Salt water class project

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English Composition I, Cascadia Community College, Class project.
By: Steve Westerman, Yu Hong Wu & Miriam Zeitz

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Salt water class project

  1. 1. SALT WATER By: Steves Westerman Yu Hong Wu Miriam Zeitz Instructor: Robyn Ferret
  2. 2. The letter from editors: Our lives are shaped by water: flowing through our bodies, rivers, andoceans, falling from the sky as rain. But it is sodium infused water specificallythat we rely on as a palliative. As Isak Dinesen once said, “the cure foranything is salt water- sweat, tears, or the sea.” And indeed, we may findsolace in this triumvirate of elements. Through the catharsis of weeping, theempowerment of perspiration, or the meditative quality of the ocean, we findourselves unmistakably healed from our earthly woes. Throughout this publication, we attempt to trace different aspects of andopinions on this triad, in the context of literature, personal narrative, andscientific phenomenon. Over the course of several months, we haveextensively studied written works relating to this concept, culminating in theincluded essays. From a story about an immigrant mother to a report on eco-tourism, the following texts display both the universality and intimacy of saltwater and its power to cure.Westerman, StevesWu, Yu HongZeitz, Miriam 2
  3. 3. ContentsSweat: The Sweating of the World 1. Nancy ……………………………………………. 5 2. Black belt or bust………………………….. 9 3. By Miriam Zeitz …………………………..12Tears: Our Tears Fill the River of Life 1. By Steve Westerman, …..………………….16 2. By Miriam Zeitz ………..……………………22Ocean: Let’s Enjoy the Ocean!? 1. By: Miriam Zeitz …………………………….27 2. Arctic Warming A Profit in the Melting..31 3. Offshore Drilling……………………………….35Sources… ……………………………………………….40Answer Key....................................................41 3
  4. 4. Do you k n How man ow? glands ar y sweat e in an ad body? ultSweat: The Sweating of the WorldAll most everyone has experiences some kind ofsweat.Sweat is a kind of human emotion or nature reaction.During this course, we work so hard, we hadsweat a lot Do you know? How much do you sweat in a day?There, we also have some interesting stories aboutsweat… 4
  5. 5. NANCYBy: Yu Hong Wu Look through the window, outside it is still very dark. It is almost 4:30 in the morning,Nancy lies on the bed, and her left hand is on an alarm clock, she is getting ready to pushthe button down. She is waiting. She wants to stay in her bed another hour or maybe just10 more minutes. Her mother’s voice arises from her head: “Nancy, Get up. You shouldwork harder, don’t be scared of sweat, it will help you someday.” Oh, when does thisbecome a luxury requires? She quested herself. Nancy is about mid thirties, she is about 5 foot tall, very skinny, with short hair. Whenshe is smiling her eyes sparkle, everyone who knows her says her eyes can smile too. Shewalks fast, speaks fast too. Her clothes are always very tidy, it seems hard to image howshe keeps it that way. 4 years ago, Nancy moved to the U.S. She still remembered the crowd in the airport,everyone seems so jealous that she has the opportunity to immigrate to the U.S. She is theonly one uncertain about the future. She has a very good job in her hometown, acomfortable life. She never even thinks about moving out of the town; now she is movingout of the country. She doesn’t even know how to speak English. She regrets she didn’tlearn English language seriously when she was in school. She felt her hands starting tosweat; she always does that when she is nervous. “Nancy, work harder, don’t be scared ofsweat, it will help you someday.” That is her mother’s voice. Or maybe mother is anotherexception; she felt a little bit uneasy. Her mother was not at the airport with her. Thatmorning when she left their apartment, her mother didn’t even come to the door way. But 5
  6. 6. she knows she is behind the curtains, she looks at her all the time. She knows her motheris worried about her; she has never left her mother, she is so far away. The day before herdeparture they had a long conversation. Her mother told her to “Work harder. Don’t bescared of sweat. It will help you someday.” That is a new tone from her mother, whichsurprised her. Four years later, Nancy understands “Work harder. Don’t be scared of sweat, It willhelp you someday” more and more. When she first arrived at U.S, because of her poorEnglish Language skill, she couldn’t find job base on her past job experience for almosthalf year. So she decided to get in a job training program. After some research she chosenursing assistant training program. When she had finished the training she found anursing assistant job at a skilled nursing home. Nursing assistant