The transformation activity of the logic signed


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The transformation activity of the logic signed

  2. 2. The Transformation Activity of the Logic in Turkish 2 THE TRANSFORMATION ACTIVITY OF THE LOGİC and THE NOMINAL PHRASES IN TURKISH It is considered that the mind has a logical system which manages three ra- tional storages to fill to produce a sentence. These storeges are out of order before someone is born. When he begins learning his native language, these orderless storages are arranged in a sequence according to one's native language. For an English speaking person his logical sequence is "subject + verb + object", but for a Turkish spaking person this sequence is "(subject) + object + verb-personal suffix". For instance: English sequence: I love you. subj verb object Turkish sequence: (Ben) sen-i seviyor-um. subj object verb-personal suffix In Turkish, using "ben", "sen", "o", "biz", "siz", "onlar" pronouns at the be- ginning of a sentence is optional. These pronouns are only used when they are stressed. However, using the personal allomorphs representing these pronouns at the ends of the sentences is a grammatical rule. Therefore, these pronouns are showed in parentheses. However, although the third person singular has the pronoun "o", which means "he", "she", or "it", the sentences containing this pronoun does not need a personal suffix representing "o" pronoun. A sentence without a personal suffix at the end of a sentence means that the sentence is the third person singular. For instance the followig two Turkish sentences are identical: (O) sen-i seviyor. He, she, or it loves you. Sen-i seviyor. He, she, or it loves you. Although the sentenes given above are all simple sentences, the human mind uses the same flexible subject, verb, object storages to produce all the sentences in a language whether they are long or short. 1a: All pronouns can be used as subjects such as: "ben", "sen", "o", "biz", "siz", "o/n/-lar". (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they) 1b: All pronouns can be used as objects such as "ben-i", "sen-i", "o-/n/u", "biz-i", "siz-i", "o/n/-lar-ı" (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them) 2a: All proper nouns can be used as subjects such as: Ahmet, Hasan, Jack, Ayşe, Mary. (English: (Ahmet, Hasan, Jack, Ayşe, Mary.) 2b: All proper nouns can be used as objects such as: Ahmet-i, Hasan-ı, Jak-i, Ayşe-/y/i, Mary-/y/i. (English: Ahmet, Hasan, Jack, Ayşe, Mary.):
  3. 3. The Transformation Activity of the Logic in Turkish 3 Ahmet Hasan-ı gördü. Ahmet saw Hasan. Hasan Ahmet-i buldu. Hasan found Ahmet. 3a: All common nouns can be used as subjects such as: Turkish: Zil çalıyor. Martılar uçuyor. Güneş doğu-dan doğar. Polis hırsız-ı yakaladı. English: The bell is ringing. The seagulls are flying. The sun rises in the east. The police caught the thief. As it is seen, when the common nouns are used as subjests in Turkish, they are considered defined and used without definite articles. In English, however, they are all used with the definite article "the". If indefinite nouns are used as subjects, or objects, they are used like indefinite nouns in English:. 'Bir adam sen-i kapı-da bekliyor. A man is waiting for you at the door. Bazı kuşlar sonbahar-da güney-e göç ederler. Some birds migrate to south in autumn. Bahçede bir saat buldum. I found a watch in the garden. Ayşe bir kompozisyon yazıyor. Ayş is writing a composition. All infinitives, which are nominals, are of four kinds: 4a: The verbs that are suffixed by ♫ [mek, mak] allomorphs. 4b: The verbs that are suffixed by ♫ [me, ma] allomorphs. 4c: The verbs that are suffixed by ♫ [iş, ış, üş, uş, eş, aş] allomorphs. 4d: The verbs that are suffıxed by ♫ [dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk]. 4aa: The [mek, mak] infinitives can be used as subjects in the sentences using "be" (is, are, was were, etc) verbs: Bekle-mek sıkıcıdır. Waiting is boring, Yürü-mek sağlıklıdır. Walking is healthful. Bütün gün televizyon izle-mek zaman kaybıdır. Watching tele- vision all day long is a vaste of time. 4ab: The ♫ [mek, mak] infinitives can be used as the objects of the verb "iste": Jack Türkçe öğren-mek istiyor. Jack wants to learn Turkish. Fatma balık kızart-mak istemiyor. Fatma doesn't want to fry fish. Uyu-mak istiyorum. I want to sleep. 4ac: The [mek, mak] infinitives can be used before the postposition "için": Herkes ben-i gör-mek için ayağa kalktı. Everybody stood up to see me.
