Evolution of settlements


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Evolution of settlements

  1. 1. Origin and Evolution of Human Settlements <ul><li>Various Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Man as Nomad and Cave Dweller </li></ul><ul><li>( Up to 10,000 B. C .) </li></ul><ul><li>Earth estimated to be formed about 4 billion years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Homo Sapiens (the one existing species of man) believe to date from about 500,000 B. C. </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest man did not settle anywhere as they wandered around in search of food </li></ul><ul><li>Did not know how to construct buildings so lived in the open </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally took shelter on top of trees to protect themselves from wild animals </li></ul>
  2. 2. Origin and Evolution of Human Settlements <ul><li>Man as Nomad and Cave Dweller </li></ul><ul><li>(Up to 10,000 B.C.) </li></ul><ul><li>Later man began to live in caves by the side of rivers, lakes and springs </li></ul><ul><li>Sites protected by rivers, swamps or elevated terrain preferred </li></ul><ul><li>Caves not used as places for fixed residence </li></ul><ul><li>When food gathering in the vicinity became difficult, early man moved to another location. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Origin and Evolution of Human Settlements <ul><li>Towards Settled Habitation </li></ul><ul><li>(Up to 10,000 B. C. - 5,000 B. C.) </li></ul><ul><li>Man learned to practice cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Could stay at one place and produce food </li></ul><ul><li>Began to settle down near the fields cultivated by them </li></ul><ul><li>Choose fertile lands and where water was available in plenty </li></ul><ul><li>Learned to build huts and mud houses </li></ul>
  4. 4. Origin and Evolution of Human Settlements <ul><li>Towards Settled Habitation </li></ul><ul><li>(Up to 10,000 B. C. - 5,000 B. C.) </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the earliest settlements began to take shape </li></ul><ul><li>Settlements then consisted of groups of houses built by the side of agricultural fields, a shrine and a burial ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Some inhabitants continued to live in caves and wander around for hunting animals - more as a pastime rather than as a necessity </li></ul>
  5. 5. Origin and Evolution of Human Settlements <ul><li>The Common Habitat and Onset of Civilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabitants organized as a community under a recognized leader </li></ul><ul><li>Began to get the first lessons of civilized living </li></ul><ul><li>Started learning to provide for themselves the three basic necessities of life - food, clothing and shelter </li></ul>
  6. 6. Origin and Evolution of Human Settlements <ul><li>Shifting Cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Shift to new location after experiencing decrease in fertility after successive cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Later learned that land regained fertility if it is left uncultivated for few years </li></ul><ul><li>Began to cultivate fields by rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Thus managed to stop shifting practice and settled down at on place </li></ul>
  7. 7. Origin and Evolution of Human Settlements <ul><li>Food Surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Learned to make manure out of night soil and animal droppings </li></ul><ul><li>Greatly increased food production </li></ul><ul><li>As food became abundant, health of people improved </li></ul><ul><li>Death rate dropped, birth rate increased and population of many settlements began to multiply rapidly through the natural process </li></ul>
  8. 8. Origin and Evolution of Human Settlements <ul><li>Beginning of permanent settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Assured food supply through agriculture encouraged man to permanently settle by the side of the fields he cultivated </li></ul><ul><li>Compact settlement since agriculture could support up to 35 persons per sq. km as compared to 15 persons per sq. km applicable to hunting and food gathering societies </li></ul>
  9. 9. Origin and Evolution of Human Settlements <ul><li>Favorable Locations for Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Favorable environment for human existence and survival </li></ul><ul><li>Climate not very harsh </li></ul><ul><li>Epidemics not frequent </li></ul><ul><li>Land fertile </li></ul><ul><li>Good quality of water available in plenty </li></ul><ul><li>River Valleys as popular places for settled habitation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Origin and Evolution of Human Settlements <ul><li>Why River Valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Land was fertile, water and food (fishes and prongs) extracted from rivers, and soft clay good for constructing huts </li></ul><ul><li>River also used later as means of transportation </li></ul><ul><li>First settlements in the river valleys of India, China, Egypt, and areas known as the Fertile Crescent (modern Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Israel) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Origin and Evolution of Human Settlements <ul><li>Other Factors Considered for Siting Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Took care to locate on higher ground for better drainage, protection from floods and reasons of security </li></ul><ul><li>Spacing between settlements to leave space for future expansion </li></ul>