job is the hardest job onthe planet, everyone says that. Nancy had never experienced that before, she had no ideawhat she will face when she first arrives on board. When she first performed pericare, shealmost threw up; and the resident didn’t allow her do the transfer either, her residentdidn’t trust her because she looks not strong enough. For her, not only the job itself isvery hard, but also her coworkers pick on her. The only reason is that she does not looklike them. Instead of complaining she chose to work hard. She had followed her mother’ssuggestion since then. In fact she is working so hard. And she sweats a lot too. Everyhour, every shift, she sweats. Everyone in her facility knows Nancy is a harder worker,even the beauty shop lady, says “Nancy is always busy; she is always on the move.” Shehad earned her coworkers and her residents respect. Nancy’s facility even lets her trainnew employees. She loves her job, her coworkers and her residents too. She even lovesthe feeling of the sweat. 6
  7. 7. Nancy has a very lovely 3 years old boy. Whenever she talk about her son, a mother’spride is writing on her face automatically. She loves her son more than anything else inthis world. But working at a skilled nursing home as a nursing assistant; her work daystarts very early. Every day she has to send her son to daycare in the very early morning.Watching the boy sleep in his car seat breaks her heart. She wishes her son can sleep onhis own bed through the morning. She starts to reconsider the job that she loves, but newjob means new training, and more education. For her son, she makes up her mind; sheneeds go back to school once again. She is more confident now than before after theseyears of hard work. However, to go back to college is very hard for both Nancy and herson. But she determines it, and believes hard work and sweat. After a long day workingas a nursing assistant, by the end of the shift, she feels her energy is all gone. Great effortis needed in order for her to sit in the classroom and concentrate on the lecture, not tomention the after class’s study and tons of homework. Every night, after she puts her sonback to bed, she sits in front of the desk to study until late of the night. She feels that shecan never get enough sleep. Sleep becomes more and more of a luxury for her. And forher son that his mother goes to college means to stay at day care longer than before andwhenever his mother is working on her homework, he has to play alone and be veryquiet, that bothers him a lot. But they both manage it well. First she took ESL classes,now she is taking her college level class. And all the courses Nancy had taken, theaverage GPA is A. Her son can even say “Mammy is studying.” She now knew why hermother says: “Work harder. Don’t be scared of sweat. It will help you someday.” Incollege, one of her instructor once quotes Isak Dinesen’s famous quote “The cure foranything is salt water – sweat, tears, or the sea.” That quote immediately gets her 7
  8. 8. attention, now it is her favorite. “Sweat” that just describes her, she sweats a lot,everyday she works and studies, she believes the sweat now. She is working hard towardher dream. The alarm finally sounded, it is 4:30am. Nancy put her hand down quickly. She jumpsout of her bed tries to get through her morning routine as fast as she can. After that she tiptoe into her son’s room, she is very gentle when she undresses her son’s pajama. Thenshe quickly puts the dress on her son. He’s still asleep. She carries him into the car, andputs him into the car seat, her son may feel the difference, and began to mumble: “Mom,its dark, dark”, she quickly buckles the child seat belt on him, kisses on his red cheeks“You’re right, honey. We will get better, mom promises. Take a rest, now. Please”. Shequickly goes back to her driver seat, starts the engine. “Salt water can cure everything,sweat, tear…” she mumbles, a smile appears on her face, her eyes sparkle like a brightstar, the car starts to move. It is about 5:30am. 8
  9. 9. Black belt or bustBy: Steve Westerman So it had all come down to that final moment -- Man vs. Brick. This was the finalobstacle between me and my black belt. (Flash back) I could still remember the first day when I walked into the WorldMartial Arts Academy. I was nervous and excited all rolled into one. There were trophieslining the walls, some tall, detailed with stars and stripes and figures of martial artist menon top. There was the smell of sweat permeating throughout the room – proof to anyonewho walks in that intense training was taking place. I was greeted by a tall Asian gentleman who had a thick Korean accent. With a deepstrong voice that went through you and made you well aware that he was the Master, hesaid, "Hello. My name is Kevin Bong, how can I help you? “. I felt a bit intimidatedbecause of his size but I could see in his eyes that he was a kind man. He was dressed inthe white standard uniform but his tattered and worn black belt was proof of his manyyears of experience. We sat down at a semi-circle chair that was faded orange, not something you wouldexpect to see in a martial arts school. It was more suited for a restaurant or a night club.