COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

INTRODUCTION
An operating system is the core software that
allows a computer to run as a usefu...
COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

BRIEF HISTORY
In the late 1960s, researchers from General
Electric, Massachusetts Institute of...
COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

(BSD) UNIX, or a hybrid of both. During the late 1980’s there were several of commercial
imple...
COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

used to the Windows tools, Linux developers are making applications that combine the
best of W...
COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

The UNIX Operating System is available on machines with a wide range of
computing power, from ...
COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

Software Development Tools - UNIX offers an excellent variety of
tools for software developmen...
COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

The disadvantages of UNIX are :
The traditional command line shell interface is user hostile -...
COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

The NetWare operating system supports the networking of personal computers (PCs). Installed
on...
COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

printers, servers, and volumes. NDS also provides a single-point logon for the user; with
it, ...
COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

Logon security Provides authentication verification
based on user name, passwords, and time an...
COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

Full Network Operating System interoperability is not always
possible. This is especially true...
COMFUND 1

UNIX AND NOVELL

Messaging services
Novell netware is also equipped with a message handling
feature. This offer...
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Unix and Novell

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Unix and Novell

  1. 1. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL INTRODUCTION An operating system is the core software that allows a computer to run as a useful device. It manages the hardware, the user interface and all other software running on the computer. It allows us to interact with the computer. Basically, there are two ways by which we do this. One is with a command-line operating system. An example of this is the Disk Operating System (DOS). You type a text command and the computer responds according to that command. Another way is with a graphical user interface (GUI) operating system. An example of this is Windows. You interact with the computer through a graphical interface with pictures and buttons and give our commands by using the mouse and keyboard. There are different kinds of operating systems. Two of them, Unix and Novell, are discussed below. UNIX Unix is a popular multi-user, multitasking operating system developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s. Created by just a handful of programmers, UNIX was designed to be a small, flexible system used exclusively by programmers. It was meant to be a programmer's workbench more than to be used to run application software. The system grew larger as the operating system started spreading in the academic circle, as users added their own tools to the system and shared them with colleagues. UNIX was one of the first operating systems to be written in a high-level programming language, namely C. This meant that it could be installed on virtually any computer for which a C compiler existed. This natural portability combined with its low price made it a popular choice among universities. Unix operating systems are widely used in servers, workstations, and mobile devices. The Unix environment and the client–server program model were essential elements in the development of the Internet and the reshaping of computing as centered in networks rather than in individual computers. UNIX AND NOVELL Page 1
  2. 2. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL BRIEF HISTORY In the late 1960s, researchers from General Electric, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Bell Labs launched a joint project to develop an ambitious multi-user, multi-tasking operating system for mainframe computers known as MULTICS (Multiplexed Information and Computing System). MULTICS failed but it did inspire Ken Thompson, who was a researcher at Bell Labs, to have a go at writing a simpler operating system himself. He wrote a simpler version of MULTICS on a PDP7 in assembler and called his attempt UNICS (Uniplexed Information and Computing System). Because memory and CPU power were at a The PDP 7 were UNIX was developed premium in those days, UNICS, eventually renamed to UNIX, used short commands to minimize the space needed to store them and the time needed to decode them, hence, the tradition of short UNIX commands we use today, e.g. ls, cp, rm, mv etc. Ken Thompson then teamed up with Dennis Ritchie, the author of the first C compiler in 1973. They rewrote the UNIX kernel in C and this was a big step forward in terms of the system's portability. They released the Fifth Edition of UNIX to universities in 1974. The Seventh Edition, released in 1978, marked a split in UNIX development into two main branches: Ken Thompson (L) and Dennis Ritchie (R) SYSV (System 5) and BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution). BSD arose from the University of California at Berkeley where Ken Thompson spent a sabbatical year. Its development was continued by students at Berkeley and other research institutions. SYSV was developed by AT&T and other commercial companies. UNIX versions based on SYSV have traditionally been more conservative, but better supported than BSD-based versions. Over the years, hundreds of people added and improved upon the system, and it spread into the commercial world. Dozens of different UNIX versions appeared, each with unique qualities, yet still having enough similarities to the original AT&T version. All of the versions were based on either AT&T’s System V or Berkeley System Distribution UNIX AND NOVELL Page 2
