Pengantar Akuntansi 2 - Ch12 Investment

2,934 views

Published on

Bahan Mata Kuliah Pengantar Akuntansi 2 - Usakti
Financial Acounting IFRS ed. Kieso & Weygand

Published in: Economy & Finance
0 Comments
13 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,934
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
13
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pengantar Akuntansi 2 - Ch12 Investment

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Investments Financial Accounting, IFRS Edition Weygandt Kimmel Kieso Slide 12-1
  2. 2. Study Objectives 1. Discuss why corporations invest in debt and share securities. 2. Explain the accounting for debt investments. 3. Explain the accounting for share investments. 4. Describe the use of consolidated financial statements. 5. Indicate how debt and share investments are reported in financial statements. 6. Distinguish between short-term and long-term investments. Slide 12-2
  3. 3. Investments Why Corporations Invest Cash management Investment income Strategic reasons Accounting for Debt Investments Recording acquisition of bonds Accounting for Share Investments Valuing and Reporting Investments Holdings of less than 20% Categories of securities Recording bond interest Holdings between 20% and 50% Statement of financial position Recording sale of bonds Holdings of more than 50% Realized and unrealized gain or loss Classified statement of financial position Slide 12-3
  4. 4. Why Corporations Invest Corporations generally invest in debt or share securities for one of three reasons. 1. Corporation may have excess cash. 2. To generate earnings from investment income. 3. For strategic reasons. Illustration 12-1 Temporary investments and the operating cycle Slide 12-4 SO 1 Discuss why corporations invest in debt and share securities.
  5. 5. Why Corporations Invest Question Pension funds and banks regularly invest in debt and share securities to: a. house excess cash until needed. b. generate earnings. c. meet strategic goals. d. avoid a takeover by disgruntled investors. Slide 12-5 SO 1 Discuss why corporations invest in debt and share securities.
  6. 6. Accounting for Debt Instruments Recording Acquisition of Bonds Cost includes all expenditures necessary to acquire these investments, such as the price paid plus brokerage fees (commissions), if any. Recording Bond Interest Calculate and record interest revenue based upon the carrying value of the bond times the interest rate times the portion of the year the bond is outstanding. Slide 12-6 SO 2 Explain the accounting for debt investments.
  7. 7. Accounting for Debt Instruments Sale of Bonds Credit the investment account for the cost of the bonds and record as a gain or loss any difference between the net proceeds from the sale (sales price less brokerage fees) and the cost of the bonds. Slide 12-7 SO 2 Explain the accounting for debt investments.
  8. 8. Accounting for Debt Instruments Illustration: Kuhl Corporation acquires 50 Doan Inc. 8%, 10-year, $1,000 bonds on January 1, 2011, for $54,000, including brokerage fees of $1,000. The entry to record the investment is: Jan. 1 Debt investments Cash Slide 12-8 54,000 54,000 SO 2 Explain the accounting for debt investments.
  9. 9. Accounting for Debt Instruments Illustration: Kuhl Corporation acquires 50 Doan Inc. 8%, 10-year, $1,000 bonds on January 1, 2011, for $54,000, including brokerage fees of $1,000. The bonds pay interest semiannually on July 1 and January 1. The entry for the receipt of interest on July 1 is: July 1 Cash Interest revenue 2,000 * 2,000 * ($50,000 x 8% x ½ = $2,000) Slide 12-9 SO 2 Explain the accounting for debt investments.
  10. 10. Accounting for Debt Instruments Illustration: If Kuhl Corporation’s fiscal year ends on December 31, prepare the entry to accrue interest since July 1. Dec. 31 Interest receivable Interest revenue 2,000 2,000 Kuhl reports receipt of the interest on January 1 as follows. Jan. 1 Slide 12-10 Cash Interest receivable 2,000 2,000 SO 2
  11. 11. Accounting for Debt Instruments Recording Sale of Bonds Illustration: Assume that Kuhl corporation receives net proceeds of $58,000 on the sale of the Doan Inc. bonds on January 1, 2011, after receiving the interest due. Prepare the entry to record the sale of the bonds. Jan. 1 Cash 58,000 Debt investments Gain on sale of debt investments Slide 12-11 54,000 4,000 SO 2 Explain the accounting for debt investments.
  12. 12. Accounting for Debt Instruments Question An event related to an investment in debt securities that does not require a journal entry is: a. acquisition of the debt investment. b. receipt of interest revenue from the debt investment. c. a change in the name of the firm issuing the debt securities. d. sale of the debt investment. Slide 12-12 SO 2 Explain the accounting for debt investments.