“So tell me why you want to learn martial arts?” Master Bong asks. I say “it has alwaysbeen something I have wanted to learn and I need something to do with my free time thatwill keep me disciplined and focus.” After explaining why I wanted to learn martial arts,I gave him the fee we agreed on, which happened to be exactly $65.00. That was all themoney in my wallet. When I first started to take class, even though I was 28 years old at the time and a 9
  10. 10. Veteran of the military, I still felt awkward and unsure of myself in the class. But thatsoon passed as I made friends and became more familiar of the customs and the training.One of those friends was Anthony Cipolla, a retired Sergeant Major and a fifth gradeschool teacher, who was returning to martial arts after 30 years. We became great friendsbecause we shared a lot of common interest like playing the drums and always pushingoneself to be better. There were days when he motivated me and there were days Imotivated him. You could say I was a very hyperactive and so was he, even though hewas in his fifties individual, and this was the perfect thing for me. The classes taught me how to react to different situations, like someone trying to robyou at an ATM machine. I was shocked when the instructor told us not to fight back. Iexpected him to tell us to kick them or disarm them. But instead he said, " Give them themoney because its not worth fighting over. Your life is more important than any materialthing." Master Bong was always good at inspiring me. There were many times I thought I wasgoing to pass out and couldnt move anymore during training. He would say "keepworking hard, push through the pain, the more sweat and blood you shed here the lessyou will shed in a fight." With every belt and every broken board, my confidence grewand I began to really believe in myself. Not just my physical abilities but my ability tocontrol this anger I had been carrying around. It was like a backpack full of rocks that Icouldnt shake off. It seemed like with every passing achievement in the martial arts, arock fell out of the pack. 10
  11. 11. (Flash forward) As I stare at this brick in front of me, I think about all the momentsbefore this when I thought this is impossible. The memory that sticks out the most is thefirst time I had to break two one inch boards together while jumping and spinning 270degrees in the air. I had practiced this technique hundreds of times on kicking targets,sometimes unsuccessfully, I might add. I calmed my mind, and visualized my footmaking contact directly in the middle of the boards. Time seemed to stand still as Icharged myself up like a windup toy. Then in a flash, I hear the boards crack and I amstanding there in awe of what had just happened. It’s as if my body moves on its own,like it knows exactly what to do. It is in perfect sync and each limb is in harmony witheach other. It is one of those moments that even the memory make my heart race and mybody fill with pride. This is the moment I had worked for these past four years. The Master reminds me"if you believe you can, it will happen." These words filled my head, I steadied my heartand I swelled with energy. I take one step forward then I jump, take flight, and with aloud yell that could be heard in the next county, all that is left after the dust settles is acrushed brick and a man with his dreams full filled. I could feel the sweat dripping downmy face as I realized that I became a Black belt. This was all possible because of thesweat and tears that washed away the boy and helped grow the man. Do you know? What does “Tae Kwon Do” mean? 11
  12. 12. The titleBy: Miriam Zeitz“What’s your circus name?” asks Ledge, short for Legend. Hes making a list of tonightsperformers, their tricks, and of course- their circus names. Around here, I know mostpeoples circus names better than their birth ones. Dutchie, Orca, Kane, Big Bird, Paulito:these are the characters that color my weekends. After youve watched someone catch adouble forward-over on the trapeze, listened to their stories about traveling with aMexican circus, or heard them recount the time they stowed away on a boat to Americaand were taken in by a group of jugglers, names like Brian or Chelsea seem all togethertoo mundane. Now I stand on the fringe of this world, emboldened by a dream I neverthought was possible.The first time I climbed