  12. 12. Community Structuring <ul><li>Division of Labour </li></ul><ul><li>As food became abundant, all the inhabitants were not required to work on the fields </li></ul><ul><li>Others thus began to practice various occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Working population got divided among farmers, cattle and poultry breeders, fishermen, shepherds craftsmen(carpenters, potters, painters, engravers, makers of tools, weapons and other implements), and weavers </li></ul><ul><li>Some engaged in taming and domestication of animals for bearing load, plough fields, protecting property and as source of milk, meat and wool </li></ul>
  13. 13. Community Structuring <ul><li>Barter System </li></ul><ul><li>The most ancient form of trading </li></ul><ul><li>Those who were not farmers were supplied food in exchange of goods they produced </li></ul><ul><li>Shepherds got grains in exchange for milk, weavers for cloth, potters for utensils, and craftsmen for tools and implements </li></ul><ul><li>Initially practiced within the community </li></ul><ul><li>Later as river and land routes developed for transportation, goods began to be exchanged across communities </li></ul>
  14. 14. Community Structuring <ul><li>Trading </li></ul><ul><li>With transportation, reputation of some of the goods produced by craftsmen of particular villages began to travel far and wide </li></ul><ul><li>As the demand of goods increased, trading of such goods began to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Traders emerged as a new class of people, trading as a new occupation and market place as the new physical component of settlements. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Community Structuring <ul><li>Social Stratification </li></ul><ul><li>Early traders most probably belonged to the hunting tribe - people already used to traveling </li></ul><ul><li>They were also recognised as leaders as they provided protection to the community against wild animals </li></ul><ul><li>After they began trading activity,they accumulated goods and became wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>They also accumulated knowledge as they traveled long distances and met many people </li></ul><ul><li>Their hold on the community increased and became quite powerful. One of them became a chieftain </li></ul>
  16. 16. Physical Structuring <ul><li>New Physical Features </li></ul><ul><li>The chieftain built for himself a castle which towered over the other buildings,more so because it was built at the highest point in the village </li></ul><ul><li>The rich traders and wealthy farmers built their houses near the castle - the new distinguishing feature and a status symbol </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively poor artisans and ordinary peasants occupied quarters on the periphery </li></ul><ul><li>The community was divided between the rich and the poor and the two social classes occupied different sections of the settlements </li></ul>
  17. 17. Physical Structuring <ul><li>New Physical Features </li></ul><ul><li>The rich and the poor gradually grew antagonistic to each other </li></ul><ul><li>The rich became concerned about their life and property </li></ul><ul><li>Built a wall around their castle and thus created fortified castle </li></ul><ul><li>Man had originally learned to ward of danger from beasts and wild animals but now was afraid of being attacked by fellow human beings </li></ul>
  18. 18. Physical Structuring <ul><li>The Walled Settlements </li></ul><ul><li>The strife between the people of the same settlement later supplemented by that between the people of different settlements </li></ul><ul><li>The rich settlements were exposed to the danger of being raided by outsiders </li></ul><ul><li>The wall around the settlement was built in addition to the one already existing around the castle </li></ul><ul><li>This effectively curbed physical spread of settlements </li></ul><ul><li>People living outside moved in </li></ul><ul><li>The density of population began to rise </li></ul>
  19. 19. New Community Structuring <ul><li>Subjugation of Peasants </li></ul><ul><li>The external threat brought forth the necessity of internal unity </li></ul><ul><li>Need for mutually defending themselves </li></ul><ul><li>But the new organization of the community was such that it resulted in the subjugation and exploitation of a large majority of peasants by a small minority of the rich - the so called nobles </li></ul><ul><li>The Chieftain claimed a share in the agricultural surplus in return for the protection provided by him to the community </li></ul><ul><li>Initially it could be described as the beginning of the taxation system that was perhaps willingly done </li></ul>
  20. 20. New Community Structuring <ul><li>Placing more resources at the disposal of the Chieftain meant better equipped army and better protection for the community </li></ul><ul><li>Soon the beneficent role of the Chieftain was corrupted by his lust for power </li></ul><ul><li>As his resources increased and he became more powerful, he began to demand a larger share of the agricultural surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately leaving barely minimum for the survival of the peasant and his family </li></ul><ul><li>Chieftain was supported in his exploitative pursuits by a large number of military and army officers, governors, viziers, tax-gatherers, and soldiers </li></ul>