  4. 4. The Transformation Activity of the Logic in Turkish 4 Öğretmen ben-i daha iyi gör-mek için gözlüklerini taktı. The teacher put on her glasses to see me better. Bir spor araba al-mak için para biriktiriyor. She is saving money to buy a sports car. Sen-i ikna et-mek için ne yapma- lıyım? What should I do to convince you? 4ba: The [me, ma] infinitives can be used in noun compounds as subjects: Mary-/n/in ağla-ma-/s/ hepimiz-i üzdü. Mary's crying made us sorry. (noun compound) subj (NP) obj (NP) verb subject (NP) predicate (VP) Ahmet'in okul-a geç gel-me-/s/i öğretmen-i kızdırdı. (noun compound) subject (NP) object (NP) verb subject (NP) predicate (VP) Ahmet's coming to school late made the teacher angry. 4bb: The [me, me] infinitives can be used in noun compounds as objects: (Ben-im) baba-am (ben-im) futbol oyna-ma-am-ı istemiyor. (noun compound) subj (nound compound-ı) object | NP NP verb VP Definite noun compounds in Turkish are suffixed by possessor personal allomorphs both at the possessor and the possessed parts of a noun compound. As these two possessor personal allomorphs bear the same meaning, the possessor pronouns in the possessor parts of a noun com- pound could be ignored because the allomorphs attached to the possessed parts bear the same meaning as the allomorphs attached to the possessor parts of a compound. Namely, "baba-am" means, "ben-im baba-am", and "futbol oyna-ma-am" means, "ben-im futbol oyna-ma-am". The sentence above is generally said and written as follows: Baba-am futbol oynama-am-ı istemiyor. noun comp subj noun compound obj | NP NP verb VP (Biz) maç-ın bit-me-/s/i-/n/i bekledik. We waited until the match ended. subj (noun compound) obj-/n/i verb NP VP 4ca: The ♫ [iş, ış, üş, uş, es, aş] infinitives can be used in noun compouns in a limited number in certain expressions: (Ben-im) dön-üş-üm muhteşem olacak. My return will be spectacular. noun compound (subj) adjective verb (be) subject (NP) predicate (VP)
  5. 5. The Transformation Activity of the Logic in Turkish 5 Oyuncular maç-ın bit-iş düdüğü-/n/ü bekledi. subject noun compound-/n/ü | NP object (NP) verb (predicate) VP The players waited until the final whistle of the match. 4da: The ♫ [dik, dık, dük, duk, tik, tık, tük, tuk] infinitives can be used in noun compounds: "(ben-im) git-tik-im" (be*nim / git*ti*ğim), "(sen-in) git-tik-in" (se*nin / git*ti*- ğin), "(o-/n/un) git-tik-i" (o*nun / git*ti*ği), "(biz-im) git-tik-im.iz" (bi*zim / git*ti*- ği*miz), "(siz-in) git-tik-in.iz" (si*zin / git*ti*ği*niz), "o/n/-lar-ın git-tik-i" (on*la*- rın / git*ti*ği) The noun compounds above can be used as objects: (Ben) (o-/n/un) işit-tik-i-/n/i sanmıyorum. I don't think that he heard. subj noun compound-i-/n/i | NP (object) NP verb (predicate ) VP The same noun compounds can also be used as determiners: Ben-im gör-dük-üm araba beyazdı. The car that I saw was white. (noun compound) noun | determined determiner verb determiner determined | subject predicate subject predicate NP VP NP VP Detailed examples are given in the transformational section. ADVERBS AND ADVERBIALS A number of adverbs and adverbials may additionally take place in a logical simple sentence. These adverbs or adverbials give further information about the time, pleace, reason, manner, frequency, purpose, etc. of an action or being. For instance: Ahmet her zaman okul-a geç gelir, Ahmet always comes to school late. subj adverbial adverbial adverb verb subj adverb verb adverbial adv NP (predicate) VP NP (predicate) VP Kızlar sınıf-a neşe-/y/le girdi. The girls entered the class cheerfully. subj adverbial adverbial verb subj verb object adverbial NP (predicate) VP NP (predicate) VP Fatma kapı-/y/ı aç-ı bir iskelet gördü. subj obj of "aç" adverbial | | NP adverbial of time obj of "gör" verb VP
  6. 6. The Transformation Activity of the Logic in Turkish 6 Fatma saw a skeleton when she opened the door. subj verb object adverbial clause of time NP (predicate) VP THE TRANSFORMATION ACTIVITY OF THE LOGIC The human mind can logically transform a simple sentence into a learned nominal phrase, an adverbial phrase or clause in order to insert them in the "subject + predicate", or "subject + verb + object" storages in which all sentences take form. Thought and language are mental faculties that are independent of one an- other, but they act interdependently. One stores morphemes, which are the only language units loaded with meaning, into his memory out of sequence. However, when the time comes to produce a sentence, the mind searches through its memory to find the