the ladder, my trembling hands could barely grasp the metal.Just keep climbing, I told myself, as if standing on the tiny platform at the top of thethirty foot ladder was something to look forward to. Of course, when I surmounted theboard, I was only steeped further in anxiety, clinging desperately to the lone suspensioncable within reach. I eased into the position I had been taught: toes wrapped around theedge, one arm forward, leaning the entire mass of my body over the net below. But mylimbs, my stubborn limbs, steadfastly refused to obey. In that moment, I found myselfwishing I was still at home wrapped in the comfort of sleep, instead of drenched in aterrifying sweat, facing my overwhelming fear of heights. 12
  13. 13. But everything changed after I jumped off the platform. Trapeze bar in hand, I swung outover the great chasm below, the final element for a great ebullition of parabolic motion.In that moment, I felt myself lighten as fetters unclasped and dropped below. Although ittook months before I could stand on the board without fear, it was that weightlessnessthat kept me climbing back up that ladder every time.It hasnt been an easy journey since then. I started my workout routine right away: coretraining and stretching every day, plus ballet, gym workouts, and of course, trapeze,throughout the week. Sometimes, simply having a regimen was the only thing thatpushed me to start my hour-long stretching routine late at night, when I was alreadyexhausted. After a few months, it became so habitual that it felt strange and evenunnerving to miss a day of exercise. And eventually, this was eclipsed by the dramaticimprovement I saw: visible ridges of muscle, flexibility I never thought was possible. Ispent countless hours running on treadmills, doing pushups, lifting weights. Ive practicedhandstands until my screaming arms collapse and my sweaty hands slip out from underme. But theres something about that feeling, when youre drenched in your own hardwork, and the only thing that keeps you going is knowing that next time, itll be a littleeasier. Theres a certain power, too, that comes with being able to trust your own strength.Trusting the strength I was building became more and more an integral part of trapeze. Inthe beginning, the tricks were simple, requiring little more than an ability to wait for thecalls. But soon enough I was ready to begin learning more advanced tricks, requiringexactly the flexibility, strength, and coordination I had been working towards. 13
  14. 14. First came the Pullover. The calls for this trick were different: instead of the “firstposition,” “final position,” and “help!” I was used to, I would be waiting for “pullover,”“pump,” and “shoot!” At the first call, I was to rotate my body, feet first, around the bar,coming to rest with my weight supported by my hips. “Pump,” and “shoot,” in rapidsuccession, were to trigger the bending and re-extending of my arms in order to shoot mybody off the bar, into the arms of the catcher- the person who receives the person doingthe trick while hanging from their own trapeze. I had been throwing tricks since my firstlesson, but this was the first that left scars. Again and again I practiced the pullover, andeach time my hips slammed against the bar, rubbing a little more raw, bruising a littlemore violently.When I started working on my cutaway, the pain moved from my hip to my hands. A partof me had dreaded working on the cutaway from the moment I learned what the trickwas: a flip off the trapeze with the body extended in a flat plane. The most difficult part,however, was the required rotation, in mid-air, just after coming off the board. Each timespun around and re-gripped the bar, my hands began to tear a little more.“How are the manos? Muy Caliente?” Paulito asked. But I shook my head and laughed toshow I was alright, ready to prove myself. Halfway through the class, though, my handswere more raw than fleshy, and I couldnt hide the blood thats pooling in my palms.“Can I have a band-aid? I dont think itd be very sanitary if I bled on the trapeze,” I said,feeling the need to justify my request after watching a girl cry over her first blister.Dutchie was next to me in a moment, his boyish spirit alight. 14
  15. 15. “We have a rip! A good one too,” he announced, his eyes sparkling with the stars of allthe countries hes seen. The other instructors gathered around, admiring my battlewounds. Dutchie wrapped my hands in band-aids and medical tape. And when it was myturn, I climbed the ladder and threw one more cutaway.“So?” Ledge calls out, drawing me back. “You have a name?” I push myself a littlefurther into the splits, warming up for the trick Ill be performing tonight. And then Iknow, and I laugh because of course- Ive known it all along. Its nothing deep ormajestic, its just a silly nickname Ive had since I was a kid.“Moose,” I say. “Im Moose.” Ledge and the others laugh, and I know they approve.Around here, it isnt about romanticizing your dark past into an enigmatic identity. Itsabout wonder, mischief, and, of course, fun. After all, its the circus. 15
