
Conversational Implicature ,coperative principles , conventional implicature
Conversational Implicature ,coperative principles , conventional implicatureConversational Implicature ,coperative principles , conventional implicature
Conversational Implicature ,coperative principles , conventional implicature
Naqvisailya
 
Deixis and distance
Deixis and distanceDeixis and distance
Deixis and distance
Barozh
 

What's hot (20)

Presentation of deixis
Presentation of deixisPresentation of deixis
Presentation of deixis
 
Discourse analysis new
Discourse analysis newDiscourse analysis new
Discourse analysis new
 
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.ShadiaPresupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
Presupposition And Entailment By Dr.Shadia
 
Pragmatics georgeyule-
Pragmatics georgeyule-Pragmatics georgeyule-
Pragmatics georgeyule-
 
Reference: Pragmatics
Reference: Pragmatics Reference: Pragmatics
Reference: Pragmatics
 
Politeness (Pragmatics)
Politeness (Pragmatics)Politeness (Pragmatics)
Politeness (Pragmatics)
 
Presentation on deixis and distance
Presentation on deixis and distancePresentation on deixis and distance
Presentation on deixis and distance
 
Deixis and Distance
Deixis and DistanceDeixis and Distance
Deixis and Distance
 
Pragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
Pragmatics II by Dr. ShadiaPragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
Pragmatics II by Dr. Shadia
 
Deixis And Distance
Deixis And DistanceDeixis And Distance
Deixis And Distance
 
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
Pragmatics presentation presupposition prepared by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed MPhil Schol...
 
Chapter 3 reference & inference
Chapter 3 reference & inferenceChapter 3 reference & inference
Chapter 3 reference & inference
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
 
Pragmatic Referece and Inference
Pragmatic Referece and InferencePragmatic Referece and Inference
Pragmatic Referece and Inference
 
Reference And Inference By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Reference And Inference  By Dr.Shadia.PptxReference And Inference  By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
Reference And Inference By Dr.Shadia.Pptx
 
03 reference and inference
03 reference and inference03 reference and inference
03 reference and inference
 
Deixis and distence
Deixis and distenceDeixis and distence
Deixis and distence
 
The nature of reference in text and in powerpoint presentation
The nature of reference in text and in powerpoint presentationThe nature of reference in text and in powerpoint presentation
The nature of reference in text and in powerpoint presentation
 
Conversational Implicature ,coperative principles , conventional implicature
Conversational Implicature ,coperative principles , conventional implicatureConversational Implicature ,coperative principles , conventional implicature
Conversational Implicature ,coperative principles , conventional implicature
 
Deixis and distance
Deixis and distanceDeixis and distance
Deixis and distance
 

Viewers also liked

Deixis presentation
Deixis presentationDeixis presentation
Deixis presentation
Ijaz Ahmed
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Repaso quinto
Repaso quintoRepaso quinto
Repaso quinto
Nieve Soto
 
Coherence, cohesion and deixis
Coherence, cohesion and deixisCoherence, cohesion and deixis
Coherence, cohesion and deixis
Marizka Parapat
 
DEIXIS AND DEFINITENESS (semantics)
DEIXIS AND DEFINITENESS (semantics)DEIXIS AND DEFINITENESS (semantics)
DEIXIS AND DEFINITENESS (semantics)
Ngoc Vu
 
05 quinto quinta unidad institucionalidad colonial
05 quinto quinta unidad institucionalidad colonial05 quinto quinta unidad institucionalidad colonial
05 quinto quinta unidad institucionalidad colonial
Escuela Santa Catalina de Siena
 
Guía didáctica 5° año
Guía didáctica 5° añoGuía didáctica 5° año
Guía didáctica 5° año
Lester Aliaga Castillo
 
anaphora and deixis
anaphora and deixisanaphora and deixis
anaphora and deixis
Eika Razi
 
Guia 5to básico unidad ii
Guia 5to básico unidad iiGuia 5to básico unidad ii
Guia 5to básico unidad ii
Colegio netlandschool
 