most suitable morphemes matching his sets of thought, and organizes them in a sequence He divides his thought into two logical parts called subject and predicate (Nominal Phrase "NP", and Verbal Phrase "VP"). To understand how these two logical parts are expressed in sign language, let us take an imaginary journey to the long past to fancy how our ancestors used "NP + VP" basic sentence producing device. As human beings did not know how to communicate in words on those days, perhaps one of them pointed to some birds, and imitated a bird fluttering its wings trying to mean "Birds fly" or "The birds are flying" In the above imaginary sentences, there are two main parts,"birds", and "fly" (subject and predicate), which Chomsky calls them "NP + VP". From then on, throughout centuries, human beings have been busy inserting what they want to say into these two basic sentence components. The human intellect is so sklllful that it can logically transform simple sentences into learned nominal phrases to fit them into the "NP" segment of the "NP + VP" sentence-prodcing pattern. It manages this activity in such a way that although their forms are transformed into different structures, these structures stay loaded with the same meaning in different inflectional (grammatical) patterns. Consider the following: . 1. The birds were flying. ↻ the birds that were flying NP VP NP 2. The birds were flying. ↻ that the birds were flying NP VP NP
  7. 7. The Transformation Activity of the Logic in Turkish 7 3. Birds eat insects. ↻ the birds that eat insects NP VP NP 4. Birds eat insects. ↻ that birds eat insects NP VP NP 5. Birds eat insects. ↻ the insects that the birds eat NP VP NP 6. Roses are beautiful. ↻ the roses that are beautiful ↻ the beautiful roses NP VP NP NP 7. Roses are beautiful. ↻ that roses are beautiful NP VP NP The human mind can insert the nominalized phrases above into the "NP" segment of the phrase structure rules. The "VP" segment contains either an intransitive verb "Vi", which does not need an object, or a transitive verb "Vt" that needs a "NP" (an object). Therefore, a "NP + VP" base sentence pro- ducing logical pattern may be rewritten either as "NP + Vi" or "NP + Vt + NP" for an English speaking person. However, a person speaking Turkish uses a different sequence "NP + NP + Vt" in the "VP" segment of the "NP + VP" basic sentence-producing pattern. Moreover, adverbs and adverbials should also be included in a Verbal Phrase (predicate) because their function is to add some significant concepts to verbs. The following example sentences show how transformed nominalized sen- tences above are used as nominal phrases in the "NP + VP" logical pattern: 1. I saw the birds that were flying above my head NP V NP adverbial VP 2. My boss said that the birds were flying in my head. NP V NP adverbial VP 3. The birds that eat insects are useful. NP VP 4. Everybody knows that birds eat insects. NP V NP VP 5. The insects that the birds eat are harmful. NP VP 6. The roases that are beautiful smell sweet. NP VP The beautiful roses smell sweet. NP VP 7. Everybody thinks that roses are beautiful. NP V NP
  8. 8. The Transformation Activity of the Logic in Turkish 8 In general, as soon as thought is materialized in morphemes in a language, they are seperated into words, and placed into the linear logical phrase structure sequence. While this process is going on, the phonological rules of the language simultaneously divide the words into syllables and harmonıze them in agreement with the general sound system of the language. The logical, morphemic, and oral (phonological) sequences behave inde- pendantly of one another in coordination to produce sentences. A morpheme that changes the meaning of a root or stem is called a deriva- tional morpheme (yapım eki); the other one, which does not change the meaning of a stem, is called an inflectional morpheme (çekim eki). Both the derivational and inflectional morphemes are bound morphemes. Some morphemes (suffixes in Turkish) have different pronunciation variants that bear the same meaning as their morphemes. For instance, in English, when the plural [S] morpheme is attached to the noun “book”, it is pro- nounced as /s/; in “boy-s” as /z/; and in “box-es” as /iz/. As they are the dif- ferent pronunciation variants of the same morpheme [S], they are named as the allomorphs of the morpheme [S]. Turkish sound system produce a lot more morphemes than English. This is because bound morphemes go through some vowel and consonant changes due to the vowel and consonant