  16. 16. Do you know? When the baby starts have real tears? Tears --- Our Tears Fill the River of Life There are all kinds of tears: sad tears, happytears, or just for clean and lubricate the eyestears. But did you know: tears have societalaspects? Tears help you see better. True or FalseLet’s read these essays, and find it out. 16
  17. 17. Do you know?By: Steve Westerman How many people practice Tae Kwon Do Worldwide?Characters:Dad/InstructorIsabella/Daughter/StudentBryanna/Daughter/StudentDawson/StudentLinnea/Student The lights come on in the do-jang, which is Korean for training area. The childrenstart to walk through the door, with the sounds of their voices greeting one each other.Instructor: "Welcome Back. I am glad to see everyone."Dawson/Linnea/Isabella/Bryanna: (all in unison) "Hello Master Steven" (with excitementin their voices)In the class, I am not Dad, I am the Instructor. Its a difficult balance because of myspecial relationship with two of the students, Isabella and Bryanna, who are my ownchildren.Outside of the classroom, they know me as Dad. The one who kisses their bruises andwipes their tears. To them I am funny and smiling, giving them piggy back rides up anddown the stairs. But in the do-jang, I am Master Steven, who pushes them when theywant to give up and ask them to wipe their own tears and fight through the difficultmoments.Instructor: "Attention!" (In a voice that demands their attention.) 17
  18. 18. The class snaps to attention, their bright eyes beaming with excitement, waiting for thenext command.Instructor: "Basic one poomse."The class echoes: "Basic One Poomse!"During this exercise of blocks, kicks and punches designed for defense from multipleattacks, I make corrections and praise the student for their proper execution of technique.Instructor: "Great punch Isabella. Make sure your forward stance is deep."Isabella: "Thanks Dad. Ooops I mean Master Steven."Instructor: "Bryanna, you are doing a wonderful job following along. Make sure yourright foot is in front at this point of the poomse."Bryanna: "Thanks Master Steven!"As always, she breaks the ranks and runs to hug and kiss me because of the praises. Ihave to correct her and say;Instructor: "Thank you but now is not the time Bryanna."Even though inside I feel warmth and happiness from my sweet child, I have to maintainthe barrier that should exist between student and Instructor.Instructor: "Linnea, you have memorized the poomse very well. Now you can focus oncreating more snap in your kicks and punches."Linnea: "Yes, sir!" (With a shine in her smile)Instructor: "Dawson, your middle blocks are great. I want you to remember to pick yourknee up high before you kick because it will make you look sharper."Dawson: "Ok sir, I will do my best!"These are the easy moments when everything is going smooth. But it’s when the injuries 18
  19. 19. and fatigue start to change the atmosphere of the class. You know when Isabella is tiredbecause her knee or ankle starts to hurt.Isabella: "Master Steven, I hurt my knee."Instructor: "How? Show me where it hurts?"Isabella: "Right here on top."Instructor: "Can you stand on one leg?"As she limps on it, she proceeds to say....Isabella: "No it hurts."Instructor: "You just have to push through it until the class is over."Isabella: "But But." (As she sighs) "Yes Sir."Instructor: “Do you know what perseverance is Isabella?”Isabella: “No”Instructor: “Well, what it means is even though your leg hurts and you want to stoptraining? You keep training through the pain. Sometimes you may be hurting so bad that it May bring tears to your eyes but you tell yourself I am not going to give up or quit. That is perseverance.”Isabella: “I get it. If I try my best and don’t give up I will get stronger.”Instructor: “Very good, and with that understanding you will be a Black Belt some day.”Instructor: “I am going to give everyone a water break.” Sheo (It is Korean for take abreak)Class:” Moo Doo, Yes I can!”This is my way as a Dad to give Isabella a break without the rest of the class thinking I 19
