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Media Concentration


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Patricia Estevez

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Media Concentration

  1. 1. Media concentration<br />Patricia Estévez<br />Federación de Sindicatos de Periodistas (FeSP)<br />
  2. 2. Concentration<br />Thewordconcentrationrefersto 5 differentphenomena: <br />4 of economicalnature…<br />Integration of operations: strategiesforexternalgrowth (jointventures, mergers, alliances…) <br />Concentration of ownership: situation at a given time<br />Concentration of themarket: dominating position of a series of companies in respecttothemarket as a whole<br />Audienceconcentration: of a media outlet in a geographicalarea<br />And a 5th of politicalnature…<br />5. Centralizationoraccumulation of power, as a result of theeconomicalpower<br />(C. Llorens, 2003)<br />
  3. 3. MEDIA EMPIRES<br />Theworld’slargestmulti-media corporationswithdiversified media-holdings, the «Big 7»: <br />Time Warner<br />Disney<br />News Corp.<br />Bertelsmann<br />CBS<br />NBC<br />Viacom<br />
  4. 4. MEDIA EMPIRES are theresult of…<br />3 Trends:<br />Deregulation, liberalization and privatizationbroughtdown mental barriers in respecttomonolopolies<br />Deregulation «corporatized» media platforms: imposition of business-logic<br />Digitization: consolidationintojustonenetwork of telecomms, internet & mass media<br />(Arsenault & Castells, 2008)<br />
  5. 5. MEDIA EMPIRES have set new trends<br />3 Trends:<br />Diversification of platforms and convergence: notonlytheyown more thanbefore, butthecontentcreatedisdeliveredviaanincreasingnumber of platforms. VERTICAL INTEGRATION AS A PRECONDITION OF SUCCESS FOR CULTURAL PRODUCTS<br />Segmentation and Customization: New ways of identifying and deliveringcustomizedcontenttargettingcriticaladvertisingmarkets. MONETIZATION OF CONTENT <br />Economies of synergy: networkedforms of organization, creating GLOBAL NETWORK ENTERPRISES THROUGH DIAGONAL INTEGRATION. Holdings, partnerships and cross-investmentswithnational, regional and local companiestofacilitatemarketexpansion<br />(Arsenault & Castells, 2008)<br />
  6. 6. EUROPE<br />«Media Power in Europe: The Big Picture of Ownership» (EFJ, 2005) identified:<br />4 majorEuropeanmultinational and multi-media companies:<br /><ul><li>Bertelsmann AG
  7. 7. Lagadère
  8. 8. Axel SpringerVerlag
  9. 9. ScandinavianBroadcastingSystem SA</li></ul>3 big «foreignplayers»<br /><ul><li>Central European Media Enterprises LTD (CME)
  10. 10. WAZ
  11. 11. Ringier</li></ul>A broadbandserviceprovider<br />- Liberty Global<br />
  12. 12. Bertelsmann AG<br />Business Areas: Television and radio; book publishers; magazines and newspapers; media and communication services; media clubs and direct marketing<br />Divisions: RTL Group (Luxembourg), Random House, Inc. (New York), Gruner + Jahr (Hamburg), Arvato (Gütersloh), Direct Group (Gütersloh)<br />Shareholders: Bertelsmann Stiftung (77.4%), Mohn family (22.6%)<br />Countries: has operations in more than 50 countries<br />Employees: 102,983 <br />Revenues: 15,400 (2009), 11,007 (sept 2010)<br /> by business field  RTL Group: 34.4%; Random House: 11.0%; Gruner + Jahr: 16.0%; Arvato: 30.7%; Direct Group: 7.9%<br /> by region  U.S.: 12.5%; Germany: 35.0%; Europe (excluding Germany): 47.7%; other countries: 4.8%<br />
  13. 13. Bertelsmann AG<br />RTL Group (Luxembourg)<br />Television: each day, more than 170 million viewers in Europe watch TV channels operated by RTL Group: RTL Television, Super RTL, Vox or N-TV in Germany; M6 in France; Antena 3 in Spain, RTL 4 in the Netherlands; RTL TVI in Belgium; and RTL Klub in Hungary etc. <br />Radio: Radio Luxembourg, RTL in France, 104.6 RTL (Berlin), BelRTL in Belgium… <br />Fremantle Media, RTL Group’s content production arm,produces more than 10,000 hours of programming every year in 22 countries. With programming rights in about 150 countries, it is also the largest independent TV distribution company outside the United States.<br />Random House, Inc. (New York) <br />With more than 11,000 new books issued a year and 500 million books sold annually, it presents a broad spectrum of editorial voices supplied by over 120 publishing imprints in 19 countries, including historic publishing houses such as Doubleday and Alfred A. Knopf (USA); Ebury and Transworld (UK); Plaza & Janés (Spain); Sudamericana (Argentina) and Goldmann (Germany).<br />