Pragmatics (Linguistics)
Pragmatics (Linguistics)Pragmatics (Linguistics)
Pragmatics (Linguistics)
Coltz Mejia
 
Cohesion and coherence
Cohesion and coherenceCohesion and coherence
Cohesion and coherence
Phuoc Trinh
 
Pragmatics - George Yule
Pragmatics - George YulePragmatics - George Yule
Pragmatics - George Yule
Anthony Salinas
 

Viewers also liked (13)

Deixis presentation
Deixis presentationDeixis presentation
Deixis presentation
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
 
Deixis
DeixisDeixis
Deixis
 
Repaso quinto
Repaso quintoRepaso quinto
Repaso quinto
 
Coherence, cohesion and deixis
Coherence, cohesion and deixisCoherence, cohesion and deixis
Coherence, cohesion and deixis
 
DEIXIS AND DEFINITENESS (semantics)
DEIXIS AND DEFINITENESS (semantics)DEIXIS AND DEFINITENESS (semantics)
DEIXIS AND DEFINITENESS (semantics)
 
05 quinto quinta unidad institucionalidad colonial
05 quinto quinta unidad institucionalidad colonial05 quinto quinta unidad institucionalidad colonial
05 quinto quinta unidad institucionalidad colonial
 
Guía didáctica 5° año
Guía didáctica 5° añoGuía didáctica 5° año
Guía didáctica 5° año
 
anaphora and deixis
anaphora and deixisanaphora and deixis
anaphora and deixis
 
Guia 5to básico unidad ii
Guia 5to básico unidad iiGuia 5to básico unidad ii
Guia 5to básico unidad ii
 
Pragmatics (Linguistics)
Pragmatics (Linguistics)Pragmatics (Linguistics)
Pragmatics (Linguistics)
 
Cohesion and coherence
Cohesion and coherenceCohesion and coherence
Cohesion and coherence
 
Pragmatics - George Yule
Pragmatics - George YulePragmatics - George Yule
Pragmatics - George Yule
 

Similar to Deixis concept

A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
Afzi Jutt
 
Assissment _Properties of language 1st year LMD G6 2021-2022.pdf
Assissment _Properties of language 1st year LMD G6 2021-2022.pdfAssissment _Properties of language 1st year LMD G6 2021-2022.pdf
Assissment _Properties of language 1st year LMD G6 2021-2022.pdf
hakiche2000
 
Linguistic 1&2
Linguistic 1&2Linguistic 1&2
Linguistic 1&2
Nurhafizah Ajlan
 
Linguistic 1&2
Linguistic 1&2Linguistic 1&2
Linguistic 1&2
Nurhafizah Ajlan
 
Some problems of ambiguity in translation with reference to english and arabic
Some problems of ambiguity in translation with reference to english and arabicSome problems of ambiguity in translation with reference to english and arabic
Some problems of ambiguity in translation with reference to english and arabic
falah_hasan77
 
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
GhazanfarAli131
 
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag UniversityDescribing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
Uludag University
 
Pronouns viii eng
Pronouns viii engPronouns viii eng
Pronouns viii eng
avtardhillon
 
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docxIMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
JaniceCordova7
 
AMBIGUITY IN A LANGUAGE
AMBIGUITY IN A LANGUAGEAMBIGUITY IN A LANGUAGE
Morphology and syntax
Morphology and syntaxMorphology and syntax
Morphology and syntax
Sohaibisrar1
 
How to compare two vocabulary systems
How to compare two vocabulary systemsHow to compare two vocabulary systems
How to compare two vocabulary systems
Mae
 
fromkins An Introduction to Language.pptx
fromkins An Introduction to Language.pptxfromkins An Introduction to Language.pptx
fromkins An Introduction to Language.pptx
bilgeztrk3
 
Achilleas Kostoulas
Achilleas KostoulasAchilleas Kostoulas
Achilleas Kostoulas
researchingmultilingually
 
Week 1.2 Language
Week 1.2 LanguageWeek 1.2 Language
Week 1.2 Language
Dr. Russell Rodrigo
 
Language & gender presentation
Language & gender presentationLanguage & gender presentation
Language & gender presentation
Hasan BİLOKCUOGLU
 