  20. 20. am playing favorites.Instructor: “Ok class break is over.”They all bow as they return to the mats.Dawson: “Master Steven what are we going to do now?”Class: “Can we do chicken fighting!”This is their favorite game to play. They hold on to one leg with both hands and movearound on the other, all the while trying to knock the other person over.I love this exercise as much as they do because they practice balance, strategy andendurance while having fun.Instructor:” Bryanna you will be Chong (means blue in Korean) and Dawson you will beHong (means red in Korean).” I point to the spot I want them to stand at and tell them toget in chicken fighting stance.Class: “Go Bryanna you can do it. Knock him over.”I want to smile because inside I am hoping she will win but on the outside I have to befair to both students. Instructor: “Se-jak” (means start in Korean) They charge at each other, knee first. Spinning and dodging each other. Who will be victorious? 20
  21. 21. As a father I want to comfort and protect my children but it’s not my purpose as anInstructor. I am supposed to teach them to be tougher and stronger, So that when the timecomes for them to stand up for themselves, they are prepared physically and mentally.While I watch the students laugh, struggle and grow a passage from one of Platos’ workscomes to mind. "We are resolved to take the greatest care of the youths and not to let them run aboutas they like....but to begin at once and do the utmost that we can for them"(Plato, Laches, or Courage).I know it is imperative that as a parent, I teach them about self control and perseverance.Plato goes on to explain the importance of training and improvement which is the goaland duty of my role not only as their instructor. But moreover, as their father. 21
  22. 22. By: Miriam ZeitzDuring the Romantic Era, emotions were emphasized as an authentic lens for evaluatingexperiences. Crying was often used in Romantic art as a symbol of woe or otherwiseextreme emotion: a display of wildly genuine behavior, unfettered by societal values theera sought to repudiate. Alfred Lloyd Tennyson, a romantic poet, utilized tears as acentral image for one of his most acclaimed poems, Tears, Idle Tears, which discussesthe poignancy of nostalgia. While also relying on tears as a poetic device, romantic writerLord Byrons poem The Tear takes a different perspective, examining various situationsthat precipitate the shedding of a tear. Tennysons Tears, Idle Tears takes a haunting lookat mysteriously dark tears, while Byrons The Tear is a celebratory exaltation, togetherdemonstrating the universality and necessity of human emotion.Tennysons Tears, Idle Tears utilizes paradox, morbid imagery, and line structure toestablish tears as an enigmatic emblem for loss. In the titular, opening line, he declares"tears, idle tears, I know not what they mean." And yet both the idleness and ambiguityof tears are dispelled in the subsequent lines. The tears of the poem "rise" and "gather,"this activity contradicting the "idle" brand. Tennyson also denotes the cause of the tears:"thinking of the days that are no more." The paradoxes that form in the description of thetears seem to elude to their other-worldly nature; indeed, they are said to originate fromsome "divine despair." The despairing nostalgia, shown through Tennysons vividimagery, is a form of grief. While the subject of the poem weeps at the sight of "thehappy autumn-fields," the visual is clearly not a tragic one per se. Poignancy becomesrelevant when the fields causes the narrator to reminisce about past days. Thus, the fields 22
  23. 23. become a woeful image, as autumn is a time of turning over, when summer retreats andbitterness of winter looms. Furthermore, the happiness expressed in relation to the fieldsseems suddenly pitiful: an ignorant bliss clinging to the warmth of summer. These pastdays are said to bring "our friends up from the underworld," once again alluding to thetears as those of mourning. The imagery of death continues as the days are also said to be"sad and strange" as the sound of early morning birds "to dying ears," and as "dear asremembered kisses after death." In his final line, Tennyson declares the passing of daysto be a sort of "death in life." The fleeting desperation of life is also apparent in themechanics of the verses. With one exception, every line ends with an open vowel thatseems to trail off, as if the moment is passing so quickly that the word has hardly had thechance to consecrate itself before the next line begins. In contrast, the second to last lineends with the deliberate, firm consonants of "regret," a word which refuses to molderaway. Indeed, the poem seemed steeped in a regretful nostalgia, symbolized by tears.Lord Byron, through line structure and rhyming, demonstrates the ubiquity andnaturalness of tears. Byrons poem is composed of eleven verses of parallel structure.Each verse consists of six lines: two short, one long, two more short, one more long. Thefinal line of each verse ends with the word “tear.” Although each section deals withdifferent situations ranging from love to death, the repetitive structure makes themuniform, as though drawn together by their shared conclusion, tears. The verses are alsobrief, anecdotal, but they do not feel lacking. Indeed, there is no need for lengthybackground stories, as the universally relatable tears in each verse render them universalarchetypes for their chosen emotion. The rhyming pattern throughout the poem alsocontributes to the themes. Instead of solely using contained pairs of rhyming lines, Byron 23
