Drug education


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Drug education

  1. 1. DRUG EDUCATION Amanda Rosa Blanca R. Arevalo Grade 10 – St. Therese of Avila HEALTH 10 23 January 2012 DEFINITION OF TERMS : a. DRUG - natural or synthetic substance which, when taken into a living body, affects its functioning or structure, and is used in the diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of a disease or relief of discomfort. It can also refer to a habit forming stimulant or narcotic substance, such as alcohol, cannabis (marijuana, hashish), cocaine, nicotine, hallucinogens (LSD, mescaline), inhalants (gasoline, glue), heroin, sedatives, stimulants, or a derivative of cocoa or poppy, which produces a state of arousal, contentment, or euphoria. b. DRUG USE – pertains to the taking in of a drug in such a manner that the sought-for-effects are attained with minimal hazard. c. DRUG MISUSE – pertains to the inappropriate use of a prescribed or non-prescribe drug. d. DRUG ABUSE – pertains to the repeated and willful use of a drug in a way other than prescribed or socially sanctioned. e. PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE – is the physiological adaptation of the body to the presence of a drug. It is defined by the development of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued, when the dose is reduced abruptly, or when an anti-agent is administered. f. PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPENDENCE – is a dependency of the mind and leads to psychological withdrawal symptoms such as cravings, irritability, insomnia, depression, anorexia, etc. g. TOLERANCE – is a physiological state characterized by a decrease in the effects of a drug with chronic administration. It is a condition wherein one needs higher doses of a substance to achieve the same effect previously achieved with a lower dose. h. WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME - is a constellation of signs and symptoms that appear when a person stops taking a drug or chemical substance on which he or she has become physically dependent. These physiological changes that occur due to the discontinuation of use of some drugs after a prolonged, regular use is unpleasant and sometimes life-threatening. D RUG EDUCA TI ON Page 1
  2. 2. DRUG EDUCATION HEALTH 10 IMPORTANCE OF DRUG EDUCATION : Drug education is a vital part of a child’s development and their ability to grow up safe and responsible. During a child’s education they not only learn new subjects and concepts but they learn the affects of peer pressure and their social environment. Drug education can help teens make right and responsible decisions about using drugs. Drug education is important because it provides students with opportunities to : • Increase their knowledge and understanding of the risks and consequences of legal and illegal drugs. • Explore their own and others’ attitudes and values towards drugs and drug users • Develop their personal and social skills so they feel able to communicate effectively, recognize choices, make decisions and access help when needed. TYPES AND USES OF DRUGS : Generally, drugs may be classified into legal and illegal drugs. Laws and regulations control the availability, quality and price of the "legal" drugs. Medicines that doctors prescribe to patients are examples of legal drugs. Illegal drugs, on the other hand, have no price or quality controls. This means that a user can never be sure that the drug they are taking is in fact what they think it is. The user also cannot be sure of a drug's strength or purity. There are many different types of drugs you should be aware of. Some are prescribed, others are known as club drugs, illicit or illegal substances, and some are called designers drugs. They include: • Antidepressants - Antidepressants are a prescription medication used to treat depression and mood disorders like obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and other anxiety problems. • Barbiturates – Many barbiturates are prescription drug and work by depressing the central nervous system, causing sedation and anesthesia. While used to treat seizure disorders, insomnia and other problems, they can be abused. • Cannabis - also known as marijuana and has psychoactive effects. It is taken in the form of smoke or vapor and can even be consumed and mixed into food or seeped in a tea. • Depressants - type of drug that works by reducing the function of the central nervous system. D RUG EDUCA TI ON Page 1
  3. 3. DRUG EDUCATION HEALTH 10 • Hallucinogens - Hallucinogens work by producing sensory hallucinations in users involving any of the five senses. Common substances that fall within this category include LSD, PCP and Peyote. • Inhalants - drugs that are inhaled in the form of a gas or solvent and can be found anywhere like nail polish remover, gasoline, glue and aerosol cans. • Narcotics – a substance derived from opium (opiates) or its synthetic replacements, such as cocaine, morphine and heroin, and are are highly addictive. • Steroids - Anabolic steroids are not the same as the kind used in medicine for the reduction of inflammation. Rather, these substances are used to build muscle mass and strength. They typically consist of male sex hormones and can be very damaging when used without a prescription. • Stimulants - Stimulants are a class of drugs that boost alertness and increase the activity of the central nervous system. COMMONLY ABUSED DRUG : • Sedatives – such as GHB and Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) are known for their use as date rape drugs (also called a Mickey) and being administered to unsuspecting patrons in bars or guests at parties to reduce the intended victims' defenses. • Stimulants • Amphetamines - increase the heart and respiration rates, blood pressure and in some users, dilate the pupils of the eyes and decrease appetite. • Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) - comes either in tablet or capsule form (known as ecstasy, zoom, scrap) or as powder or crystal. • Norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor • Cocaine - made from the leaves of the coca shrub. It is a stimulant and is used clinically as a local anesthetic, particularly in ophthalmology. D RUG EDUCA TI ON Page 1