  13. 13. Accounting for Debt Instruments Question When bonds are sold, the gain or loss on sale is the difference between the: a. sales price and the cost of the bonds. b. net proceeds and the cost of the bonds. c. sales price and the market value of the bonds. d. net proceeds and the market value of the bonds. Slide 12-13 SO 2 Explain the accounting for debt investments.
  14. 14. Accounting for Share Investments Ownership Percentages 0 --------------20% ------------ 50% -------------- 100% No significant influence usually exists Significant influence usually exists Investment valued using Cost Method Investment valued using Equity Method Control usually exists Investment valued on parent’s books using Cost Method or Equity Method (investment eliminated in Consolidation) The accounting depends on the extent of the investor’s influence over the operating and financial affairs of the issuing corporation. Slide 12-14 SO 3 Explain the accounting for share investments.
  15. 15. Accounting for Share Investments Holdings of Less than 20% (Cost Method) Companies record  the investment at cost, and  recognize revenue only when cash dividends are received. Cost includes all expenditures necessary to acquire these investments, such as the price paid plus any brokerage fees (commissions). Slide 12-15 SO 3 Explain the accounting for share investments.
  16. 16. Holdings of Less than 20% Illustration: On July 1, 2011, Sanchez Corporation acquires 1,000 ordinary shares (10% ownership) of Beal Corporation. Sanchez pays $40 per share plus brokerage fees of $500. The entry for the purchase is: July 1 Share investments Cash Slide 12-16 40,500 40,500 SO 3 Explain the accounting for share investments.
  17. 17. Holdings of Less than 20% Illustration: During the time Sanchez owns the shares, it makes entries for any cash dividends received. If Sanchez receives a $2 per share dividend on December 31, the entry is: Dec. 31 Cash 2,000 Dividend revenue Slide 12-17 2,000 SO 3 Explain the accounting for share investments.
  18. 18. Holdings of Less than 20% Illustration: Assume that Sanchez Corporation receives net proceeds of $39,500 on the sale of its Beal shares on February 10, 2012. Because the shares cost $40,500, Sanchez incurred a loss of $1,000. The entry to record the sale is: Feb. 10 Cash 39,500 Loss on sale of share Share investments Slide 12-18 1,000 40,500 SO 3 Explain the accounting for share investments.
  19. 19. Accounting for Share Investments Holdings Between 20% and 50% (Equity Method) Record the investment at cost and subsequently adjust the amount each period for  the investor’s proportionate share of the earnings (losses) and  dividends received by the investor. If investor’s share of investee’s losses exceeds the carrying amount of the investment, the investor ordinarily should discontinue applying the equity method. Slide 12-19 SO 3 Explain the accounting for share investments.
  20. 20. Holdings Between 20% and 50% Question Under the equity method, the investor records dividends received by crediting: a. Dividend Revenue. b. Investment Income. c. Revenue from Investment. d. Share Investments. Slide 12-20 SO 3 Explain the accounting for share investments.
  21. 21. Holdings Between 20% and 50% Illustration: Milar Corporation acquires 30% of the ordinary shares of Beck Company for $120,000 on January 1, 2011. For 2011, Beck reports net income of $100,000 and paid dividends of $40,000. Prepare the entries for these transactions. Jan. 1 Share investments 120,000 Cash Dec. 31 120,000 Share investments ($100,000 x 30%) 30,000 Revenue from investments Dec. 31 Cash ($40,000 x 30%) Share investments Slide 12-21 30,000 12,000 12,000 SO 3 Explain the accounting for share investments.
  22. 22. Holdings Between 20% and 50% Illustration: Milar Corporation acquires 30% of the ordinary shares of Beck Company for $120,000 on January 1, 2011. For 2011, Beck reports net income of $100,000 and paid dividends of $40,000. Prepare the entries for these transactions. After Milar posts the transactions for the year, its investment and revenue accounts will show the following. Share Investments Debit 120,000 30,000 Revenue from Investments Credit Debit Credit 30,000 12,000 138,000 Slide 12-22 SO 3 Explain the accounting for share investments.
  23. 23. Accounting for Share Investments Holdings of More Than 50% Controlling Interest - When one corporation acquires a voting interest of more than 50 percent in another corporation  Investor is referred to as the parent.  Investee is referred to as the subsidiary.  Investment in the subsidiary is reported on the parent’s books as a long-term investment.  Parent generally prepares consolidated financial statements. Slide 12-23 SO 4 Describe the use of consolidated financial statements.
