General Motors (GM) built the
world's first operating system, GMNAA I/O, way back in 1956.
It didn't do much, other than
automatically running a series of
programs, as soon as the previous
GM NAA I/O ran on an IBM
704, pictured above with a GM
The core software that allows a
computer to run as a useful device.
It manages the hardware, the user
interface and all other software
running on the computer
It allows us to interact with the
Through a command-line operating
system, like the Disk Operating System
(DOS), where you type a text command
and the computer responds according
to that command.
Through a graphical user interface
(GUI) operating system. An example of
this is Windows. You interact with the
computer through a graphical
interface with pictures and buttons
and give our commands by using the
mouse and keyboard.
UNIX is the father of Linux, SunOS, BSD, Ultrix and
many other non-Windows systems.
Some UNIX commands are the normal English
word for the function that you want to
accomplish, such as :
WHO – to display a list of all users currently on the system
CLEAR – to clear the current display console
TALK – to open a session between 2 users, allowing them to
HISTORY – to display a list of past commands executed by a
MAN – to display the online manual pages to verify the syntax of
A popular multi-user, multitasking operating
system developed at Bell Labs in the early 1970s
First designed to be a small, flexible system used
exclusively by programmers as a workbench more
than to be used to run application software.
One of the first operating systems to be written in
C, a high-level programming language.
Widely used in servers, workstations, and mobile
Unix environment and the client-server program
model were essential elements in the development
of the internet
The history of UNIX starts back in 1969, when
Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie
and others started working on the
“little-used PDP-7 in a corner”
at Bell Labs and
what was to become UNIX.
Unix was rewritten in the programming language C, an
unusual step that was visionary. Due to this decision Unix
was the first widely-used operating system that could switch
from and outlive its original hardware.
Other innovations were added to Unix, in part due to
synergies between Bell Labs and the academic community
The ``seventh edition'„ (V7) version of Unix was
released, grandfather of all Unix systems.
The academic community, led by Berkeley, developed a
variant called the Berkeley Software Distribution
(BSD), while AT&T continued developing Unix under the
names ``System III'' and later ``System V''.
Large UNIX community develops and Unix branches emerge
UNIX goes commercial
Start of the UNIX Wars
AT&T permitted to sell UNIX
Late 1980's through early 1990's
The ``wars'' between these two major strains raged.
After many years each variant adopted many of the key
features of the other.
AT&T sells its subsidiary Unix System Laboratories and all
Unix rights to Novell. Later Novell transfers the Unix
trademark to the X/Open group.
Commercially, System V won the ``standards wars'' (getting
most of its interfaces into the formal standards), and most
hardware vendors switched to AT&T's System V.
The result was many different versions of Unix, all based on
the original seventh edition.
Late 1990's through 2000‟s
Several Unix system vendors agreed on SVR4's
Executable and Linkable Format (ELF) as the standard for
binary and object code files. The common format allows
substantial binary compatibility among Unix systems
operating on the same CPU architecture.
X/Open merges with Open Software Foundation to form The
The Open Group announces Version 3 of the Single UNIX
Specification (formerly Spec 1170).
HP-UX, IBM‟s AIX, and other open source UNIX based
operating systems were released.
The core volumes of Version 3 of the Single UNIX
Specification are approved as an international standard.
Late 2000‟s through early 2010‟s
Unix celebrated its 40th year
Unix market hits 69 billion dollars with expected sales to
reach 74 billion dollars in 2013.
Unix finds its way on the desktop with Apple reporting 50
million desktops, all Certified Unix systems, and growing
The system is written in high-level language making it easier
to read, understand, change and, therefore move to other
machines. The code can be changed and complied on a new
machine. Customers can then choose from a wide variety of
hardware vendors without being locked in with a particular
The System hides the machine architecture from the user,
making it easier to write applications that can run on micros,
minis and mainframes.
UNIX is a multi-user system designed to support a group
of users simultaneously. The system allows for the sharing
of processing power and peripheral resources, while at
the same time providing excellent security features.
UNIX permits the use of more than one program to run at
once. It does this in the same way as a multi-user system, by
rapidly switching the processor between the various
Hierarchical File System
UNIX uses a hierarchical file structure to store information.
This structure has the maximum flexibility in grouping
information in a way that reflects its natural state. It allows
for easy maintenance and efficient implementation.
UNIX has a simple user interface called the shell that has
the power to provide the services that the user wants. It
protects the user from having to know the intricate
Pipes and Filters
UNIX has facilities called Pipes and Filters which permit the
user to create complex programs from simple programs.
UNIX has over 200 utility programs for various functions.
New utilities can be built effortlessly by combining existing
Software Development Tools
UNIX offers an excellent variety of tools for software
development for all phases, from program editing to
maintenance of software
The UNIX system is functionally organized at three levels:
Schedules tasks and manages storage
Connects and interprets users'
commands, calls programs from
memory, and executes them
Tools and Applications
Offer additional functionality to the
Full multitasking with protected memory. Multiple users can run
multiple programs each at the same time without interfering with
each other or crashing the system.
Very efficient virtual memory, so many programs can run with a
modest amount of physical memory.
Access controls and security. All users must be authenticated by a
valid account and password to use the system at all. All files are
owned by particular accounts. The owner can decide whether
others have read or write access to his files.
A rich set of small commands and utilities that do specific tasks well.
Ability to string commands and utilities together in unlimited ways to
accomplish more complicated tasks.
A powerfully unified file system. Everything is a file: data, programs,
and all physical devices. Entire file system appears as a single large
tree of nested directories, regardless of how many different
physical devices (disks) are included.
A lean kernel that does the basics for you but doesn't get in the way
when you try to do the unusual.