  4. 4. DRUG EDUCATION HEALTH 10 • Caffeine - a drug that is found naturally in coffee, tea, and to a small extent cocoa, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Caffeine stimulates the body, increasing heart rate and blood pressure, and alertness, making some people feel better and able to concentrate. • Nicotine - an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant (aubergine), and green pepper. • Ampakines or eugeroics - are stimulants that tend to increase alertness without the peripheral (body) effects or addiction/tolerance/abuse potential of the traditional stimulants. • Hallucinogens - among the oldest drugs, substances naturally occur in mushrooms, cacti and a variety of other plants. • Narcotics - natural, semi-synthetic, or synthetic substances that behave like morphine, the primary active constituent of natural opium poppy. NARCOTICS : The term narcotic, from Greek narkō, “Ι benumb”, originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with any sleep-inducing properties. It has since become associated with opioids, commonly, morphine, heroin and their derivatives, such as hydrocodone. Today, the term typically has negative connotations. When used in a legal context, a narcotic drug is simply one that is totally prohibited, or one that is used in violation of strict governmental regulation, such as heroin or morphine. The term "narcotic" is believed to have been coined by the Greek physician Galen to refer to agents that numb or deaden, causing loss of feeling or paralysis. Galen listed mandrake root, altercus (eclata) seeds, and poppy juice (opium) as the chief examples. It originally referred to any substance that relieved pain, dulled the senses, or induced sleep. • History and Origin Humans have experimented with narcotic and hallucinogenic plants since before recorded history, discovering their properties as they tested plants for edibility or were attracted by the odors of some leaves when these were burned. Ancient cultures used narcotic plants to relieve pain or to heighten pleasure. They used hallucinogenic plants to induce trance-like states during religious ceremonies. Natural substances, used D RUG EDUCA TI ON Page 1
  5. 5. DRUG EDUCATION HEALTH 10 directly or in refined extracts, have also served simply to increase or to dull alertness, to invigorate the body, or to change the mood. Narcotics occurring naturally in the opium poppy have been used since ancient Greek times, both for relieving pain and for producing euphoria. Extracts of the opium poppy were smoked, eaten, or drunk. The pharmacologically active components of opium were isolated during the first half of the 19th century. The first was morphine, isolated by a young German pharmacist, F.W.A. Sertürner, around 1804. A much milder narcotic, codeine, was in turn isolated from morphine. The invention of the hypodermic needle in the mid-19th century allowed morphine to be administered by injection. Injections of morphine produce much greater effects than taking the same amount of drug orally. However, the availability of morphine injections led to serious problems of abuse, and laws were introduced to control the use, production, and trade of narcotics and other dangerous drugs. In 1898 heroin, or diacetylmorphine, was developed from morphine by the Bayer Company in Germany. Heroin is 5 to 10 times as potent as morphine itself and is used by most narcotic addicts. Because heroin proved to be even more addictive than morphine, a search for synthetic substitutes was undertaken that resulted in such opioids as meperidine (Demerol), methadone, and levorphanol (Levo-Dromoran). • Effects of Drugs on the Individual, Family, and Community • Effects of Drugs on the Individual 1. Individuals become addicted. 2. Lack of interest in studies, sports and other activities of daily life. 3. Loss of appetite and decrease in body resistance to disease. 4. Impairment of intelligence, memory and body coordination. 5. Damage to brain cells. 6. Indulgence in crime. 7. Accidents and mishaps. 8. Tendency to commit suicide. • Effects of Drugs on the Family D RUG EDUCA TI ON Page 1
  6. 6. DRUG EDUCATION HEALTH 10 1. Peace in the family is disrupted. Members become hostile to the drug user because he demands money and sometimes even steal money and other household goods. 2. Poor reputation in the neighborhood. 3. Quarrels in family. 4. The family members are at greater risk to acquiring diseases like AIDS and Hepatitis B from the drug user due to sharing of syringes and needles with other drug users. • Effects of Drugs on the Community 1. The community and society will not progress. 2. Education will suffer, jobs and occupation will suffer. 