  3. 3. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL (BSD) UNIX, or a hybrid of both. During the late 1980’s there were several of commercial implementations of UNIX, such as : Apple Computer’s A/UX AT&T’s System V Release 3 Digital Equipment Corporation’s Ultrix and OSF/1 (renamed to DEC UNIX) Hewlett Packard’s HP-UX IBM’s AIX Lynx’s Real-Time UNIX NeXT’s NeXTStep Santa Cruz Operation’s SCO UNIX Silicon Graphics’ IRIX SUN Microsystems’ SUN OS and Solaris The Open Standards Foundation is a UNIX industry organization designed to keep the various UNIX flavors working together. They created operating systems guidelines called POSIX to encourage inter-operability of applications from one flavor of UNIX to another. Portability of applications to different gave UNIX a distinct advantage over its mainframe competition. Then came the GUIs. Apple’s Macintosh operating system and Microsoft’s Windows operating environment simplified computing tasks, and made computers more appealing to a larger number of users. UNIX wizards enjoyed the power of the command line interface, but acknowledged the difficult learning curve for new users. The Athena Project at MIT developed the X Windows Graphical User Interface for UNIX computers. Also known as the X11 environment, corporations developed their own “flavors” of the UNIX GUIs based on X11. Eventually, a GUI standard called Motif was generally accepted by the corporations and academia. During the late 1990’s Microsoft’s Windows NT operating system started encroaching into traditional UNIX businesses such as banking and high-end graphics. Although not as reliable as UNIX, NT became popular because of the lower learning curve and its similarities to Windows 95 and 98. Many traditional UNIX companies, such as DEC and Silicon Graphics, abandoned their OS for NT. Others, such as SUN, focused their efforts on the Internet. Linus Torvalds had a dream. He wanted to create the coolest operating system in the world that was free for anyone to use and modify. Based on an obscure UNIX flavor called MINIX, Linus took the source code and created his own flavor, called Linux. Using the power of the Internet, he distributed copies of his OS all over the world, and fellow programmers improved upon his work. In 1999, with a dozen versions of the OS and many GUIs to choose from, Linux is causing a UNIX revival. Knowing that people are UNIX AND NOVELL Page 3
  4. 4. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL used to the Windows tools, Linux developers are making applications that combine the best of Windows with the best of UNIX. In 2005, Sun Microsystems released the bulk of its Solaris system code (based on UNIX System V Release 4) into an open source project called OpenSolaris. New Sun OS technologies, notably the ZFS file system, were first released as open source code via the OpenSolaris project. Soon afterwards, OpenSolaris spawned several non-Sun distributions. In 2010, after Oracle acquired Sun, OpenSolaris was officially discontinued, but the development of derivatives continued. Simplified UNIX Family Tree FEATURES OF UNIX UNIX AND NOVELL Page 4
  5. 5. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL The UNIX Operating System is available on machines with a wide range of computing power, from microcomputers to mainframes, and on different manufacture's machines. No other operating system can make this claim. The following are the features of UNIX, the reasons of its popularity and success : Portability - The system is written in high-level language making it easier to read, understand, change and, therefore move to other machines. The code can be changed and complied on a new machine. Customers can then choose from a wide variety of hardware vendors without being locked in with a particular vendor. Machine-independence - The System hides the machine architecture from the user, making it easier to write applications that can run on micros, minis and mainframes. Multi-User Operations - UNIX is a multi-user system designed to support a group of users simultaneously. The system allows for the sharing of processing power and peripheral resources, white at the same time providing excellent security features. Multi-Tasking Operations – UNIX permits the use of more than one program to run at once. It does this in the same way as a multi-user system, by rapidly switching the processor between the various programs. Hierarchical File System - UNIX uses a hierarchical file structure to store information. This structure has the maximum flexibility in grouping information in a way that reflects its natural state. It allows for easy maintenance and efficient implementation. UNIX shell - UNIX has a simple user interface called the shell that has the power to provide the services that the user wants. It protects the user from having to know the intricate hardware details. Pipes and Filters - UNIX has facilities called Pipes and Filters which permit the user to create complex programs from simple programs. Utilities - UNIX has over 200 utility programs for various functions. New utilities can be built effortlessly by combining existing utilities. UNIX AND NOVELL Page 5
