Part 1 media, culture and society


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  • Part 1 media, culture and society

    1. 1. Monday 11.00-13.00 Wednesday 11.00-12.00 Dasan Bldg., Room 217 Professor: Michael Prieler, Ph.D. Mainly based on: Baran, Stanley (2008). Introduction to Mass Communication: Media literacy and culture. 5 th edition. Boston: McGraw Hill.
    2. 2. Results of Questions <ul><li>What do you expect from this course? </li></ul><ul><li>Basic knowledge about communication; </li></ul><ul><li>I expect my English to increase; </li></ul><ul><li>high points; </li></ul><ul><li>no expectations; </li></ul><ul><li>easy and funny lesson; </li></ul><ul><li>I want to know all about communication in order to decide for a major; </li></ul>
    3. 3. Results of Questions <ul><li>What do you want to learn in this course? </li></ul><ul><li>What role TV and radio play; </li></ul><ul><li>basics to communication; </li></ul><ul><li>about mass communication and English conversation; </li></ul><ul><li>want to learn about advertising; </li></ul><ul><li>especially about film; </li></ul><ul><li>Why did you decide to study communication? </li></ul><ul><li>This class looked interesting; </li></ul><ul><li>because I like this study; </li></ul>
    4. 4. Results of Questions <ul><li>Future plans? </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting producer; drama producer; graphic designer; director; art director; continue university; work in Korea public advertising company. </li></ul><ul><li>In what forms of media are you especially interested? </li></ul><ul><li>TV; TV advertising; Films; internet; </li></ul><ul><li>Other comments? </li></ul><ul><li>Nice to meet you! </li></ul><ul><li>I am not good in English – understand me please! </li></ul><ul><li>I want more easy explanation and speak slowly – I cannot understand fast English. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Facebook <ul><li>Create an account in Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Go to: </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the course “Introduction to Communication” </li></ul><ul><li>Click on the “Like-Button” in Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Useful page for uploading documents to Facebook: www. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Homework <ul><li>20% of the grade is based on homework/facebook assignments </li></ul><ul><li>3 Powerpoint Presentations (12 Points) </li></ul><ul><li>Topics which are discussed in class </li></ul><ul><li>Submission: one week before topic is discussed in class – e.g. newspaper or magazines (end of next week) – for example, the history of newspapers in Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>At least 5 Slides (with text and photos) </li></ul><ul><li>Best presentation of the week, gets bonus point </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller written homeworks (8 points) </li></ul>
    7. 7. What is a good homework? <ul><li>Choose a topic that might be interesting/new to your professor </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a topic that might be interesting/new to other students </li></ul><ul><li>Do some search on the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Write the most important facts on the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Add some interesting photos to make the presentation more visually attractive </li></ul>
    8. 8.
    9. 9.
    10. 10. Sut Jhally on Media Education Sut Jhally, Ph.D. Professor of Communication University of Massachusetts Source: Media Education Foundation
    11. 11. Summary of Jhally’s Talk <ul><li>Why does media education matter? </li></ul><ul><li>BECAUSE: </li></ul><ul><li>We should be aware of things that influence daily life </li></ul><ul><li>Media is everywhere / Media is our environment </li></ul><ul><li>We are influenced by media in a way, we even do not realize (if something is in the environment all the time, you stop paying attention to it) </li></ul><ul><li>Media is produced by an industry – by people we do not even know </li></ul><ul><li>Makes people active agents and helps them to see the world more clearly. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Summary of Jhally’s Talk <ul><li>Media education does not show how you should act in the world – BUT gives an understanding what effect media have – people are free to make choices themselves. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Media Everywhere <ul><li>“ Does a fish know its wet?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ No” </li></ul><ul><li>Marshall McLuhan </li></ul><ul><li>Media surround and influence us, but we are not aware of it. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Discussion <ul><li>What media did you use today? </li></ul>
    15. 15.