  24. 24. interjects a third line that appears to be unmatched until the arrival of the final line ineach stanza. Thus, the “tear” that appears at the end of each section delves upwards, deepinto the gut of the preceding section, burrowing inextricably. The rhyme scheme alsogives the poem a soothing, euphonious tone, reminding readers that tears are soothingand euphonious as well. Even the most tragic lines, describing a sailor caught in a gale,crying into a wave “which may soon be his grave,” are strangely calming, as though tearsare a way of resigning to undeniable fate.Both Tennyson and Byron view tears as a genuine display of emotion, but Byron seemsto revel where Tennyson despairs. In Tennysons poem, he emphasizes a feeling of regret,reflecting back on past days. Although the emotion has a negative connotation, it is alsorepresentative of clarity and self-knowledge, sagacious insight that he has gained throughthe lens of his tears. Byron, too, underscores the revealing nature of tears, writing, “toooft is a smile but the hypocrites wile...the soultelling eye is dimmd for a time with atear.” To both, tears are a form of unmasking, whether working inside oneself or onothers. Byron embraces the power of tears, and shapes his poem into a reverie for them.In each of his stanzas, he underscores their myriad benefits: insight, catharsis, even as adisplay of affection. But Tennyson is trapped in sorrow, overwhelmed by the emotionsthat have arisen from his tears. Unable to recognize the benefits of the insight he hasgleaned, he remains in a state of grief throughout the poem. The fleeting necessity ofTennysons poem is felt throughout Byrons as well, as each stanza plows into the next,until the poem, opening with love, concludes with death. 24
  25. 25. Lord Byron and Alfred Lloyd Tennyson were both prolific writers in the romantic era.They both, in a true embodiment of the time, focused their writing on emotions. InByrons The Tear, he examines the variegated situations that trigger weeping. Tennyson,too, explores crying in his poem Tears, Idle Tears, which examines but does not explain.But where Byrons poem is lauding, Tennysons laments. Nonetheless, both poems utilizetears for emotional insights, whether rejoicing or painful. Together, they speak to theomniscience of tears, a release for any strong feeling. And as both poems portray a senseof urgency, the tears, too, feel urgent, reminding us of their necessity. Tears connect us,move us, and remind us of our connectedness. 25
  26. 26. Do you know? How long is the U.S. coastline? Ocean --- Let’s Enjoy the Ocean!?Through the hard work, we sweat, we tear. Now,we wash off our sweat and tears, we run into the Do you know?Ocean! Because: Which State has the longest coastline in the U.S.?The cure for anything is salt water - sweat,tears, or the sea.However we went to different directions. Nowplease travel with us, enjoy the view! 26
  27. 27. By: Miriam ZeitzEnvironmental sustainability is one of the fastest growing sectors of todays economy.Faced with overwhelming evidence of the ravaging nature of their activities, humans arestriving for earth-conscious alternatives. Eco-tourism, a practice that has been prominentsince the 1980s, stands to benefit from this trend. A form of tourism involving visitingfragile, pristine, and usually protected areas, eco-tourism leads participants to engage inactivities that are either low-impact or directly beneficial to the environment. However,the reality of this industry is far different from what is advertised. Eco-tourism, althoughveiled in conservation, is a destructive practice that provides both social andenvironmental threats.Eco-tourism, while attempting to focus on environmental activism, is often highlydetrimental to indigenous cultures. One of the most common impacts is the displacementof native people, as exemplified by the the situation in East Africa. There, about 70% ofprotected land and game reserves are on Maasai land. Local people have illegally losttheir homes with the establishment of protected areas, most often without anycompensation. (Kamauro) This can create a perilous situation, as inhabitants are forcedonto marginal lands with harsh climates, poor soil, and little water. Furthermore, they arebeing deprived of traditional land and resources that are culturally significant. Whileforeigners look upon land preservation positively, it has the capacity to threaten the 27