  6. 6. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL Software Development Tools - UNIX offers an excellent variety of tools for software development for all phases, from program editing to maintenance of software ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF UNIX UNIX offers the following advantages : Full multitasking with protected memory. Multiple users can run multiple programs each at the same time without interfering with each other or crashing the system. Very efficient virtual memory, so many programs can run with a modest amount of physical memory. Access controls and security. All users must be authenticated by a valid account and password to use the system at all. All files are owned by particular accounts. The owner can decide whether others have read or write access to his files. A rich set of small commands and utilities that do specific tasks well -- not cluttered up with lots of special options. Ability to string commands and utilities together in unlimited ways to accomplish more complicated tasks -- not limited to preconfigured combinations or menus, as in personal computer systems. A powerfully unified file system. Everything is a file: data, programs, and all physical devices. Entire file system appears as a single large tree of nested directories, regardless of how many different physical devices (disks) are included. A lean kernel that does the basics for you but doesn't get in the way when you try to do the unusual. Available on a wide variety of machines - the most truly portable operating system. Optimized for program development, and thus for the unusual circumstances that are the rule in research. UNIX AND NOVELL Page 6
  7. 7. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL The disadvantages of UNIX are : The traditional command line shell interface is user hostile -designed for the programmer, not the casual user. Commands often have cryptic names and give very little response to tell the user what they are doing. Much use of special keyboard characters - little typos have unexpected results. To use Unix well, you need to understand some of the main design features. Its power comes from knowing how to make commands and programs interact with each other, not just from treating each as a fixed black box. Richness of utilities (over 400 standard ones) often overwhelms novice users. Documentation is short on examples and tutorials to help you figure out how to use the many tools provided to accomplish various kinds of tasks. NOVELL Novell is a multinational software and services company headquartered in Provo, Utah. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Attachmate Group. Novell builds enterprise software that makes people productive and makes work environments secure and easy to manage. It supports thousands of organizations around the world with collaboration, endpoint management, and file and networking products. Novell has been instrumental in making the Utah Valley a focus for technology and software development. Novell technology contributed to the emergence of local area networks, which displaced the dominant mainframe computing model and changed computing worldwide. Today, a primary focus of the company is on developing software for enterprise clients. In 1983, the company introduced its most significant product, the multi-platform network operating system (NOS), Novell NetWare. UNIX AND NOVELL Page 7
  8. 8. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL The NetWare operating system supports the networking of personal computers (PCs). Installed on a PC, NetWare creates a server environment for the sharing of files, printers, and other network "services." BRIEF HISTORY NetWare evolved from a very simple concept : file sharing instead of disk sharing. In 1983 when the first versions of NetWare originated, all other competing products were based on the concept of providing shared direct disk access. Novell's alternative approach was validated by IBM in 1984, which helped promote the NetWare product. Novell NetWare shared disk-space in the form of NetWare volumes, comparable to DOS volumes. Clients running MS-DOS would run a special terminate and stay resident (TSR) program that allowed them to map a local drive letter to a NetWare volume. Clients had to log in to a server in order to be allowed to map volumes, and access could be restricted according to the login name. Similarly, they could connect to shared printers on the dedicated server, and print as if the printer was connected locally. One of the first software products designed for PC networking, early versions of NetWare appeared in the late 1980s. NetWare 3 was originally called "NetWare 386" and released for use with Intel's 80386 processor. Likewise, Novell developed NetWare 4 in the early 1990s for the Intel 80486. NetWare encountered stiff competition from Microsoft beginning in the mid1990s with the introduction of Windows NT Server products. Some believe the rapid growth of Linux server networking is also having an Impact in NetWare's popularity. With NetWare version 4.11, also called IntranetWare, Novell introduced its new NOS, Novell Directory Services (NDS). Version 5, the latest version to be released, addresses the integration of LANs, WANs, network applications, intranets, and the Internet, into a single global network. Novell Directory Services (NDS) provides name services as well as security, routing, messaging, management, Web publishing, and file and print services. Using X.500 directory architecture, it organizes all network resources, including users, groups, UNIX AND NOVELL Page 8
  9. 9. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL printers, servers, and volumes. NDS also provides a single-point logon for the user; with it, a user can log on to any server on the network and have access to all their usual user rights and privileges. NetWare 5 has been available since September, 1998 and NetWare 6 in 2001. Together, NetWare 3, 4, 5, and 6 enjoy an installed base of millions of servers worldwide. In 2003, Novell announced the successor product to NetWare: Open Enterprise Server (OES). First released in March 2005, OES completes the separation of the services traditionally associated with NetWare (such as Directory Services, and file-and-print) from the platform underlying the delivery of those services. OES offers all the services previously hosted by NetWare v6.5, and added the choice of delivering those services using either a NetWare v6.5 or SUSE Linux Enterprise Server v9 kernel. FEATURES OF NOVELL OPERATING