G0341044046
G0341044046G0341044046
G0341044046
inventionjournals
 
unit I.ppt
unit I.pptunit I.ppt
unit I.ppt
MitikuTerefe
 
unit I [Autosaved].ppt
unit I [Autosaved].pptunit I [Autosaved].ppt
unit I [Autosaved].ppt
MitikuTerefe
 
Ppt adv grammar
Ppt adv grammarPpt adv grammar
Ppt adv grammar
RyanPurnomo6
 

Similar to Deixis concept (20)

A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
A Contrastive Analysis of Urdu and English deixis.
 
Assissment _Properties of language 1st year LMD G6 2021-2022.pdf
Assissment _Properties of language 1st year LMD G6 2021-2022.pdfAssissment _Properties of language 1st year LMD G6 2021-2022.pdf
Assissment _Properties of language 1st year LMD G6 2021-2022.pdf
 
Linguistic 1&2
Linguistic 1&2Linguistic 1&2
Linguistic 1&2
 
Linguistic 1&2
Linguistic 1&2Linguistic 1&2
Linguistic 1&2
 
Some problems of ambiguity in translation with reference to english and arabic
Some problems of ambiguity in translation with reference to english and arabicSome problems of ambiguity in translation with reference to english and arabic
Some problems of ambiguity in translation with reference to english and arabic
 
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
Deixis 131111105419-phpapp01
 
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag UniversityDescribing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
Describing Language- by AYLİN AYDIN, Uludag University
 
Pronouns viii eng
Pronouns viii engPronouns viii eng
Pronouns viii eng
 
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docxIMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
IMAGERY AND DICTION.docx
 
AMBIGUITY IN A LANGUAGE
AMBIGUITY IN A LANGUAGEAMBIGUITY IN A LANGUAGE
AMBIGUITY IN A LANGUAGE
 
Morphology and syntax
Morphology and syntaxMorphology and syntax
Morphology and syntax
 
How to compare two vocabulary systems
How to compare two vocabulary systemsHow to compare two vocabulary systems
How to compare two vocabulary systems
 
fromkins An Introduction to Language.pptx
fromkins An Introduction to Language.pptxfromkins An Introduction to Language.pptx
fromkins An Introduction to Language.pptx
 
Achilleas Kostoulas
Achilleas KostoulasAchilleas Kostoulas
Achilleas Kostoulas
 
Week 1.2 Language
Week 1.2 LanguageWeek 1.2 Language
Week 1.2 Language
 
Language & gender presentation
Language & gender presentationLanguage & gender presentation
Language & gender presentation
 
G0341044046
G0341044046G0341044046
G0341044046
 
unit I.ppt
unit I.pptunit I.ppt
unit I.ppt
 
unit I [Autosaved].ppt
unit I [Autosaved].pptunit I [Autosaved].ppt
unit I [Autosaved].ppt
 
Ppt adv grammar
Ppt adv grammarPpt adv grammar
Ppt adv grammar
 

More from Yusuf Kurniawan

Week 9 The Victorian Age
Week 9 The Victorian AgeWeek 9 The Victorian Age
Week 9 The Victorian Age
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 9 Hand Out
Week 9 Hand OutWeek 9 Hand Out
Week 9 Hand Out
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 8 The Age Of Elegance
Week 8 The Age Of EleganceWeek 8 The Age Of Elegance
Week 8 The Age Of Elegance
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 8 Hand Out
Week 8 Hand OutWeek 8 Hand Out
Week 8 Hand Out
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & UnrestWeek 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New) Hand Outs
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)   Hand OutsWeek 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)   Hand Outs
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New) Hand Outs
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 6 Tudor England Hand Outs
Week 6 Tudor England Hand OutsWeek 6 Tudor England Hand Outs
Week 6 Tudor England Hand Outs
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 6 Tudor England
Week 6 Tudor EnglandWeek 6 Tudor England
Week 6 Tudor England
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 5 The Medieval Britain Hand Outs
Week 5 The Medieval Britain Hand OutsWeek 5 The Medieval Britain Hand Outs
Week 5 The Medieval Britain Hand Outs
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 5 The Medieval Britain
Week 5 The Medieval BritainWeek 5 The Medieval Britain
Week 5 The Medieval Britain
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 3 The Middle Ages
Week 3 The Middle AgesWeek 3 The Middle Ages
Week 3 The Middle Ages
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week 2 The Early Settlers
Week 2 The Early SettlersWeek 2 The Early Settlers
Week 2 The Early Settlers
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Tudor England
Tudor EnglandTudor England
Tudor England
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Quiz
QuizQuiz
Medieval Britain
Medieval BritainMedieval Britain
Medieval Britain
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Introduction
IntroductionIntroduction
Introduction
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Battle Of Hastings
Battle Of HastingsBattle Of Hastings
Battle Of Hastings
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week Xii (Victorian Period)
Week Xii (Victorian Period)Week Xii (Victorian Period)
Week Xii (Victorian Period)
Yusuf Kurniawan
 