    16. 16. Important Abilities <ul><li>A critical thinking skill enabling students to develop independent judgments about media content. </li></ul><ul><li>An understanding of the process of mass communication. </li></ul><ul><li>An awareness of the impact of media on the individual and society. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for analyzing and discussing media messages. </li></ul><ul><li>An understanding of media content as a text that provides insight into our culture and our lives. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Important Abilities <ul><li>An understanding of the ethical and moral obligations of media practitioners. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to distinguish emotional from reasoned reactions when responding to content and to act accordingly. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of heightened expectations of media content. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to think critically about media messages, no matter how credible their sources (selection). </li></ul>
    18. 18. Important Questions <ul><li>Who sent this message? </li></ul><ul><li>What techniques are used to attract my attention? </li></ul><ul><li>How might other people understand this message? </li></ul><ul><li>What values are represented or omitted in this message? </li></ul><ul><li>Why was this message sent? </li></ul>
    19. 19.
    20. 20.
    21. 21. Communication defined <ul><li>Harold Lasswell (1948): </li></ul><ul><li>Who ? </li></ul><ul><li>Says what ? </li></ul><ul><li>Through which channel? </li></ul><ul><li>To whom ? </li></ul><ul><li>With what effect ? </li></ul><ul><li>Harold Lasswell (1948): </li></ul><ul><li>Who ? (source) </li></ul><ul><li>Says what ? (message) </li></ul><ul><li>Through which channel? (medium) </li></ul><ul><li>To whom ? (receiver) </li></ul><ul><li>With what effect ? </li></ul>
    22. 22. Osgood and Schramm’s Model (1954) <ul><ul><li>Encoding : Transferring a message into understandable signs or symbols (speaking, writing, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decoding : Signs or symbols are interpreted (listening, reading, watching, etc.) </li></ul>Model of Interpersonal Communication (No Source!)
    23. 23. Result of Minute Paper <ul><li>Most interesting? </li></ul><ul><li>Hallym Newspaper; encoding; </li></ul><ul><li>Least interesting? </li></ul><ul><li>Video – it is so fast and hard to understand; </li></ul><ul><li>Most unclear? </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding-decoding; </li></ul><ul><li>Most important? </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding-decoding; </li></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul><ul><li>I have no confidence to speak English; I already learned about </li></ul>
    24. 24. Osgood and Schramm’s Model (1954) <ul><ul><li>Encoding : Transferring a message into understandable signs or symbols (speaking, writing, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decoding : Signs or symbols are interpreted (listening, reading, watching, etc.) </li></ul>Model of Interpersonal Communication (No Source!)
    25. 25. Mass Medium defined <ul><li>The telephone is the medium that carries my voice to my friend across town. </li></ul><ul><li>When the medium is a technology that carries messages to a large number of people (e.g. newspaper, radio, television) – we call it mass medium (plural: media). </li></ul>
    26. 26. Mass Communication defined Mass Communication is the process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences.
    27. 27. Types of Communication
    28. 28. Interpersonal vs. Mass Communication
    29. 29. Interpersonal vs. Mass Communication
    30. 30.
    31. 31. What is Culture? <ul><li>“ Culture is learned , socially acquired traditions and lifestyles of the members of a society, including their patterned, repetitive ways of thinking, feeling and acting.” (Harris 1983) </li></ul>
    32. 32. What is Culture? <ul><li>Shared Meanings are an important part of culture – you see a photo and have associations. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation and maintenance of a more or less common culture and shared meanings occur through communication, including mass communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Friends, parents, religion, teachers, politicians, and media. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture defines our realities and thereby shapes the ways we think, feel, and act. (e.g., how you think about food, about the color of your skin, etc.) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Culture’s Positive/Negatives Sides <ul><li>Positive and helpful: </li></ul><ul><li>Provides guidelines for behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Should I use chopsticks or a spoon to eat a soup? </li></ul><ul><li>How far should I stand away when speaking with somebody? </li></ul><ul><li>Negative: </li></ul><ul><li>Are thin or fat people beautiful? (different beauty ideals) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>81% of all 10-year-old girls in the US are afraid of being fat. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are foreigners good or bad people? (which one?) </li></ul><ul><li>Where did we learn this?? </li></ul>
    34. 34. Culture’s Positive/Negative Sides <ul><li>Culture unites people, however also divides them: </li></ul><ul><li>What learned perceptions do people in another country have e.g. about Koreans? </li></ul><ul><li>Culture also divides people – people from another culture are not a part and excluded – sometimes also discriminated, etc. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Discussion <ul><li>Can you give any examples for culture’s positive or negative side? </li></ul>
    36. 36.
