Computerized Grading System ( Chapter 1 & 3 )


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Computerized Grading System ( Chapter 1 & 3 )

  1. 1. Computerized Grading System for Metropolitan Academy of Manila Christelle Joy Barreno, Amanda Arevalo, Anderson Emmanuel Abundo, and Chriselle Laput
  2. 2. Page 2 1.0Introduction People nowadays are living in an information age dependent upon digital information. Digital information is electronic information, the result of computer processing. Every type of job relies upon getting information, using it, managing it, and relaying information to others. Computers enable the efficient processing and storage of information. A grading system plays a key role in the management system of any school. But, such systems do not often relate expectations, outcomes, and performance. As each student desires to achieve a good score for each assignment, exam, project and/or report, the whole process adds heavy workload for teachers in order to make their evaluation fair, comprehensive, and accurate. From the faculty perspective, these are necessary to avoid disagreement from students and parents. A computerized grading system is a highly desirable addition to the educational tool-kit, particularly when it can provide less effort and a more effective and timely outcome. Grading systems are designed to provide incentives for achievement and assist in identifying problem areas of a student. It is the most commonly used means of analyzing student performance, talents and skills. Students’ grades are vital information needed in advancing to the next grade/year level and its accuracy is very important. Many teachers feel that the time they take in recording and computing for the grades of their students is time that could be better spent elsewhere, like preparing lessons, researching or meeting with their students. With the advent of computer technology, more and more schools are taking advantage of a variety of grading systems available both off-line and online that can help save time on administrative tasks and give teachers more time to attend to other important functions. However, a greater majority, especially small schools, government schools, and schools in
  3. 3. Page 3 remote areas, still utilize the manual method of recording and computing for the grades of the students. The proponents of this study wish to reduce the workload of teachers by eliminating the need for manual computation and recording of each grade. The common problems encountered in manual recording and computations are error- and file-handling, and redundancy. As the workload gradually increases with growing amounts of grades and student lists that need to be attended, it becomes tedious on the part of the teacher to proficiently manage them in time for documentation and file submission to higher education authorities. As such, this paper aims to produce a workable computerized grading system that will address these issues. 1.1 Background of the Study Metropolitan Academy of Manila School is a small private school in Santa Ana, Manila. It was established four years ago and is utilizing the manual system in almost all phases of their school work. The school maintains a small staff of teachers and personnel as compared to its growing population. There are teachers handling as much as four different subjects, aside from being a class adviser and area coordinator. Majority of the teachers handle three different grade levels. Metropolitan Academy of Manila- School uses the manual way of computing grades and adding information or records of both students and professors. The process entails a lot of effort and by computing and storing of data manually the process is prone to error especially for the professors who handle two or more classes. By using the manual way of computing and storing data, being prone to error is possible and just by a single mistake, repeating the process may be required.
  4. 4. Page 4 Developing a computerized grading system for Metropolitan Academy of Manila would make the task of recording and computing grades easier for the teachers. This will not only benefit the teachers of the school but will also benefit the students because of the improvement in the accuracy of calculations and in the proficiency and productivity of the teachers. 1.2 Statement of the Problem 1.2.1 General Problem How to create a Computerized Grading System for Metropolitan Academy of Manila. 1.2.2 Specific Problem  To create a module that will display the student’s record.  To promote automation awareness by reducing (if not eliminating) manual tasks.  To avoid miscomputation of student’s grades.  To create a module that will automatically compute the student’s grade. 1.3 Statement of the Objectives 1.3.1 General Objectives The general objective of this study is to develop a Computerized Grading System for Metropolitan Academy of Manila.