Week Xi (Romanticism Period)
Week Xi (Romanticism Period)Week Xi (Romanticism Period)
Week Xi (Romanticism Period)
Yusuf Kurniawan
 

More from Yusuf Kurniawan (20)

Week 9 The Victorian Age
Week 9 The Victorian AgeWeek 9 The Victorian Age
Week 9 The Victorian Age
 
Week 9 Hand Out
Week 9 Hand OutWeek 9 Hand Out
Week 9 Hand Out
 
Week 8 The Age Of Elegance
Week 8 The Age Of EleganceWeek 8 The Age Of Elegance
Week 8 The Age Of Elegance
 
Week 8 Hand Out
Week 8 Hand OutWeek 8 Hand Out
Week 8 Hand Out
 
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & UnrestWeek 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest
 
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)
 
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New) Hand Outs
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)   Hand OutsWeek 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New)   Hand Outs
Week 7 Rebellion, Restoration & Unrest (New) Hand Outs
 
Week 6 Tudor England Hand Outs
Week 6 Tudor England Hand OutsWeek 6 Tudor England Hand Outs
Week 6 Tudor England Hand Outs
 
Week 6 Tudor England
Week 6 Tudor EnglandWeek 6 Tudor England
Week 6 Tudor England
 
Week 5 The Medieval Britain Hand Outs
Week 5 The Medieval Britain Hand OutsWeek 5 The Medieval Britain Hand Outs
Week 5 The Medieval Britain Hand Outs
 
Week 5 The Medieval Britain
Week 5 The Medieval BritainWeek 5 The Medieval Britain
Week 5 The Medieval Britain
 
Week 3 The Middle Ages
Week 3 The Middle AgesWeek 3 The Middle Ages
Week 3 The Middle Ages
 
Week 2 The Early Settlers
Week 2 The Early SettlersWeek 2 The Early Settlers
Week 2 The Early Settlers
 
Tudor England
Tudor EnglandTudor England
Tudor England
 
Quiz
QuizQuiz
Quiz
 
Medieval Britain
Medieval BritainMedieval Britain
Medieval Britain
 
Introduction
IntroductionIntroduction
Introduction
 
Battle Of Hastings
Battle Of HastingsBattle Of Hastings
Battle Of Hastings
 
Week Xii (Victorian Period)
Week Xii (Victorian Period)Week Xii (Victorian Period)
Week Xii (Victorian Period)
 
Week Xi (Romanticism Period)
Week Xi (Romanticism Period)Week Xi (Romanticism Period)
Week Xi (Romanticism Period)
 

Recently uploaded

Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
ImMuslim
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Denish Jangid
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
EduSkills OECD
 
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S EliotSkimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
nitinpv4ai
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
MJDuyan
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
siemaillard
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
nitinpv4ai
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
David Douglas School District
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
TechSoup
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
PsychoTech Services
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
IsmaelVazquez38
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Krassimira Luka
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
zuzanka
 
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsxData Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Prof. Dr. K. Adisesha
 
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
indexPub
 
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
National Information Standards Organization (NISO)
 