SYSTEM Novell operating system provides a wide range of built-in services, including directory services, security, routing, messaging, management, file and print services, TCP/IP support, and SMP (symmetric multiprocessing). With NetWare Client installed, any client workstation can take full advantage of the resources provided by a NetWare Server such as : File Services NetWare file services are part of the NDS database. NDS provides a single-point logon for users and allows users and administrators alike to view network resources in the same way. Depending on the client software installed, you can view the entire network in a format that is native to your workstation operating system. For example, a Microsoft Windows client can map a logical drive to any NetWare file server volume or directory, and the NetWare resources will appear as logical drives on their computer. These logical drives function just like any other drive in their computer. Security NetWare provides extensive security, including: UNIX AND NOVELL Page 9
  10. 10. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL Logon security Provides authentication verification based on user name, passwords, and time and account restrictions. Trustee rights Controls which directories and files a user can access and what the user is able to do with them. Directory and file attributes Identifies the kinds of actions that can be carried out on a file (viewed, written to, copied, made shareable or nonshareable, or deleted). Printing Services Printing services are transparent (invisible) to the user of a client computer. Any print request from a client is redirected to the file server, where it is handed off to the print server and finally to the printer. (The same computer can serve as both file server and printer server.) You can share printer devices that are attached to the server, to a workstation, or directly to the network by means of the devices' own network interface card (NIC). NetWare print services can support up to 256 printers. Sending Messages to Others By using some simple commands, users can send a short message to other users on the network. Messages can be sent to groups as well as to individuals. If all the intended recipients are in the same group, address the message to the group rather than to each individual. Users can also disable or enable this command for their workstations. When a user disables the command, no broadcast messages will be received by that workstation. Messages can also be handled through the Message Handling Service (MHS). MHS can be installed on any server and configured for a fully interconnected message infrastructure for e-mail distribution. MHS supports most popular e-mail programs. Interoperability UNIX AND NOVELL Page 10
  11. 11. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL Full Network Operating System interoperability is not always possible. This is especially true when two dissimilar networks, such as NetWare and Windows NT, are being connected. A NetWare environment, centered on its directory services, and Windows NT, operating on a domain model, are inherently incompatible. To overcome this problem, Windows NT developed NWLink and GSNW, discussed earlier, that allow them to interoperate. These services allow a server on the Windows NT network to act as a gateway to the NetWare network. Any workstations on the Windows NT network can request resources or services available on the NetWare network, but they must make the request through the Windows NT server. The server will then act as a client on the NetWare network, passing requests between the two networks. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF NOVELL OPERATING SYSTEM Novell netware operating system was initially developed to provide access to transparent remote files and other distributed network services, such as printer sharing as well as various applications such as database access and electronic mail transfer. This operating system supports resources and information sharing between workstations and network computers. The following are the advantages of Novell Netware : Increases productivity Novell netware offers numerous benefits when used accordingly. It can improve productivity and provide more ways to communicate with other users, as well as sharing of resources. A reliable network system is a vital component in today’s computer systems and is a necessity in the operation of most businesses. Better security features Netware server has a dedicated workstation with an encrypted password and the administrator does not have access to the password. In other words, the administrator can only remove user’s permission if the users have their own passwords. Even if you have access to the netware server, you will not access resources or information since they have to pass through the security system. UNIX AND NOVELL Page 11
  12. 12. COMFUND 1 UNIX AND NOVELL Messaging services Novell netware is also equipped with a message handling feature. This offers ease of data transmission between several fronted applications. Moreover, the application facilitates data sharing over the Novell network and LANs. Flexibility The operating system also offers a great deal of flexibility, as it allows users to share multiple printers. There is no need to attach the printers to the primary print server for them to be operational. Usability and Configurability Novell netware comes with easy configuration, paper documentation, as well as electronic form, and books are provided to ensure that you are conversant on how to operate the network. Furthermore, it allows the usersto share resources and information with ease. Despite all these, the Novell netware has the following disadvantages : Poor when it comes to printing data/information, network status and management. The built-in management tools are not powerful and reliable S UNIX AND NOVELL Page 12

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