    37. 37. Mass Media as Cultural Storytellers <ul><li>A culture’s values and beliefs reside in the stories it tells. </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the good guys? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the bad guys? </li></ul><ul><li>How many of our childhood heroines were fat? </li></ul><ul><li>How many good guys dressed in black? </li></ul><ul><li>How many heroines lived happily ever after without marrying Prince Charming? </li></ul><ul><li>Storytellers have a remarkable opportunity to shape culture. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Mass Media as Cultural Storytellers <ul><li>The storytellers also have responsibility to do their job in a responsible and ethical way! </li></ul><ul><li>BUT also the audience has responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>The audience should not just be entertained but learn about the world around, understand the values, the way things work. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Mass Media as Cultural Storytellers <ul><li>The audience – YOU - have responsibility to question the storytellers and their stories! </li></ul><ul><li>To ask what such stories tell about your culture and what it says about cultural values within your culture. </li></ul><ul><li>If you do not do – you cannot construct your own meaning! </li></ul>
    40. 40. Mass Media as Storytellers <ul><li>Mass media has become a primary forum for the debate about our culture: </li></ul><ul><li>Who is good and bad? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is patriotic? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the meaning of “beautiful”, “honest”, “moral”, “successful”, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>What food is healthy? </li></ul><ul><li>Who should have the power over these media: </li></ul><ul><li>Media industries or audiences? </li></ul>
    41. 41. Mass Media as Storytellers
    42. 42. Mass Media as Storytellers Source: Media Education Foundation
    43. 43. Mass Media as Storytellers <ul><li>Summary Video “The Electronic Storyteller”: </li></ul><ul><li>Most that we know we have never personally experienced, but heard in stories. </li></ul><ul><li>When viewers see the same images over and over on TV, viewers tend to confuse the fictional world with the real world (cultivation) – especially heavy viewers. </li></ul><ul><li>No much violence imitation, but heavy viewers cultivate a fear of a dangerous world. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Mass Media as Storytellers <ul><li>Summary Video “The Electronic Storyteller”: </li></ul><ul><li>Casting and fate: </li></ul><ul><li>What is appropriate for a woman/man? </li></ul><ul><li>Young women are reduced to bodies and sexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Males are often shown as controlling and aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Females are shown as more dependent and victims </li></ul><ul><li>Who is shown in the media and how are they shown is important!! </li></ul>
    45. 45. Arabs on Television
    46. 46. Mass Media as Storytellers <ul><li>Oh, I come from a land from a faraway place, </li></ul><ul><li>Where the caravan camels roam, </li></ul><ul><li>Where they cut off your ears if they don’t like your face . </li></ul><ul><li>It’s barbaric, but hey, it’s home. </li></ul><ul><li>Oh, I come from a land from a faraway place, </li></ul><ul><li>Where the caravan camels roam. </li></ul><ul><li>Where it’s flat and immense and the heat is intense . </li></ul><ul><li>It’s barbaric, but hey, it’s home. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Discussion <ul><li>What do you know of Muslims? </li></ul><ul><li>How have the events of September 11, 2001, changed that? </li></ul><ul><li>How were your images before, how are they now? </li></ul>
    48. 48. Media as Storytellers
    49. 49. Mass Media as Storytellers Source: Prieler et al. 2008 Note: Percentage of commercials featuring male/female within all commercials featuring people (male and female and different age groups together possible)
    50. 50. Discussion <ul><li>Who were your childhood heroes and heroines? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did you choose them? </li></ul><ul><li>What cultural lessons did you learn from them? </li></ul>
    51. 51. My childhood heroe: Pumuckl
    52. 52.
    53. 53. Minute Paper <ul><li>Most interesting? </li></ul><ul><li>Least interesting? </li></ul><ul><li>Most unclear? </li></ul><ul><li>Most important? </li></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul>
    54. 54. See you next time!