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem studentsRHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
Himanshu Rai
 
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
zuzanka
 
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
RidwanHassanYusuf
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
Geography as a Discipline Chapter 1 __ Class 11 Geography NCERT _ Class Notes...
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
 
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S EliotSkimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
Skimbleshanks-The-Railway-Cat by T S Eliot
 
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) CurriculumPhilippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
Philippine Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) Curriculum
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
 
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
Haunted Houses by H W Longfellow for class 10
 
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School DistrictJuneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
Juneteenth Freedom Day 2024 David Douglas School District
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
 
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
Gender and Mental Health - Counselling and Family Therapy Applications and In...
 
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
Bossa N’ Roll Records by Ismael Vazquez.
 
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation resultsTemple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
Temple of Asclepius in Thrace. Excavation results
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
 
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptxSWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
SWOT analysis in the project Keeping the Memory @live.pptx
 
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsxData Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
Data Structure using C by Dr. K Adisesha .ppsx
 
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
THE SACRIFICE HOW PRO-PALESTINE PROTESTS STUDENTS ARE SACRIFICING TO CHANGE T...
 
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
Jemison, MacLaughlin, and Majumder "Broadening Pathways for Editors and Authors"
 
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem studentsRHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
 
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptxRESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
RESULTS OF THE EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE.pptx
 
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptxBIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
BIOLOGY NATIONAL EXAMINATION COUNCIL (NECO) 2024 PRACTICAL MANUAL.pptx
 

