EU Legal Landscape & Collective Rights Management, IFRRO

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  • EU Legal Landscape & Collective Rights Management, IFRRO

    1. 1. EU legal landscape and Collective Rights Management by RROs Reproduction Rights Organisations<br />Olav Stokkmo, IFRRO Chief Executive<br />11 December 2010<br />IFJ Conference, Thessaloniki (Greece)<br />
    2. 2. Concerns journalistic works<br />Collective Rights Management Text & Image based works<br />
    3. 3. Reprography What is it?<br />Copy from published work<br />on to a graphic surface<br /><ul><li>Books
    4. 4. incl. e-book; online
    5. 5. Newspapers
    6. 6. Incl. e-formats
    7. 7. Magazines
    8. 8. Journals
    9. 9. Web pages
    10. 10. Databases
    11. 11. CD, DVD
    12. 12. Sheet music/scores
    13. 13. etc.
    14. 14. Photocopy
    15. 15. Fax
    16. 16. Print-out
    17. 17. etc.</li></li></ul><li>Reprography and legislationFundamental principles<br />Berne Convention<br /><ul><li>Exclusive right to
    18. 18. reproduce;
    19. 19. make available
    20. 20. distribute</li></ul>EC © Directive<br /><ul><li>Reprography (5.2a)
    21. 21. Fair compensation
    22. 22. Private copy (5.2b)
    23. 23. Fair compensation</li></ul>Berne Convention<br />EC © Directive<br /><ul><li>Limitations to exclusive rights
    24. 24. Special case
    25. 25. Not conflict with normal use
    26. 26. Not prejudice legitimate interest of author</li></li></ul><li>LegislationEnabling control – supporting access <br />Exclusive rights<br />Luxembourg, Malta<br />Ireland, UK (Education: Obligation to take up a licence)<br />Exclusive rights and legislative support<br />Extended Collective Licence - Nordic countries + Voluntary<br />France (Compulsory collective management) + Voluntary<br />Latvia (Legal presumption)<br />Legal licence<br />Netherlands, Switzerland (+ Voluntary) <br />Levies<br />Austria, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Slovenia, etc.<br />Spain, Greece, (+ Voluntary)<br />
    27. 27. Reprography and similar reproductionCompensation in 2009<br />Collection by IFRRO members<br /><ul><li>€ 1,03 billion</li></ul>Journalistic material; Examples %<br /><ul><li>France 26%
    28. 28. Norway 13%
    29. 29. UK: 28%</li></ul>Journalist involvement depends on<br /><ul><li>Legislation
    30. 30. Contracts
    31. 31. Employment status</li></ul>International Federation of <br />Reproduction Rights Organisations<br />RROs<br />Creator & Publisher<br />bodies<br />
    32. 32. Indispensible to culture, knowledge, education, development, and economy<br />Copyright based industries<br />
    33. 33. Value of the creative industries<br /><ul><li>Cultural value
    34. 34. National identity
    35. 35. Fiction, non fiction (science, technology, education), poetry, drawings, photographs... And more!
    36. 36. “Cultural industries” work within
    37. 37. Culture
    38. 38. Knowledge
    39. 39. Entertainment
    40. 40. Economic importance
    41. 41. Incentive to create and publish
    42. 42. Text book publishing = print publishing engine </li></li></ul><li>Economic contribution of the creative industries – WIPO<br />http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/ip-development/en/creative_industry/pdf/eco_table.pdf<br />
    43. 43. Copyright based sectorContribution to GDP by industry – WIPO <br />10<br />
    44. 44. Collective Rights Management<br /> in text and image based works<br />Creators and publishers providing access through collective management and RROs<br />
    45. 45. Why are photocopies made?<br /><ul><li>Billions of copies made annually
    46. 46. Most copies not possible to stop
    47. 47. Legitimate copies
    48. 48. Small parts
    49. 49. Internal use
    50. 50. Non commercial
    51. 51. Education heavy user
    52. 52. Main users of journalistic material
    53. 53. Corporations
    54. 54. Public admin.
    55. 55. Need
    56. 56. chapter
    57. 57. article
    58. 58. update info
    59. 59. flexibility
    60. 60. Material
    61. 61. not available
    62. 62. not on sale
    63. 63. Student needs a chapter/article
    64. 64. Admin needs article for information</li></li></ul><li>RRO Collective Management Complements individual rights administration<br />Individual admin when creator/publisher wants it<br />Collective management when individual admin is<br />Impossible<br />Typically Orphan works<br />Impracticable or Insufficient<br />Typically Multiple copying; Out-of-Commerce works<br />RRO complementsindividual management<br />