  14. 14. Bertelsmann AG<br />Gruner+ Jahr (Hamburg)<br />More than 285 print titles and accompanying homepages in over 20 countries, printing plants in Germany and the United States, and professional websites.<br />Arvato(Gütersloh)<br />Arvato AG is an international media and communication service provider, offering from conventional printing to modern services such as service centers, financial clearinghouses and mobile services. Arvato is comprised of four divisions: ArvatoServices, ArvatoPrint, Arvato Digital Services and Arvato Systems<br />Direct Group (Gütersloh)<br />More than 15 million customers in the 16 countries where Direct Group has operations: media clubs, bookstores, online stores, publishers, direct sales <br />
  15. 15. lagaRdère<br />Business Areas: Television and radio; book publishers; magazines and newspapers; media and communication services; media clubs and direct marketing<br />Divisions: LagardèrePublishing (book-publishing business segment); Lagardère Active (magazine publishing, audiovisual -radio, television, audiovisual production- and digital activities, and advertising sales); Lagardère Services, (travel retail and press-distribution business segment);Lagardère Unlimited (sport industry and entertainment)<br />Countries: operations in more than 50 countries<br />Employees: 29,519 <br />Sales: 7,892 M € (2009)<br />by region  U.S. and Canada: 12.8%; France: 33.6%; Europe (excluding France): 36.8%; other countries Europe (non-EU): 7.4%, other countries: 9.4%<br />
  16. 16. AXEL springerverlag<br />Business Areas: over 230 newspapers and magazines, more than 80 online offerings, holdings in television and radio stations<br />Countries: active in a total of 36 countries.<br />Employees: 10,500 <br />Revenues:  2,611.6M € (2009)<br />
  17. 17. ProSiebenSat.1 Group<br />Business Areas: Commercial television, premium pay channels, radio stations and related print businesses. <br />2nd largest broadcasting group in Europe. In Germany (SAT.1, ProSieben and kabeleins)is number one in the TV advertising market. Strong market positions in free TV in the Netherlands with the channels SBS 6, Net 5 and Veronica, in Hungary with TV 2 and FEM3, and in Sweden with Kanal 5 and Kanal 9. <br />Shareholders: Lavena Holding companies(56.7%), Telegraaf Media Groep N.V. (6.0%), Free Float (37.3%)<br />The Lavena Holding companies are controlled by funds advised by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P. (KKR) and PermiraBeteiligungsberatungGmbH (Permira).<br />Free floatincludes6,027,500 treasury shares.<br />Countries: has operations in 14 countries<br />Employees: 5,000 <br />Revenue: 1,320.9€ (2009)<br />(Took over  SBS Broadcasting Group on June 27 2007) <br />
  18. 18. Central European Media Enterprises <br />Business Areas: Broadcast, content, new media<br />Leading vertically integrated media company in Central and Eastern Europe. It operates TV Nova, Nova Sport, Nova Cinema and MTV in the Czech Republic, PRO TV, PRO TV International, ACASA, PRO CINEMA, Sport.roand MTV Romania in Romania, TV Markíza, Nova Sport, Television Doma and MTV in the Slovak Republic, POP TV, KanalA and POP BRIO in Slovenia, NOVA TV in Croatia and bTV, Pro.BG, bTV Comedy, bTV Cinema and Ring.BG in Bulgaria.<br />Countries: has operations in 6 countries<br />Bermuda company, with subsidiaries in the Netherlands, London and in each operating country<br />
  19. 19. WestdeuscheAllgemeineZeitung (WAZ) Media group<br />Business Areas: Press, Radio stations, online market, service companies <br />29 daily newspapers with a circulation of over 2,5 million copies, 19 weekly newspapers, 186 popular magazines and trade journals, 99 advertising journals, and approximately 400 customer magazines, among others. It has financial interests in numerous local radio stations on the Rhine and the Ruhr, and is the majority shareholder in eleven of them. In July 2005, it sold to Bertelsmann AG its 20 percent share in the Holding BW-TV (Bertelsmann-WAZ-TV) which they operated together. <br />Cityweb Network: online market. <br />Service companies, among other things, runs private postal delivery services in North-Rhine Westfalia and Thuringia.<br />Countries: has operations in 10 European countries (special interest in Southeastern Europe)<br />Employees: 17,000 <br />