Deixis concept

  • 1. HOW IMPORTANT IS THE CONCEPT OF DEIXIS TO LANGUAGE WRITTEN FOR PERFORMANCE? By Yusuf Kurniawan I. Introduction Language is one of the most fundamental aspects of human’s life. Without language one can not communicate properly. Since the antiquity or prehistoric time people had used language for communication. However, the form of the language is of course different from what we recognise today. Every language has been developing from time to time. They underwent evolution that people never realised. Even we could not imagine how languages become so complex as we speak today. Every tribe, nation and country has their own languages. Let alone, there are also a lot of vernaculars in every country that make languages become more varied and complex. We probably could not trace back how the languages exist at present were previously formed and shaped. Besides the rapid progression of languages in the world, communication devices like telegraph and telephone also have been diffusing so swiftly. People now can communicate very easily and quickly. However, the essence of the communication is actually not the devices but the message or information delivered through language. In practice, language is used by people ‘to refer to persons and things, directly or indirectly’. The first is called direct reference and the latter is called indirect reference (Mey,1996:89). Such references are used both in spoken and written language. II. Background to the Essay Problem
  • 2. 2 Spoken and written language sometimes can be ambiguous to a hearer or an addressee. He/she might misinterpret what a speaker says. Such case is often related with deixis. The use of reference in an utterance that is not clear or lacking of description often makes a hearer confused or even not understand. Why? Because unclear reference can cause the utterance delivered by the speaker ambiguous. In English there are finite and infinite nouns that both can serve as references. Sometimes it is easy to understand a context of discourse if the reference is clear, but sometimes it is difficult to comprehend because of the lack of description in the reference. Besides, a hearer occasionally is not familiar with the term, word or expression used by a speaker. And one might ignore the use of finite nouns instead of the infinite ones. Moreover, one often forgets especially in spoken language he/ she has a partner, that is the hearer. Or if it is written, the writer has readers who read his writing. So, sometimes the speaker has considered that the hearer has enough knowledge background and reference about what he is talking about or what he is writing. If the hearer does not have enough background of knowledge toward what is talked about, then it makes the language uttered more difficult to understand. However, in language written for performance, it is still not clear if the concept of deixis is important or not, influential or not. So that in this essay I am going to analyse how important the concept of deixis to language written for performance is. I shall use other language, besides English, i.e. Indonesian as comparative examples. III. Analysis ‘Deixis means different things to different people’ (Cruse,2000:319). Or according to Davis (2000) ‘deixis is equivalent to pointing. It derives from the same Greek
  • 3. 3 root that occurs in Digit, Index, Indexical namely expressions whose reference is a function of the context of their utterance’. Some deictic forms like here, now, you, this and that are considered some of the most obvious linguistic elements which require contextual information for their interpretation (Brown & Yule, 2000:27). In his Meaning in Language (2000) Alan Cruse introduces that there are five main types of deixis: person deixis, spatial deixis, temporal deixis, social deixis, and discourse deixis. In order to be able to interpret elements of discourse such as deixis, it is important to know who the speaker and the hearer are, and also the time and place or location of the making of the discourse (Brown & Yule, 2000:27). So in the rest of the analysis I am going to explain further about deixis, especially the main types of deixis, in relation to language written for performance. III. 1 Person deixis Person deixis refers to the use of pronouns of first, second and third person. The first person is the speaker, and the second person is the addressee or the hearer. While the third person is neither the speaker nor the hearer (Cruse,2000:319). In this case we might look at the table below which shows the comparison between personal pronouns in English and in Indonesian: English Singular Plural 1st person I/ me we/ us nd 2 person you you 3rd person he/him/,she/her, it they/ them Indonesian 1st person saya/aku kami/ kita
  • 4. 4 2nd person kau/ kamu kalian rd 3 person dia mereka (Cruse,2000:320 & the writer’s data,2000) The first-person personal pronouns in English and Indonesian have the same type. However, the Indonesian personal pronouns do not have special form in the object pronouns. So ‘saya’ and ‘aku’ which mean ‘I’ are the same in their forms when they are used as a subject or an object. Both of them can substitute each other. Besides, ‘kami’ and ‘kita’ which mean ‘we/us’ also have no difference in the forms when they are used in a sentence as a subject or an object. Then the second-person personal pronoun in English and Indonesian also have the same form. In the sense that they can be used as a subject or an object without altering it. While the third-person personal pronouns in English and Indonesian have a significant difference. English third-person personal pronouns have clear genders or sexes when they occupy subject or object, for she/her, he/him, and it. So it is quite clear and easy to find out what the personal pronoun refers to in a discourse. But, in Indonesian there is no difference of using the third-person personal pronoun. ‘Dia’ is neutral; it means that it can be used to refer to he, she, or it. And when it becomes a subject or an object in a sentence it will not change. For more details let us look at some examples in the following sentences: a. - I gave her a gift on her birthday last year. - Saya memberi dia hadiah pada hari ulang tahunnya tahun lalu. b. - He lent me some books for his lecture. - Dia meminjami saya beberapa buku untuk mata kuliahnya. c. - Mom left us frozen outside the house.