  24. 24. Accounting for Share Investments Holdings of More Than 50% Consolidated statements indicate the magnitude and scope of operations of the companies under common control. Illustration 12-5 Examples of consolidated companies and their subsidiaries Slide 12-24 SO 4 Describe the use of consolidated financial statements.
  25. 25. Answer on notes page Slide 12-25
  26. 26. Valuing and Reporting Investments Categories of Securities Companies classify debt and share investments into three categories:  Fair value through profit or loss (FVPL) securities  Available-for-sale (AFS) securities  Held-to-maturity securities These guidelines apply to all debt securities and all share investments in which the holdings are less than 20%. Slide 12-26 SO 5 Indicate how debt and share investments are reported in financial statements.
  27. 27. Valuing and Reporting Investments Fair Value Through Profit or Loss (FVPL) Companies hold securities with the intention of selling them in a short period (< month). Frequent buying and selling. Companies report securities at fair value, and report changes from cost as part of net income. Changes are reported as unrealized gains or losses. Slide 12-27 SO 5 Indicate how debt and share investments are reported in financial statements.
  28. 28. Fair Value Through Profit or Loss (FVPL) Illustration: Investment of Pace classified as fair value through profit or loss securities on December 31, 2011. Illustration 12-7 The adjusting entry for Pace Corporation is: Dec. 31 Market adjustment—FVPL Unrealized gain—income Slide 12-28 7,000 7,000 SO 5 Indicate how debt and share investments are reported in financial statements.
  29. 29. Slide 12-29 Answer on notes page
  30. 30. Valuing and Reporting Investments Available-for-Sale (AFS) Securities Held with the intent of selling these investments sometime in the future. Classified as current assets or as non-current assets, depending on the intent of management. Report securities at fair value Report changes from cost as a component of the equity Slide 12-30 SO 5 Indicate how debt and share investments are reported in financial statements.
  31. 31. Valuing and Reporting Investments Question Marketable securities bought and held primarily for sale in the near term are classified as: a. Available-for-sale securities. b. Held-to-maturity securities. c. Share securities. d. Fair value through profit or loss Slide 12-31 SO 5 Indicate how debt and share investments are reported in financial statements.
  32. 32. Available-for-Sale Securities Problem: How would the entries for fair value through profit or loss securities change if the securities were classified as available-for-sale? The entries would be the same except that the Unrealized Gain or Loss—Equity account is used instead of Unrealized Gain or Loss—Income. The unrealized loss would be deducted from equity rather than charged to income. Slide 12-32 SO 5 Indicate how debt and share investments are reported in financial statements.
  33. 33. Available-for-Sale Securities Illustration: Assume that Ingrao Corporation has two securities that it classifies as available-for-sale. Illustration 12-8 The adjusting entry for Ingrao Corporation is: Dec. 31 Unrealized gain or loss—equity Market adjustment—AFS Slide 12-33 9,537 9,537 SO 5 Indicate how debt and share investments are reported in financial statements.
  34. 34. Available-for-Sale Securities Question An unrealized loss on available-for-sale securities is: a. reported under other revenue and expenses in the income statement. b. closed-out at the end of the accounting period. c. reported as a separate component of equity. d. deducted from the cost of the investment. Slide 12-34 SO 5 Indicate how debt and share investments are reported in financial statements.
  35. 35. Valuing and Reporting Investments Statement of Financial Position Presentation Short-Term Investments Securities held by a company that are (1) readily marketable and (2) intended to be converted into cash within the next year or operating cycle, whichever is longer. Investments that do not meet both criteria are classified as long-term investments. Slide 12-35 SO 6 Distinguish between short-term and long-term investments.
  36. 36. Statement of Financial Position Presentation Presentation of Realized and Unrealized Gain or Loss Nonoperating items related to investments Illustration 12-10 Slide 12-36 SO 6 Distinguish between short-term and long-term investments.
  37. 37. Statement of Financial Position Presentation Realized and Unrealized Gain or Loss Unrealized gain or loss on available-for-sale securities is reported as a separate component of equity. Illustration 12-11 Slide 12-37 SO 6 Distinguish between short-term and long-term investments.
  38. 38. Classified Statement of Financial Position (partial) Illustration 12-12 Slide 12-38 SO 6 Distinguish between short-term and long-term investments.
  39. 39. Classified Statement of Financial Position (partial) Illustration 12-12 Slide 12-39 SO 6 Distinguish between short-term and long-term investments.