  20. 20. ringier<br />Business Areas: multinational integrated media company - print, broadcast, radio, online and mobile media brands, and is a successful player in the printing, entertainment and internet business<br />Ringier publishes and prints over 70 newspapers and magazines in Germany, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. In Asia, it owns the printing company Ringier Print (HK) Ltd., Hong Kong, and Ringier is active in China since 1997.<br />Countries: has operations in 6 European countries <br />Employees: 7,448<br />Revenue: 1,296.1 <br /> By country Switzerland and Germany 63.7%;Czech Republic 11.4%; Slovakia 5.1%; Hungary 8.3%; Romania 2.7%; Serbia 4.8%; Pacific 4.0%<br />
  21. 21. Liberty global<br />Business Areas: Video onDemand, High Definition TV, and Digital Video Recorders, broadband internet services, Multi-feature VoIP telephony services<br />Largest cable company outside the U.S. and one of the fastest growing in the world. 31.2 million homes passed, 17.7 million customer relationships, and 27.5 million video, voice, and internet subscriptions (RGUs)<br />Divisions:<br />UPC Broadband: Cable operations in 10 countries, LargestPan-European cable operator<br />Unitymedia(Germany): part of the UPC Broadband division, second largest cable operator in Germany<br />Telenet (Belgium): Own ~ 50% of Telenet, Largest cable operator in Belgium<br />Chellomedia: Content generator: 44 channels, of which 29 are 100% owned and 15 jointventures. Subscribers: 252 million TV households globally<br />Also: Australia (Austar) and the Americas (VTR–Chile; LibertyCablevision- Puerto Rico)<br />Countries: 14 countries<br />Employees: 20,000<br />Revenue: $9,000 M <br />
  22. 22. EUROPE<br />«Media Power in Europe: The Big Picture of Ownership» (EFJ, 2005) warned:<br /><ul><li>Media ownership in Europewas no longer local in nature
  23. 23. Media ownershipisincreasinglytransnational and multi-continental</li></ul>As a result, national media regulations do no longerapply and economiccompetition rules are difficulttoenforce, whilecross-ownershipisenabling use and reuse of contentoverseveral media. <br />
  24. 24. EU - regulation<br />The EC MergerRegulationchecksthatmergers do notendangercompetition. <br />2 mainissues: <br />Itdoesn’ttackle vertical integrationappropriately. Mainrisk: «gate-keepers», equalaccessmust be grantedtoinfraestructure and services<br />Theassessment of media concentrationisbasedonquantitativeconsiderations (externalgrowth) and internalgrowth can only be consideredwhenconcerning abuse of a dominant position. This leads toacceptcertainsituationthat, withintheframework, could mean a threattoplurality (ex: mergers of companiesoperating in differentgeographicmarkets)<br />Ultimately, control restsprimarilyonMemberStates, and concerns are raised at times aboutthetendency of fosteringdomesticeconomyinstead of safeguardingplurality<br />
  25. 25. Authors’ rights<br />2 mainissues: <br /><ul><li>Use, reuse and customization of content, cross-platform and throughoutthe media group, withoutpropercompensation
  26. 26. Inequality– differentcollectiveagreements in differentcountries</li></li></ul><li>Authors’ rights<br />Thebusinessmodel of the «Global networkenterprise» is at thecore of this<br />«We can findmultiple (and proliferatingstyles of control and decision-makingbeintolearted in differentparts of thenetwork, so log as those at the centre of the web can gainfromallowing a particular practice and/ororganizationalarrangementtoexist in part of theirnetworked ‘empire’» (P.E. Louw 2001) <br />- Thelack of cross-nationalregulationleavesauthor’srightsissues up tothe «goodfaith» of thecompany: Corporate Social Responsibility of the media empires<br />- Needforcross-national labor coordination in ordertobargaincollectively more efficiently (ex: Rizzoli)<br />
  27. 27. Concern<br />In themidst of thefinancial crisis, thereis no talkaboutconcentrationissuesanymore<br />