3. Peace and order within the community or society will suffer because of increase in crime rate. 4. Expenditure of the government will increase as drug rehabilitation centers have to establish. DANGEROUS DRUG ACT : Republic Act 9165, known as Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002 was approved on January 23, 2002. It is an act instituting the comprehensive Dangerous Drug Act of 2002, repealing Republic Act 6425, otherwise known as the Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972, as amended, and providing funds for its implementation. It establishes the Dangerous Drugs Board, which is the policy-making and strategy-formulating body in the planning and formulation of policies and programs on drug prevention and control. It also creates the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA), which serves as the implementing arm of the Board, shall be responsible for the efficient and effective law enforcement of all the provisions on any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical as provided in this Act. It consists of the definition of terms; unlawful acts and penalties; dangerous drug test and record requirements; participation of the family, students, teacher and school authorities in the enforcement of this Act; promotion of a National Drug-Free workplace program with the participation of private and labor sectors and the Department of Labor and Employment; participation of local government units; program for the treatment and rehabilitation of drug dependents; Dangerous Drug Board and Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency; appropriations, management of funds and annual report; jurisdiction over dangerous drugs cases; implementing rules and regulations; and final provisions. • Provisions and penalties • ARTICLE II – Unlawful Acts and Penalties D RUG EDUCA TI ON Page 1
  7. 7. DRUG EDUCATION HEALTH 10 A. Penalties ranging from years of imprisonment to life imprisonment or death and a fine ranging from P100,000.00 to P10,000,000.00 for the following unlawful acts : 1. Importation of Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals. 2. Sale, Trading, Administration, Dispensation, Delivery, Distribution and Transportation of Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals 3. Maintenance of a Den, Dive or Resort where any dangerous drug is used or sold in any form 4. Being Employees and Visitors of a Den, Dive or Resort where any dangerous drug is used or sold in any form 5. Manufacture of Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals 6. Illegal Chemical Diversion of Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals 7. Manufacture or Delivery of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus, and Other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals. 8. Possession of Dangerous Drugs 9. Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and Other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs. 10. Possession of Dangerous Drugs During Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings 11. Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and Other Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs During Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings 12. Use of Dangerous Drugs D RUG EDUCA TI ON Page 1
  8. 8. DRUG EDUCATION HEALTH 10 13. Cultivation or Culture of Plants Classified as Dangerous Drugs or are Sources Thereof 14. Maintenance and Keeping of Original Records of Transactions on Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals 15. Unnecessary Prescription of Dangerous Drugs 16. Unlawful Prescription of Dangerous Drugs 17. Misappropriation, Misapplication or Failure to Account for the Confiscated, Seized and/or Surrendered Dangerous Drugs, Plant Sources of Dangerous Drugs, Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals, Instruments/Paraphernalia and/or Laboratory Equipment Including the Proceeds or Properties Obtained from the Unlawful Act Committed by a Public Officer or Employee 18. Violating Any Regulation Issued by the Board B. Confiscation and Forfeiture of the Proceeds or Instruments of the Unlawful Act, Including the Properties or Proceeds Derived from the Illegal Trafficking of Dangerous Drugs and/or Precursors and Essential Chemicals C. The PDEA shall take charge and have custody of all dangerous drugs, plant sources of dangerous drugs, controlled precursors and essential chemicals, as well as instruments/paraphernalia and/or laboratory equipment so confiscated, seized and/or surrendered, for proper disposition. D. Grant of Compensation, Reward and Award to any person providing information and to law enforcers participating in the operation, which results in the successful confiscation, seizure or surrender of dangerous drugs, plant sources of dangerous drugs, and controlled precursors and essential chemicals. E. No Plea-Bargaining Provision F. Non-Applicability of the Probation Law for Drug Traffickers and Pushers D RUG EDUCA TI ON Page 1
  9. 9. DRUG EDUCATION HEALTH 10 G. Qualifying Aggravating Circumstances in the Commission of a Crime by an Offender Under the Influence of Dangerous Drugs H. Attempt or Conspiracy to commit the following unlawful acts shall be penalized by the same penalty prescribed for the commission of the same as provided under this Act I. Criminal Liability for Government Officials and Employees shall be imposed, in addition to absolute perpetual disqualification from any public office, if those found guilty of such unlawful acts are government officials and employees. J. Criminal Liability for Planting of Evidence K. Criminal Liability of Officers of Partnerships, Corporations, Associations or Other Juridical Entities for any violation of this Act L. Additional Penalty if Offender is an Alien M. Immunity from Prosecution and Punishment for any person who willingly testifies. • ARTICLE III - Dangerous Drug Test and Records Requirements • ARTICLE IV - Participation of the Family, Students, Teachers and School Authorities in the Enforcement of this Act • ARTICLE V - Promotion of a National Drug-Free Workplace Program With the Participation of Private and Labor Sectors and the Department of Labor and Employment • ARTICLE VI - Participation of the Private and Labor Sectors in the Enforcement of this Act • ARTICLE VII - Participation of Local Government Units • ARTICLE VIII - Program for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Drug Dependents • ARTICLE IX - Dangerous Drugs Board and Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency • ARTICLE X - Appropriations, Management of Funds and Annual Report • ARTICLE XI - Jurisdiction Over Dangerous Drugs Cases • ARTICLE XII - Implementing Rules and Regulations D RUG EDUCA TI ON Page 1