SIDARJO/LAPINDO MUD FLOW FROM A WELL IN EAST JAVA, INDONESIA (LUSI Mud Volcano) By : Yulini Arediningsih January 7, 2011 University of Calgary
Outline Objectives and Purposes LUSI (Lumpur Sidoarjo) Issues on Professionalism and Ethics Regulations and Guidelines Conclusions and Recommendations References
Objectives and Purposes To overview the chronology of the disaster To outline hypotheses of its possible causesand its controversy To discuss on some issues related to thedisaster To outline some regulations and guidelines havebeen set
Facts on Lumpur Sidoarjo It is named as a mud volcano called LUSI Located in the subdistrict of Porong, Sidoarjo in East Java,Indonesia. It has been on going since its birth on May 29, 2006The biggest mud volcano in the world was created by the blowoutof a natural gas well drilled by Lapindo Brantas Approximately 30,000 m³ (1 million cubic feet) of mud are expelledper day, and it is expected that the flow will continue for the next 30years Although the Sidoarjo mud flow has been contained by leveessince November 2008, resultant flooding regularly disrupts localhighways and villages.
Location Geology Map Central – East Java (Sawolo et al., 2009) (taken from www.maps.google.co.id)
ChronologyOn May 6, 2006PT Lapindo Brantas started drilling BP-1 well.On May 28, 2006PT Lapindo Brantas targeted gas in the Kujung Formation carbonates inthe Brantas PSC area by drilling BP-1 well.1st stage : penetrated a thick clay seam (500–1,300 m deep), then sands,shales, volcanic debris and finally into permeable carbonate rocks.On May 29, 20062nd stage : the drill string went deeper, to about 2,834 m (9,298 ft) to targetthe carbonate after which water, steam and a small amount of gas eruptedat a location about 200 m southwest of the wellOn June 2, 3 2006Two further eruptions occurred about 800–1000 m northwest of the well.
ChronologyOn May 27, 2006A magnitude of 6.3 earthquake occurred in Yogyakarta approximately 250kilo-meters South West from Sidoarjo.Seven minutes after the earthquake a mud loss problem in the well wasnoted. After two major aftershocks, the well suffered a complete loss ofcirculation.This mud loss problem was finally stopped when a loss circulation materialwas pumped in the well, a standard practice in drilling an oil and gas well. Aday later the well suffered a ‘kick’, an influx of formation fluid into the wellbore.The kick appears to have been killed within three hours. The next day, 29May 2006, steam, water and mud began erupting 200 meters away fromthe well, a phenomena that is now known as Lusi mud volcano.
(Sawolo et al, 2009) Image taken 8 hours after eruption 6/29/2006
The Hyphotheses of the possible causes Hydro-fracturing of the formation a drilling related problem Fault reactivation a seismic related natural event (Merapi eruption on May 26, 2006) Geothermal process associated with adjacent volcano complexof the Arjuno-Welirang complex
Impact of the disasterMud has flooded total area of 377,715 Ha (3777 km2)Fourteen people have been killed30,000 people have been evacuated from the area.At least a dozen villages, with more than 10,000homes have been destroyed Schools, offices and factories have also been wipedout and a major impact on the wider marine andcoastal environment is expected.
An aerial view of the gas emission from the crater of LUSI mud volcano in Porong,East Java province May 29, 2008 (REUTERS/Sigit Pamungkas)Http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/06/sidoarjos_manmade_mud_volcano.html
Ikonos Satellite image of the LUSI and surrounding area, May 29, 2008http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/06/sidoarjos_manmade_mud_volcano.html
Issues on Professionalism and Ethics Controversy of what triggered the mud eruption : earthquake vs drilling activities: – Medco Energy (joint ventures) asserts gross negligence on the part of the Operator (Lapindo Brantas) for failing to set casing of 9 5/8” at 8,500ft – Operator, Lapindo Brantas, indicates that a seismic event triggered the incident- On 27 May, an earthquake measuring 6.3 on the Richter scale occurred near Yogyakarta, 300km SW of Sidoarjo
Issues on Professionalism and Ethics Violation to public safety Negligence to procedures on deep drilling in high risk zone of high pressure formation Negligence to public hearing from local government prior to drilling activities Negligence to obtain expert advise in relation to active volcanic zone surrounding area.
Regulations and GuidelinesJune 14, 2006 - Implementation on GOVERNMENT’s POLICIES FOR LAPINDOHOT MUD VICTIMSJune 15, 2006 Department of Energy and Natural Resources formed an Formationof INDEPENDENT TEAM to investigate the cause of the Mud volcanoJune 27, 2006 Sidoarjo Subdisctrict Government formed an Integrated MitigationTeam of Mudflow Explosions in Subdistrict Porong, Sidorajodistrict.August 14, 2006 Public Works Minister formed a MUD FLOW MITIGATION TEAMto handle the impact of the mud flow in Sidoarjo to evaluate and give resolutions andrecommendations to the mud flow problemSeptember 8, 2006 NATIONAL TEAM IN CHARGE IN HANDLING THE MUDVOLCANO DISASTER IN SIDOARDJO(based on Presidential Decree No. 13 Year 2006).
Conclusions – Lessons learned• The Government declared that the eruption of themud volcano is a natural disaster•The hypotheses on the possible causes of Lusi arestill debated by the earth scientists• Use cultural and social consideration for reviewingprojects• Environmental consideration for mining in denseareas has to be controlled better• It provides a unique opportunity for the scientificcommunity to conduct scientific experiments to furtherunderstanding on mud volcano.
Recommendations Revisit drilling regulations on the East Java block to setmaximum drilling depth Hazard Analysis considering environmental concernsshould be conducted prior to drilling plan The Authorities and the Government must stand in thefront without finger pointing who’s right, who’s wrong andwho’s responsible• As incident is a disaster so that the interest of thevictims/affected communities should be prioritized
RecommendationsUtilization of the mud for construction materials whichmay provide job opportunity A correct understanding on the phenomenon is a mustand an important first step prior to attempting any reliefeffort. Propose the mud volcano complex as national park Monitor the activity of the mud volcano and proposemitigation plan
ReferencesDavies, R. J., Swarbrick, R. E., Evans, R. J. and M. Huuse, M. 2007. "Birth of a mudvolcano: East Java, May 29, 2006". GSA Today 17 (2): 4.Matthews, S. J. and Bransden, P. J. E., 1995. "Late Cretaceous and Cenozoictectono-stratigraphic development of the East Java Sea Basin, Indonesia". Marineand Petroleum Geology 12 (5): 499–510Sawolo, N., Sutriono, E., Istadi, B., Darmoyo, A.B. 2009. "The LUSI mud volcanotriggering controversy: was it caused by drilling?". Marine & Petroleum Geology 26:1766–1784http://www.mudvolcano.com/home.php# (01/06/2011)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidoarjo_mud_flow (01/06/2011)http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/01/070125-mud-volcano.html(01/06/2011)http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/06/22/2604203.htm?section=justin(01/06/2011)http://www.socsci.flinders.edu.au/asiacentre/forums/conferencepresentations/KresnayanaYayha.pdf (01/06/2011)