  5. 5. Page 5 1.3.2 Specific Objectives  To create a module that will record the student’s name, grade level and section.  To create a module that will record the student’s grade for quizzes, recitation, project, and quarterly exam.  To create a module that will compute the student’s quarterly grade based on inputted data.  To create a module that will secure and maintain the integrity of data. 1.4 Significance of the Study The computers provide convenience to its user through the easier and faster way of recording information. Population of students in almost all- educational institution is rapidly increasing so great demand in teaching force is also becoming higher. Grading System is a very important aspect of a school’s operations and goals. The students are graded to measure their performance and knowledge in every grading period. Teachers spend massive time to accurately compute the grades of the students using their calculators, and, in earlier times, teachers manually solve grades using paper and pen. The basic objective of a grading system is to communicate to parents a periodic evaluation summarizing significant factors of the student’s adjustment
  6. 6. Page 6 in the total education program. The cumulative purpose of the grading system is to supply the parent a composite statement of educational process in a specified period of time for the student in selected areas of learning. A computerized grading system for Ministry Catholic School will provide a marked improvement in the way teachers record and compute for the grades of students. The study will be a great help to the following:  Faculty Teachers Teachers would be able to record and compute for the grades of their students faster thereby lessening their workload and providing them with added time to attend to other functions. This in turn would improve their efficiency as teachers.  School Administrators School Administrators no longer have to re-compute the grades of each student to check on their accuracy. Reports such as grading sheets and class records can be submitted on time.  Students Students can now look forward to better lessons since their teachers would have added time to prepare for them their lesson plans.
  7. 7. Page 7 1.5 Scope and Limitation Scope:  Can view the students records  Can compute the students grades  The system is password protected Limitations:  The system cannot print the student’s grades.  The system is cannot be viewed online.  The system has no password recovery. 2.0 Methodology of the Study The Fourth Generation Technique (4GT) is based on NPL that is the Non-Procedural Language techniques. Depending upon the specifications made, the 4GT approaches uses various tools for the automatic generation of source codes. It is the vital tool which uses the non-procedural language for Report generation, Database query, Manipulation of data, Interaction of screen, Definition, Generation of code, Spread Sheet capabilities, High level graphical capacity etc. Like any other models used, the 4GT approach requires the requirement analysis step. Once the requirement analysis is done upto the expectations, its translation into the operational prototype begins. The most important phase in the 4GT approach is the customer developer approach, all the major decisions regarding the implementations, costs and functioning of the system is taken in this phase.
  8. 8. Page 8 The Fourth Generation Technique (4GT) is usually successful in implementing smaller applications as we can easily switch from the requirement analysis phase to the implementation phase. Prototypes of any applications can be easily developed with the help of the 4GT approach. This prototype helps the clients to give a rough idea of how the system will look when it is done. The 4GT model is very useful approach in small projects but it is not a dominant approach for large software development. Requirement Gathering Requirement gathering is usually the first part of any software product. This stage starts when you are thinking about developing software. In this phase, you meet customers or prospective customers, analyzing market requirements and features that are in demand. You also find out if there is a real need in the market for the software product you are trying to develop. In this stage, marketing and sales people or people who have direct contact with the customers do most of the work. These people talk to these customers and try to understand what they need. A comprehensive understanding of the customers’ needs and writing down features of the proposed software product are the keys to success in this phase. This phase is actually a base for the whole development effort. If the base is not laid correctly, the product will not find a place in the market. If you develop a very good software product which is not required in the market, it does not matter how well you build it. You can find many stories about software products that failed in the market because the customers did not require them. Design strategy Is a discipline which helps firms determine what to make and do, why do it and how to innovate contextually, both immediately and over the long term. This process involves the interplay between design and business strategy, forming a systematic approach integrating holistic-thinking, research methods
  9. 9. Page 9 used to inform business strategy and strategic planning which provides a context for design. While not always required, design strategy often uses social research methods to help ground the results and mitigate the risk of any course of action. The approach has proved useful for companies in a variety of strategic scenarios. Implementation Is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy. An implementation is a realization of a technical specification or algorithm as a program, software component, or other computer system through programming and deployment. Many implementations may exist for a given specification or standard. For example, web browsers contain implementations of World Wide Web Consortium-recommended specifications, and software development tools contain implementations of programming languages. Testing Testing can never completely identify all the defects within software. Instead, it furnishes a criticism or comparison that compares the state and behavior of the product against oracles—principles or mechanisms by which someone might recognize a problem. These oracles may include (but are not limited to) specifications, contracts, comparable products, past versions of the same product, inferences about intended or expected purpose, user or customer expectations, relevant standards, applicable laws, or other criteria. A primary purpose of testing is to detect software failures so that defects may be discovered and corrected. Testing cannot establish that a product functions properly under all conditions but can only establish that it does not function properly under specific conditions. The scope of software testing often includes examination of code as well as execution of that code in various environments and conditions as well as examining the aspects of code: does it do what it is supposed to do and do what it needs to do. In the current culture of
  10. 10. Page 10 software development, a testing organization may be separate from the development team. There are various roles for testing team members. Information derived from software testing may be used to correct the process .