  • 5. 5 - Ibu membiarkan kami/kita kedinginan di luar rumah. d. - We could not go to the party because of the rain. - Kami/kita tidak jadi pergi ke pesta karena hujan. e. - You never tell me about your girlfriend. - Kamu tidak pernah memberitahu saya tentang pacarmu. f. -I will tell you when we will leave. - Saya/aku akan memberitahu kamu kapan kita akan berangkat. g. - She kissed me and then cried. - Dia mencium saya dan kemudian menangis. h. - I kissed her and then left immediately. - Saya mencium dia dan kemudian segera pergi. (The writer’s data, 2000). In the examples a and b there is no difference between the first person personal pronoun in Indonesian when it is as a subject or an object. Also in the first person plural in c and d, kami/kita is similar in use while it is as a subject or object in a sentence. In the examples e and f it is the same of using the second person personal pronoun in English as well as in Indonesian. However, in the third person personal pronoun, the use of he, she, it, compared to the use of dia in Indonesian differs very much. From the examples given, it is clear that there is no difference in the use of the first and second-person personal pronouns in English and Indonesian. The difference is in using Indonesian third-person personal pronoun, since it merely has one form namely ‘dia’ for any gender and thing. Moreover, all of the Indonesian personal pronouns can be used as a subject and an object in a sentence. Therefore, it is quite difficult in Indonesian to trace the reference of the
  • 6. 6 personal pronouns especially in a long discourse. Moreover, what makes the Indonesian personal pronouns more difficult is the possessive pronoun for the third person. The suffix ‘-nya’ that is embedded in a noun is sometimes difficult to know, to what person or pronoun it refers to. Unlike the English possessive pronouns, for example ‘he’ will change into ‘his’, ‘she’ becomes ‘her’ and so on. To make it clearer we can look at the sentences below: (i) Amanda came to my flat but her book was left. (ii) Amanda datang ke flat saya tetapi bukunya tertinggal. (The writer’s data, 2000). The suffix ‘nya’ that shows the possessive pronoun of Amanda is not very clear since it has only one form, whatever the subject is. In the sentences above it is still clear that the suffix refers to Amanda. However, in a long text or discourse that involves more subjects and objects it will be sometimes difficult to know the suffix ‘-nya’ refers to. Now, look at the other example: (i) Baru-baru ini para ahli sosiologi menemukan sebuah fenomena baru bahwa banyak gadis Indonesia dibawah umur yang ‘menjual tubuhnya’ demi sesuap nasi. Santi dan Nela mengaku dia melakukan itu karena terpaksa, disebabkan perekonomian keluarganya yang sangat pas- pasan. Mereka menduga bahwa hal ini disebabkan oleh krisis ekonomi yang berkepanjangan di negeri ini. Dampaknya sangat terasa dalam kehidupannya. (ii) Recently, some sociologists discovered a new phenomenon that there are a lot of Indonesian adolescent girls who practise prostitution for the sake of some food. Santi and Nela confessed that they had to do that because of their family’s bad economy. They thought that it is caused by the
  • 7. 7 endless economic crisis in this country. Its impact is badly felt in their life. (The writer’s data, 2000) Note: ‘menjual tubuhnya’ = ‘selling their bodies’ = practising prostitution Suppose that the example given is a TV or radio news, there is a little bit confusion in the use of ’mereka’ as the plural personal pronoun that may refer to the sociologists or the girls. And the use of possessive adjective –nya embedded at the word keluarganya, dampaknya, kehidupannya can be ambiguous because the deictics is not quite clear. However, the ambiguity can be overcome if the hearer knows the context and has background knowledge of the topic being spoken. III.2 Spatial deixis According to AlanCruse (2000), spatial deixis refers to locative adverbs like here and there and demonstrative adjective like this and that. The use of such space markers is sometimes not clear, especially if the hearer is not directly involved face to face with the speaker during the conversation happen. In performance the use of adverbs and demonstrative adjectives can be ambiguous if it is not used appropriately. Usually, here, there, this and that can cause ambiguity when they are used in a long discourse. Moreover, if the hearer does not have enough background of reference about what is being talked about may think that the discourse ambiguous. The following examples give clearance that spatial deixis might cause ambiguity: I want to buy this, this and that. Even though the sentence is short, but it consists of deictic words. Somehow, a hearer will not