  21. 21. New Community Structuring <ul><li>Role of the Priests and New Physical Structuring </li></ul><ul><li>When use of physical power was not enough to ensure complete obedience, the same was achieved by exploiting the religious sensibilities of the people </li></ul><ul><li>The shrine moved within the precincts of the citadel </li></ul><ul><li>Priests were begun to be identified with the Chieftain </li></ul><ul><li>Often, the Chieftain even assumed the role of a priest </li></ul><ul><li>The Chieftain became all powerful and people willingly obeyed whatever he commanded </li></ul><ul><li>He elevated himself to the status of the king - one who commanded a territory recognized as his kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>The castle grew into a fort and the shrine into a temple </li></ul>
  22. 22. New Community Structuring <ul><li>Labour Specialisation </li></ul><ul><li>Under the centralised command of the king, many large scale constructions such as protective walls, moats, forts and temples, network of irrigation channels, cisterns and reservoirs were completed </li></ul><ul><li>Mines were found for quarrying building materials </li></ul><ul><li>Timber began to be used in buildings in combination with other materials </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Specialisation was carried a step further </li></ul><ul><li>New occupation groups such as engineers, construction labourers, carpenters, miners and transporters (boatmen, sailors, loaders and cart men), merchants ( including money-lenders and bankers), soldiers and priests were added </li></ul>
  23. 23. New Community Structuring <ul><li>Caste Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Members assumed or were assigned specific functions by the ruler </li></ul><ul><li>Persons assigned jobs such as scavenging and cobbling were assigned low status in the society, paid minimal wages and remained poor </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas, people performing religious, administrative and intellectual functions were accorded high status, were paid high salaries and became rich </li></ul><ul><li>They were considered to be belonging to high caste categories </li></ul><ul><li>Community was not only divided into rich and poor but also caste managed </li></ul>
  24. 24. Civilization <ul><li>Language, Art and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Man developed new skills in art to create carvings, engravings and paintings </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a kind of common language </li></ul><ul><li>Learned the use of metals and acquired an array of new implements </li></ul><ul><li>Used these houses to make bigger houses, temples and tombs </li></ul>
  25. 25. Urban Settlement <ul><li>Community Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Labour specialisation </li></ul><ul><li>New occupations – teachers, advocates, judges, government servants </li></ul><ul><li>New class of people – philosophers, scientists, administrators, political leaders, dramatists, sculpture artists, architects and town planners </li></ul><ul><li>Distinct social classes </li></ul><ul><li>Non-agricultural occupations expanded at a faster rate </li></ul>
  26. 26. Urban Settlement <ul><li>Community Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Invention of new means of transport </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants organised themselves in the from of guilds </li></ul><ul><li>Development of art and literature </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of wealth and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>A general sense of appreciation for civic concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Structural transformations continued over subsequent civilisations and cultural phases </li></ul>
  27. 27. New Physical Structuring <ul><li>The Urban Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>The village evolved into its urban counterpart </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to say when the first urban settlement existed </li></ul><ul><li>According to some historians, first settled habitation existed as early as about 13,000 B. C. </li></ul><ul><li>First known settlement as claimed by archaeologists was Jericho in modern Israel and was established in 7,800 B. C. </li></ul><ul><li>First indisputable permanent settlement inhabited by farming community was Jarmo in Khurdistan area of Iraq during 7,000 and 6,500 B. C. </li></ul><ul><li>The first identifiable urban settlements are believed to have existed by 3,500 B. C. </li></ul>
  28. 28. New Physical Structuring <ul><li>Physical Form of Urban Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>A common core consisting of the castle, fortress, fort, the temple, and houses of the nobles and the priests </li></ul><ul><li>A public square which generally formed part of the core </li></ul><ul><li>A market place and perhaps a school </li></ul><ul><li>Tombs, statues, rock sculptures, colonnades, obelisks, fountains, parks, gardens and canals </li></ul><ul><li>Protective inner and outer walls with moats and monumental gates </li></ul>
  29. 29. New Physical Structuring <ul><li>Physical Form of Urban Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Dwellings of the common people </li></ul><ul><li>Theatre, government offices, gymnasiums, judicial courts and institutions of higher learning (added during the Greek Period) </li></ul><ul><li>Networks of water supply, sewerage, drainage, transportation systems, bath houses, coliseums, and circuses (added by the Romans) </li></ul><ul><li>Church became the central focus of medieval towns. </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries became new centre of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouses to store the wealth of the town </li></ul><ul><li>Guild halls and Town halls </li></ul>