Quiz (retroviruses)

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Quiz (retroviruses)

  1. 1. YusriArif bin Sapaee<br />5th Year Medical Student<br />Kasr El-Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University<br />Quiz (Retroviruses)<br />
  2. 2. Classification of retroviruses that cause disease in humans<br />
  3. 3. Structure of the human immunodeficiency virus<br />
  4. 4. HIV proviral genome<br />
  5. 5. Binding of HIV to surface of lymphocyte<br />
  6. 6. Attachment and entry of HIV virus<br />
  7. 7. The HIV replication cycle<br />
  8. 8. Common modes of transmission of HIV<br />
  9. 9. Typical time course of HIV infection<br />
  10. 10. Pathogenesis of HIV<br />
  11. 11. Pattern of opportunistic infections associated with declining CD4+ cell counts<br />
  12. 12. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Retroviruses are non enveloped positive sense ssRNA viruses<br />
  15. 15. Retroviruses contain enzyme reverse transcriptase<br />Retroviruses rely on the reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme to transcribe their genome from RNA into a DNA copy, which can then be integrated as a DNA provirus into the genomic DNA of the host cell.<br />
  16. 16. Important members of Retroviridae family that affect humans are?<br />Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV)<br />HIV  Lentivirinae subfamily<br />HTLV  Oncovirinae subfamily<br />
  17. 17. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses replicate in?<br />CD4+ T helper cells<br />
  18. 18. HIV-2 is the major cause of AIDS worldwide<br />
  19. 19. HIV-2 is characterized by the following EXCEPT:<br />First described in 1986<br />Slower in progression<br />Limited mostly to West Africa and Portugal<br />Much less severe<br />Has 2 groups (M & O)<br />
  20. 20. Group M viruses are rare and limited to western part of Africa<br />
  21. 21. HIV-1 and HIV-2 resemble each other strikingly. However, they differ in?<br />Molecular weight of their proteins and accessory genes<br />The virus has spherical shape with a diameter of 100nm.<br />The virus envelope is line with an HIV protein called p17 (matrix protein, MA).<br />Inside, a conical-shaped capsid (CA) made of protein called p24 (core antigen)<br />
  22. 22. What is the most abundant protein in the virus particle?<br />p24 (core antigen)<br />
  23. 23. Envelope antigens<br />Core capsid antigens<br />RT antigen<br />Its absence  successful tx<br />Responsible for receptor binding<br />gp120<br />p66/51 complex<br />gp120 (SU) & gp41 (TM)<br />p17 and p24<br />p24<br />HIV antigens<br />
  24. 24. Cells that are not infected by HIV<br />Monocytes/macrophages<br />Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs)<br />CD4+ T helper lymphocytes<br />Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, neurones and glial cells<br />Hepatocytes<br />
  25. 25. Name receptors on the cell surface required for the entry of HIV into the cell<br />CD4 receptor and co-receptor CCR5 & CXCR5<br />
  26. 26. First<br />Second<br />Third<br />Forth<br />Fifth<br />Assembly and budding<br />Transcription<br />Reverse transcription<br />Integration<br />Translation<br />Post-fusion events<br />
  27. 27. HIV antibody positive<br />Not infected<br />HIV antibody negative, HIV RNA detectable<br />Acute HIV infection<br />HIV antibody negative, HIV RNA  viral load >5000 copies/ml<br />Established HIV infection & no acute infection<br />HIV antibody negative, HIV RNA  viral load 50-5000 copies/ml<br />Repeat HIV RNA test in the same specimen<br />HIV antibody negative, HIV RNA  viral load <50 copies/ml<br />Indeterminate  repeat testing on follow up specimen<br />Diagnosis of acute HIV infection(acute retroviral syndrome)<br />
  28. 28. How to diagnose HIV infection in newborns?<br />PCR or viral load<br />
  29. 29. Nucleoside analogues transcriptase inhibitors<br />Non-nucleoside analogues transcriptase inhibitors<br />Protease inhibitors<br />Protease inhibitors<br />Fusion inhibitors<br />Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon)<br />Ritonavir<br />Lamivudine<br />Nevirapine<br />Indinavir<br />Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)<br />
  30. 30. How to monitor anti-HIV therapy?<br />Viral load measurement & CD4 count<br />
  31. 31. Best regimen for post-exposure chemoprophylaxis<br />1reverse transcriptase inhibitor + 2 protease inhibitor<br />1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor + 1 protease inhibitor<br />2 fusion inhibitors + 1 protease inhibitor<br />1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor + 2 fusion inhibitors<br />2 reverse transcriptase inhibitors + 1 protease inhibitor<br />

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