harmony rules of the Turkish lan- guage when they are attached to roots or stems, or to one another, and this process causes different allomorphs to arise. All the allomorphs of a certain morpheme carry the same meaning vocalizing differently, and therefore they do not change the meaning of the morphemes. The Turkish sound system functions independently of the Turkish morphemic system. FORM AND FUNCTION IN LANGUAGES Form and function are different notions in languages. Form is the physical structure of a language unit, but function is the syntactic role of the same unit in a sentence. We can see this difference between the two notions in the following English and Turkish sentences: Jane is dancing on the table: “On the table” is a prepositional phrase. Its form (structure) is preposi- tional, but its function is adverbial because it shows where the verb “dancing” is taking place. The books on the table are mine:
  9. 9. The Transformation Activity of the Logic in Turkish 9 In this sentence, “on the table” is also a prepositional phrase, but its func- tion is determiner because it answers the question “Which books?”, so it is a determiner implied by the determiner “the”. Jack is running to school: “To school” is structurally a prepositional phrase, but its function is adverbial because it shows the direction of the action “running". I read the books that I borrowed from the library: In this sentence, “that I borrowed from the library” is a language unit that defines “the books”, and therefore it is a determiner. However, when we consider “the books that I borrowed from a library”, we see that it functions in a sentence as a noun. Therefore, it is a Nominal Phrase transformed from the simple sentence “I borrowed some books from the library”. When we use the transformed phrase above as an object, we get the sentence: “I read the books that I borrowed from the library”. By the way, it is necessary to remember that all subjects and objects are nouns whether they contain only one word such as (you), two words (the book, Jack’s book), or more than two words (the books on the table, or the books that I borrowed and read). Such nominal phrases are infinite. For instance, “the fish that Jack caught that Mr. Brown cleaned that Mrs. Brown fried that Jane ate…” is a nominal phrase treated in a sentence as a single noun. Besides the Nominal Phrase above, there is another language unit called “noun compound”, which may be made up of two or more nouns such as “the lights of the street”, “the traffic lights”, or “the color of the walls of my room”. Such compounds whether they are made up of two or more nouns (infinite), are treated as single nouns (Nominal Phrases) in sentences. ✫✫✫ In Turkish, the [E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] morphemes (in fact their allomorphs ♫ [e,a], [de, da, te, ta], [den, dan, ten, tan], [le, la]) are attached to nouns, pronouns or infinitives. When these nouns, pronouns, or infinitives are used without these allomorphs, they may be used as subjects, or objects in sentences. These nouns are structurally and syntactically nouns. However, when these nouns, pronouns or infinitives are attached to the allomorphs above, they are structurally “noun-e”, “noun-de”, “noun-den” and “noun-le” units (In Turkish, ismin “e”, “de” and “den” hali), which syntactically function as adverbs and called adverbials in sentences:
  10. 10. The Transformation Activity of the Logic in Turkish 10 Ben bir kitap aldım. I bought a book subj det + noun | subj | det + noun NP (obj) NP verb NP verb object VP VP In the sentence above, “Ben” and “kitap” are structurally and syntactically nouns. In the following sentences, however, the noun roots attached to [E], [DE], [DEN], or [LE] morphemes undertake the role of adverbs in sentences. Adverbial means a word or words that function as an adverb. Jack okul-a gitti. Jack went to school. noun noun-a V noun V prep + noun subj adverbial prep phrase adverbial Jack okul-da-(dır). Jack is at school. noun noun-da V noun V prep + noun subj adverbial subj prep phrrase adverbial Jack okul-dan ev-e otobüs-le geldi. noun noun-dan noun-e noun-le V subj adverbial adverbial adverbial Jack came home from school by bus noun V noun prep + noun prep + noun subj adverb prep phrase prep phrase adverbial adverbial The other transformed nouns and adverbs could be found in the transforma- tion section. If you want to download the full version of the book free, look for "Turkish Grammar Updated Academic Edition Yüksel Göknel May 2013" in your browser. Yüksel Göknel