  40. 40. Statement of Financial Position Presentation Identify where each of the following items would be reported in the financial statements. Use the following possible categories: Intangible assets Property, plant, and equipment Investments Current assets Other income and expenses Slide 12-40 Answers on notes page Equity Non-current liabilities Current liabilities SO 6 Distinguish between short-term and long-term investments.
  41. 41. Understanding U.S. GAAP Key Differences Investments Both IFRS and GAAP use the same criteria to determine whether the equity method of accounting should be used—that is, significant influence with a general guide of over 20% ownership. GAAP uses the term equity investment whereas IFRS uses the term associate investment to describe investments under the equity method. Under IFRS, both the investor and an associate company should follow the same accounting policies. As a result, in order to prepare financial information, adjustments are made to the associate’s policies to conform to the investor’s books. GAAP does not have that requirement. Slide 12-41
  42. 42. Understanding U.S. GAAP Key Differences Investments The basis for consolidation under IFRS is control. Under GAAP, a bipolar approach is used, which is a risk-and reward model (often referred to as a variable-entity approach) and a voting interest approach. However, under both systems, for consolidation to occur, the investor company must generally own 50% of another company. IFRS specifies the following four types of financial assets: 1. Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss. 2. Held-to-maturity investments. 3. Loans and receivables. 4. Available-for-sale financial assets. Slide 12-42 The loans and receivables category does not exist under GAAP.
  43. 43. Understanding U.S. GAAP Key Differences Investments The category of financial asset at fair value through profit or loss is similar to the trading securities discussed in GAAP. As noted in the chapter, this category also includes investments that the company has decided to report at fair value. GAAP also gives the company the option to report investments at fair value. Unrealized gains and losses related to available-for-sale securities are reported in other comprehensive income under GAAP and IFRS. These gains and losses that accumulate are then reported in the equity section. Under IFRS, they are frequently reported in a line item labeled “Reserves” whereas under GAAP, they are reported in accumulated other Slide 12-43 comprehensive income.
  44. 44. Understanding U.S. GAAP Looking to the Future Investments As indicated earlier, both the FASB and IASB have indicated that they believe that all financial instruments should be reported at fair value and that changes in fair value should be reported as part of net income. It seems likely, as more companies choose the fair value option for financial instruments, that we will eventually arrive at fair value measurement for all financial instruments. Slide 12-44
  45. 45. Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Appendix  Companies prepare consolidated statements of financial position from the individual statements of their affiliated companies.  Transactions between the affiliated companies are eliminated. Slide 12-45
  46. 46. Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Illustration: Assume that on January 1, 2011, Powers Construction Company pays $150,000 in cash for 100% of Serto Brick Company’s ordinary shares. Powers Company records the investment at cost, as required by the cost principle. The combined totals do not represent a consolidated statement of financial position, because there has been a double counting of assets and equity in the amount of $150,000. Slide 12-46
  47. 47. Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Illustration 12A-1 Slide 12-47
  48. 48. Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements Use of a Worksheet—Cost Equal to Book Value Illustration 12A-2 Slide 12-48 SO 7
  49. 49. Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements Use of a Worksheet—Cost Above Book Value Illustration: Assume the same data used above, except that Powers Company pays $165,000 in cash for 100% of Serto’s ordinary shares. The excess of cost over book value is $15,000 ($165,000 - $150,000). Slide 12-49 SO 7 Describe the content of a worksheet for a consolidated statement of financial position.
  50. 50. Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements Use of a Worksheet—Cost Above Book Value Illustration 12A-3 Slide 12-50 SO 7
  51. 51. Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Illustration: The prior worksheet shows an excess of cost over book value of $15,000. In the consolidated statement of financial position, Powers first allocates this amount to specific assets, such as inventory and plant equipment, if their fair market values on the acquisition date exceed their book values. Any remainder is considered to be goodwill. For Serto Company, assume that the fair market value of property and equipment is $155,000.Thus, Powers allocates $10,000 of the excess of cost over book value to property and equipment, and the remainder, $5,000, to goodwill. Slide 12-51 SO 8 Explain the form and content of consolidated financial statements.
  52. 52. Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements Consolidated Statement of Financial Position Slide 12-52 Illustration 12A-4 SO 8 Explain the form and content of consolidated financial statements.
  53. 53. Preparing Consolidated Financial Statements Consolidated Income Statement Appendix  Statement shows the results of operations of affiliated companies as though they are one economic unit.  All intercompany revenue and expense transactions must be eliminated.  A worksheet facilitates the preparation of consolidated income statements in the same manner as it does for the statement of financial position. Slide 12-53 SO 8 Explain the form and content of consolidated financial statements.
  54. 54. Copyright “Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.” Slide 12-54

×