  • 8. 8 know what this and that really refer to if he is not at the same place when the speaker speaks. We just recognise that the speaker wants to buy something. And he could be anywhere when he utters such sentence, maybe in a butcher shop, in a market etc. III.3 Temporal deixis ‘Temporal deictics function to locate points or intervals on the time axis, using the moment of utterance as a reference point’ (Cruse,2000:321). Furthermore, Cruse says that the time axis is divided into three major groups, namely: a) before the moment of utterance, b) at the time of utterance, and c) after the time of utterance (2000:321). When we are talking about time it is something that we have to pay attention very well. Because if we do not clearly mention the time markers in a discourse, written or spoken, then it might be ambiguous to the hearer. The most common temporal deixis in English is now and then (Cruse, 2000). These two words are very flexible to use in a discourse. And they are very relative. For example, when I say : Now I am pursuing MA of Communications Studies in the University of Leeds. ‘Now’ refers to a certain length of time when I start the program until I hopefully can finish my program. ‘Now’ is not merely interpreted as at that moment when I uttered the sentence. However, let us compare with the following sentence: I am reading a book now. ‘Now’ in the sentence just refers to a point of time that is relatively short. If it is compared to Indonesian, there is not much difference in meaning. As is the case with ‘then’. It is a relative time marker in a discourse. Sometimes, in a certain context ‘then’ does not point to a definite time that make the hearer exactly sure. For instance, when I say: Ok, I will see you then. How could we interpret the word then
  • 9. 9 exactly? In this case the meaning of then is quite relative. One may interpret it as still on the same day but on the other occasion, or one may interpret it as on the different day, say the next day, on the same occasion. However, now and then do not cause much ambiguity in a discourse as long as the addressee know the context. The tenses in English can also be considered deictic (Cruse,2000). Especially when an utterance is not accompanied with definite time markers. For example in the sentence: She was very beatiful. ‘Was’ refers to the past time which the hearer does not exactly know when it was. It is different from when I say: When she was 20s she was very beautiful, it is much clearer. Another example: Last year my friend graduated from Leeds. Even though it can be quite clear to the hearer, and I think the hearer will not ask when it was exactly, there is an unclear point of time here. Last year might be inferred to the month on which the speaker says to the month in year before, or it can be interpreted on any month in the year before. III.4 Social deixis Social deixis according to Cruse (2000:322) ‘is exemplified by certain uses of the so-called TV (tul vous) pronouns in many languages.’ It is used to point out to a reference based on the class of the speaker and the person that he refers to. Such deixis is not too significant in English since it does not have distinct differentiation of referring to other person who has higher social level. But in Indonesian, social deixis plays an important role in indexing. Compare the following sentences:
  • 10. 10 (i) President Suharto founded the foundation in 1982. He resigned from presidency in May 1997. (ii) Presiden Suharto mendirikan yayasan itu pada tahun 1982. Beliau mengundurkan diri dari jabatan kepresidenan pada bulan Mei 1997. (The writer’s data,2000) The use of he that refers to President Suharto in (i) is not a problem in English. There is no indication of being impolite or improper to refer to such high social level of person. However, in Indonesian such use of pronoun does matter. Therefore, in sentence (ii) I use ‘beliau’ instead of ‘dia’. The word ’beliau’ in the sentence is equal to dia or he but it has higher social level. It will be improper or impolite if I use dia to address someone who has a higher social level. Or it can also be used to show a politeness of a speaker to someone he addresses, directly or indirectly. III.5 Discourse deixis Discourse deixis deals with the use of some words like ‘this to point to future discourse elements, that is, things which are about to be said’ (Cruse,2000:323). For example in ‘Watch this!’ And the word that to point to past discourse elements (Cruse,2000:323), such as in ‘That is not a good idea.’ Moreover, Cruse (2000) says that the sentence adverbs like therefore and furthermore can also generate ambiguous meaning. It means that if a hearer does not follow a discourse from the beginning, then if he finds such adverbs, he might find them deictic in the discourse. IV. Conclusion
  • 11. 11 In conclusion, based on the analysis, the concept of deixis to language written for performance is very important. One must look at what type of performance that deixis would be used. If it is intended to deliver information, like TV or radio news, the written language should not use deixis that are too complicated. The description of the reference should be clear, because the aim of this performance is not to entertain listeners, but to present information. Therefore, the language used must be clear and straightforward in order not to make them misled or misunderstood. However, if the performance has a purpose of entertaining, like a film, a theatre or an opera, then the language used may be combined with deictic words. Because in a fiction or story deixis can generate a thrill and curiosity of the readers or listeners. And even this can be manipulated as an attracting power toward the listeners to keep on watching a film or reading a novel. One thing that differentiates between spoken and written language is that we can not repeat what a speaker says. Even though it is possible to request the speaker to repeat what he said, if it happens in a conversation. However, we can not ask a TV broadcaster to repeat what she said on TV or it is impossible to request an actor in an opera or film to repeat what he says. But, in written language we can review the discourse as many times as we want in order to understand what the speaker says.
  • 12. 12 REFERENCES Brown, Gillian & Yule, George (1983). Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cruse, Alan (2000). Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics. New York: Oxford University Press. Davis, B (2000). Discourse Analysis Lecture: Lecture 3 – Deixis and Reference. Lectured on October 2000. Mey, Jacob L (1996). Pragmatics: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.