    65. 65. RROs -Reproduction Rights OrganisationsSet up/Governed jointly by Authors and Publishers<br />Operate on the basis of mandates from; governed by<br /><ul><li>Creators and Publishers
    66. 66. Writers including journalists; Visual artists; Composers</li></ul> Publishers (Book, journal, newspaper, magazine, music)<br /><ul><li>Legislation</li></ul>Key facets of RRO activities<br />Awareness raising; Copyright enforcement<br />Licence, collect and distribute revenues;<br />Reprography; certain digital uses<br />Distribution rules decided by creator and publisher members<br />
    67. 67. Digital sources and applications<br />Sources<br />Applications and uses<br />
    68. 68. Content of RRO licences<br />Limited extracts<br /><ul><li>5-15%; chapter; article
    69. 69. Personal and Internal use</li></ul>Permitted uses<br /><ul><li>Photocopying and scanning
    70. 70. Download, store, print, internal dissemination, external dissemination
    71. 71. Newspaper cuttings</li></ul>Authorised users<br />Fees; Terms<br />Usage reporting requirements<br />Compliance awareness<br />
    72. 72. RROs Areas of Licensing<br />Education at all levels<br />Schools; Universities; Further education; Distance Education<br />Public Administration<br />Government; Regional; Local<br />Trade and Industry<br />Public and Research libraries<br />Religious bodies<br />Cultural institutions<br />Copy shops<br />
    73. 73. IFRRO<br />International Federation of Reproduction Rights Organisations<br />It takes 20 years to arrive spontaneously at an immediate successEd Cantor <br />
    74. 74. IFRRO – 128 Members in 65 CountriesThe International Link and Global network<br />RROs (73)<br />Mandate to licence reprography<br />59 RRO Members<br />Represent publishers and creators<br />14 Associate Members<br />Represent publishers or creators<br />Creators and Publishers associations<br />International<br />IFJ, EWC; ENPA, FAEP, FEP; EVA<br />National<br />NUJ, ALCS; PA, PLS; DACS<br />
    75. 75. IFRROGovernance and Work form<br />Annual General Meetings<br />Board of Directors<br />8 RRO Directors and Substitute Directors<br />2 Publishers Directors and Substitute Directors<br />2 Authors Directors and Substitute Directors<br />Committees/Working Groups and Fora<br />e.g. Asia Pacific Committee <br />Newspapers, etc; Visual Material; Musical works<br />IFRRO Business Models Forum (IBMF); Legal Issues (LIF)<br />Cooperation activities<br />WIPO; UNESCO; EU; ARIPO, OAPI, CERLALC, APEC, ASEAN<br />Policy work, Awareness, Training, Anti Piracy work <br />
    76. 76. RROs facilitate access <br />New areas of licensing<br />Every decision is like surgery. It is an intervention into a system and therefore carries with it the risk of shock. Peter Drucker, The Effective Executive<br />
    77. 77. RRO activitiesNew Areas for Potential Development<br />Digital Libraries<br />Orphan Works<br />Works out of Commerce<br />Model Licensing Agreements<br />Rights Clearance Centres<br />Databases/Registries<br />People with reading impairment<br /><ul><li>Trusted Intermediaries (TI) pilot project</li></ul>WIPO VIP Stakeholder Platform<br />EC VIP Stakeholder Dialogue - MoU<br />
    78. 78. ARROWAccessible Rights Registries and Orphan Works<br />Facilitates EUROPEANA<br /><ul><li>Partnered by
    79. 79. Authors’ associations
    80. 80. Publishers associations
    81. 81. RROs
    82. 82. IFRRO
    83. 83. TEL
    84. 84. National Libraries
    85. 85. Technology developers
    86. 86. Co-funded by EU</li></ul>Identifies electronically<br /><ul><li>Rights
    87. 87. Right holders
    88. 88. Rights status
    89. 89. Rights clearance
    90. 90. Orphan Works</li></li></ul><li>In Conclusion<br />
    91. 91. Licensing by RROsCreating a win-win-win session<br />Working within established structures<br />Developing practical alternatives<br />National equilibrium maintained<br />Toolbox of solutions<br />Flexible interaction between licensing and exceptions<br />Benefiting users, creative industries<br /> & society at large<br />
    92. 92. Thank you for your attention<br />www.ifrro.org<br />Olav.Stokkmo@ifrro.org<br />

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