Available on a wide variety of machines - the most truly portable
Optimized for program development, and thus for the unusual
circumstances that are the rule in research.
The traditional command line shell interface is designed for the
programmer, not the casual user.
Commands often have cryptic names and give very little response to
tell the user what they are doing. Much use of special keyboard
characters - little typos have unexpected results.
To use Unix well, you need to understand some of the main design
features. Its power comes from knowing how to make commands and
programs interact with each other.
Richness of utilities (over 400 standard ones) often overwhelms novice
users. Documentation is short on examples and tutorials to help you
figure out how to use the many tools provided to accomplish various
kinds of tasks.
Novell NetWare is the venerable file and print server
that has been around for as long as there has been a
local area network (LAN).
The core NetWare system is launched from DOS . . .
you boot up the server under DOS and then run
NetWare. At that point, NetWare takes over the system
and DOS is no longer the dominate operating system.
Novell pioneered the PC LAN network operating
system in the PC market. From a technology
perspective, however, Novell offered few true
innovations in the area of file and print sharing.
Most of the concepts Novell implemented were
borrowed from other computer markets.
A multinational software and services
company in Provo, Utah that is a wholly
owned subsidiary of the Attachmate
Builds enterprise software that makes
people productive and makes work
environments secure and easy to
Supports thousands of organizations
around the world with collaboration,
endpoint management, and file and
Novell Inc. Provo, Utah Campus
Instrumental in making the Utah Valley a focus for technology and
Technology contributed to the emergence of local area
networks, which displaced the dominant mainframe computing
model and changed computing worldwide
Introduced the multi-platform network operating system
(NOS), Novell Netware
Primary focus today is on developing software for enterprise clients
An operating system introduced by Novell in
1983 that supports the networking of
personal computers (PCs). Installed on a PC,
NetWare creates a server environment for the
sharing of files, printers, and other network
The NetWare server manages the
transmission of data among the network
devices, stores and retrieves data from hard
disks, manages one or more file systems,
ensures data integrity, manages printers and
printing, and allocates and manages memory.
NetWare evolved from a very simple concept : file sharing instead of
1983 the first versions of NetWare originated
1984 IBM validated Novell's alternative approach and this helped
promote the NetWare product.
In the late 1980‟s early versions of Netware appeared and these were
one of the first software products designed for PC networking.
NetWare 3 was originally called "NetWare 386" and released for use
with Intel's 80386 processor.
In the early 1990s Novell developed NetWare 4 for the Intel 80486.
Beginning in the mid-1990s, NetWare encountered stiff competition
from Microsoft with the introduction of Windows NT Server products.
With NetWare version 4.11, also called IntranetWare, Novell
introduced its new NOS, Novell Directory Services (NDS) to help
network administrators manage enterprise networks.
Version 5, the latest version to be released, addresses the integration
of LANs, WANs, network applications, intranets, and the
Internet, into a single global network.
As NDS continued to mature, it was given a new name for the ebusiness age; it is now called the NDS eDirectory
NetWare 5 has been available since September, 1998 and NetWare 6
in 2001. Together, NetWare 3, 4, 5, and 6 enjoy an installed base of
millions of servers worldwide.
In 2003, Novell announced the successor product to
NetWare: Open Enterprise Server (OES). First released in
March 2005, OES completes the separation of the services
traditionally associated with NetWare (such as Directory
Services, and file-and-print) from the platform underlying the
delivery of those services. OES offers all the services
previously hosted by NetWare v6.5, and added the choice of
delivering those services using either a NetWare v6.5 or
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server .
NetWare file services are part of the NDS database. NDS
provides a single-point logon for users and allows users and
administrators alike to view network resources in the same way.
Printing services are transparent (invisible) to the user of a
client computer. Any print request from a client is redirected to
the file server, where it is handed off to the print server and
finally to the printer. The same computer can serve as both file
server and printer server. You can share printer devices that are
attached to the server, to a workstation, or directly to the
network by means of the devices' own network interface card
(NIC). NetWare print services can support up to 256 printers.
NetWare provides extensive security, including :
Logon security that provides authentication or
verification based on user name, passwords, and time
and account restrictions.
Trustee Rights that control which directories and files
a user can access and what the user is able to do with
Directory and file attributes that identifies the kinds of
actions that can be carried out on a file (viewed,
written to, copied, made shareable or nonshareable, or
Sending Messages to Others
By using some simple commands, users can send a short
message to other users on the network. Messages can be sent
to groups as well as to individuals.
Users can also disable or enable this command for their
workstations. When a user disables the command, no
broadcast messages will be received by that workstation.
Novell Netware offers numerous benefits when used
accordingly. It can improve productivity and provide more
ways to communicate with other users, as well as sharing
of resources. A reliable network system is a vital
component in today‟s computer systems and is a
necessity in the operation of most businesses.
Better Security Features
Netware server has a dedicated workstation with an
encrypted password and the administrator does not have
access to the password. The administrator can only
remove user‟s permission if the users have their own
passwords. Even if you have access to the Netware server,
you will not access resources or information since they
have to pass through the security system.
Novell Netware is also equipped with a message handling
feature that offers ease of data transmission between several
fronted applications. Moreover, the application facilitates data
sharing over the Novell network and LANs.
The operating system also offers a great deal of flexibility, as it
allows users to share multiple printers. There is no need to
attach the printers to the primary print server for them to be
Usability and Configurability
Novell Netware comes with easy configuration, paper
documentation, as well as electronic form, and books are
provided to ensure that you are conversant on how to
operate the network. Furthermore, it allows the users to
share resources and information with ease.
Poor when it comes to printing data/information, network status and
The built-in management tools are not powerful and reliable