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  1. 1. Organizational Power and Politics 12 T W E L V E C H A P T E R
  2. 2. Suggested topics <ul><li>Describe a time when you had to deal with “organizational politics”. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a situation where you saw evidence of power or influence being used in an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a time when someone influenced you to act a particular way or do a particular thing that you would not of otherwise done. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Power Empowerment How to get it How to use it … without abusing it
  4. 4. Definition <ul><li>A “four letter word”? </li></ul><ul><li>Influence? </li></ul><ul><li>Control over others? </li></ul><ul><li>Being able to get things done? </li></ul><ul><li>?????? </li></ul>
  5. 5. A shifting definition… <ul><li>Reflects the new “reality” of organizations </li></ul><ul><li>A new definition of “employee” </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Meaning of Power <ul><li>Power is the capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The potential to influence others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People have power they don’t use and may not know they possess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power requires one person’s perception of dependence on another person </li></ul></ul>Southland Times, New Zealand
  7. 7. Why does having power matter? <ul><li>With power you can… </li></ul><ul><li>Intercede favorably on behalf of someone in trouble </li></ul><ul><li>Get a desirable placement for a talented subordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Get approval for expenditures beyond the budget </li></ul><ul><li>Get items on and off agendas </li></ul><ul><li>Get fast access to decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain regular, frequent contact with decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts </li></ul>
  8. 8. The goal? <ul><li>Overcome feelings of powerlessness </li></ul><ul><li>Convert power effectively into interpersonal influences in ways that avoid the abuse of power </li></ul>
  9. 9. Empowerment: To empower yourself To facilitate the empowerment of others To empower yourself To facilitate the empowerment of others
  10. 10. Relationship Among Social Influence, Power, and Politics Organizational politics Use of power for personal interests Capacity to exert influence Social influence Unsuccessful Successful Power
  11. 11. Power and Dependence Person B Person B’s counterpower over Person A Person A’s power over Person B Person A Person B’s Goals
  12. 12. Types of Individual Power: A Summary <ul><li>Position Power </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>Reward power </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive power </li></ul>Individual Power <ul><li>Personal Power </li></ul><ul><li>Referent power </li></ul><ul><li>Expert power </li></ul>
  13. 13. Model of Power in Organizations <ul><li>Legitimate </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul><ul><li>Referent </li></ul>Sources Of Power Power over Others Contingencies Of Power
  14. 14. Legitimate Power <ul><li>One’s structural position </li></ul><ul><li>The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Limits of Legitimate Power <ul><li>The Caine Mutiny illustrates the limits of legitimate power in organizations. Captain Queeg (Humphrey Bogart, seated left) asked his crew to do more than they were willing to follow, so they staged a mutiny. </li></ul>Archive Photos
  16. 16. Reward and Coercive Power <ul><li>Power that achieves compliance based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable </li></ul><ul><li>Coercive Power: the opposite of reward power: the power that is based on fear of negative results. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sources of Power Archive Photos Legitimate Power Reward Power Coercive Power Expert Power Referent Power
  18. 18. Expert Power <ul><li>Influence is based on special skills or knowledge </li></ul>
  19. 19. Referent Power <ul><li>Influence is based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits </li></ul><ul><li>The desire to please… </li></ul>
  20. 20. Information and Power <ul><li>Control over information flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on legitimate power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relates to formal communication network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common in centralized structures (wheel pattern) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coping with uncertainty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who know how to cope with organizational uncertainties gain power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forecasting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Contingencies of Power <ul><li>Substitutability </li></ul><ul><li>Centrality </li></ul><ul><li>Discretion </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility </li></ul>Contingencies Of Power Power over others Sources Of Power
  22. 22. Increasing Nonsubstitutability Increasing Nonsubstitutability Controlling Tasks Controlling Knowledge Differentiation Controlling Labour
  23. 23. Consequences of Power Reward Power Legitimate Power Coercive Power Expert Power Referent Power Sources of Power Consequences of Power Commitment Resistance Compliance
  24. 24. Sexual Harassment and Power <ul><li>Harasser stereotypes the victim as subservient and powerless </li></ul><ul><li>Harasser threatens job security or safety through coercive or legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile work environment harassment continues when the victim lacks power to stop the behaviour </li></ul>
  25. 25. Office Romance and Power <ul><li>Co-workers believe that employees in relationships abuse their power to favour each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher risk of sexual harassment when relationship breaks off. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Organizational Politics <ul><li>Attempts to influence others using discretionary behaviours to promote personal objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discretionary behaviours — neither explicitly prescribed nor prohibited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Politics may be good or bad for the organization </li></ul>
  27. 27. Organizational Politics: More Likely at the Top Extent to Which Political Activity is Likely (range 0-3) Production and blue collar Clerical and white collar Technical and professional Lower management Middle management Upper management 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 .9 .8 .7 .6 .5 .4 .3 .2 .1 Organizational Level (.18) (.50) (.54) (.73) (1.07) (1.22) Political activity is perceived to increase at higher organizational levels
  28. 28. Types of Organizational Politics Types of Organizational Politics Managing impressions Attacking and blaming Creating obligations Cultivating networks Controlling information Forming coalitions
  29. 29. Impression management <ul><li>Conformity: agreeing with another’s opinion to get their approval </li></ul><ul><li>Excuses: Explanations of a predicament-creating event aimed at minimizing the apparent severity of the predicament </li></ul><ul><li>Apologies: Admitting responsibility for an undesirable event and simultaneously seeking to get a pardon for the action </li></ul><ul><li>Acclamations: Explanation of favourable events to maximize the desirable implications for oneself. </li></ul><ul><li>Flattery: Complimenting others on their virtues in an effort to make oneself appear perceptive and likeable </li></ul><ul><li>Favours: Doing something nice for someone to gain that person’s approval </li></ul><ul><li>Association: Enhancing or protecting one’s image by managing information about people and things with which one is associated. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Types of Organizational Politics Attacking and blaming Creating obligations Cultivating networks Controlling information Forming coalitions It was John’s fault I thought you knew… We agreed that… Look who I know… You scratch my back…
  31. 31. Conditions for Organizational Politics Conditions Supporting Organizational Politics Scarce Resources Complex and Ambiguous Decisions Personal Characteristics Tolerance of Politics
  32. 32. Conditions for Organizational Politics Conditions Supporting Organizational Politics Scarce Resources Complex and Ambiguous Decisions Personal Characteristics Tolerance of Politics Deceit is appropriate Zero-sum rewards Internal locus of control Perceived alternatives? It works here Democratic decision making
  33. 33. Political Antics Top the “Most Unethical List”: Survey Results Gender discrimination in recruitment or hiring Arrangements with vendors leading to personal gain Nonperformance factors used in appraisals Gender discrimination in compensation Not maintaining confidentiality Using discipline inconsistently Gender discrimination in promotion Sexual harassment Allowing differences in pay due to friendships Hiring, training, or promoting based on favouritism 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Situation Percentage Responding with a 4 or 5 on a five-Point Scale Measuring Degree of Seriousness (where 5=“very great”) (22.6) (23.1) (23.5) (25.8) (26.4) (26.9) (26.9) (28.4) (30.7) (30.7) Potentially political behaviours
  34. 34. Controlling Political Behaviour Peer Pressure Against Politics Remove Political Norms Free Flowing Information Manage Change Effectively Provide Sufficient Resources Introduce Clear Rules Hire Low-Politics Employees Increase Opportunities for Dialogue