  28. 28. security and culture of native people. Moreover, the financial benefits of the land use areenjoy predominately by foreign Eco-tourism companies. Richly diverse social andeconomic activities are replaced by a homogenous eco-tourism industry, and locals areusually relegated to low-paying service jobs with limited upward mobility such as tourguides and vendors. Meanwhile, the managerial positions are allocated to foreigners.(Pleumarom) One study of large hotel corporations in the developing world found that anaverage of 23% of wages went to foreigners, despite the fact that 93% of the work forcewas comprised of locals. (Dasenbrock) Instability is another harsh reality for localsemployed in the eco-tourism industry. Tourism is susceptible to natural disasters,terrorism, political turmoil, or even rising crime rates, and at any time the market couldsharply decline. Even when successful, there is no guarantee of year-round employment,and workers may be laid off in the off-season. While focusing on the environmentalimpact, many eco-tourists disregard the capacity of the industry to ravage native land,culture, and economy.Ironically, even the environment itself is endangered by the activities of eco-tourism.Fragile environments are put at risk when invaded by even the most well-intentionedtourists. Costa Rica has experienced a 6% growth rate for the number of tourists visiting,with one of its most popular parks now taking in an average of 1,000 daily visitors duringthe high season. This traffic has caused erosion, foliage destruction, and even turnedmonkeys into garbage feeders as they have grown accustomed to humans. (Dasenbrock)Tourists generally seek out the rarest plant and animal life, which are also the mostvulnerable. This also leads to the commoditization of wildlife. (Pleumarom) The presenceof affluent eco-tourists encourages the destructive market of wildlife souvenirs: on 28
  29. 29. tropical islands, coral trinkets are sold, in Asia, animal products. This contributes toillegal poaching and harvesting from the environment. No matter their environmentalmotivations, an increase of eco-tourists is also an increase of people, which yields anincreased need for development. Hotels, resorts, shopping centers and condominiumshave all been built on precious land in the name of eco-tourism. (Pleumarom) Yet anotherdetriment of eco-tourism is the hefty environmental expense of transportation. CarbonDioxide emissions from planes are especially damaging because they are released at sucha high altitude. For example, a typical economy-class New York to Los Angeles roundtrip produces about 1574 lb of CO2, but this is equivalent to 4,230 lb of CO2 when theeffect of the altitude is considered. But eco-tourism is a largely international industry,requiring substantially longer-- and thus substantially more harmful-- flights than thisdomestic trip. About 60% of aviation emissions arise from international flights, which arerequired to get to many eco-tourism destinations. (Owen) Even after arriving by plane,the remote areas sought out by eco-tourists may require an array of transportationmethods: buses, boats, cars, or even a smaller plane. Tragically, eco-tourists seem to bedestroying the very earth they seek to protect.Some argue that eco-tourism promotes environmental involvement. However, the type ofperson that would choose to participate in eco-tourism is overwhelmingly one alreadyenvironmentally conscious, while the majority of the population continues to prefer moretraditional vacations in less remote areas. Moreover, eco-tourism has the capacity to pullenvironmentally aware people away from more beneficial, if less enticing, opportunities.Truly earth-friendly work is constantly available, through tasks and choices that arerendered mundane in the face of well-advertised, breathtaking destinations. But engaging 29
  30. 30. in local, independent projects is the best way to avoid the negative aspects of eco-tourism. Not only has the brand of environmentalism encouraged by eco-tourism provento be destructive, it also encourages the phenomenon of “green-washing,” the deceptivelabeling of companies as environmentally friendly when they do not meet environmentalstandards.Eco-tourism allows us to feel altruistic. Unfortunately, this need overwhelms our need forveracity. Although advertised as a socially and environmentally conscious activity bothrespecting and benefiting local land, economy, and culture, the truth about eco-tourism isshockingly opposite. Eco-tourism, like traditional tourism, is nothing more than anindustry, motivated by monetary gain. But unlike traditional tourism, eco-tourismmanages to destroy exactly what it seeks to protect. And unlike traditional tourism, eco-tourism demonstrates humanitys materialism in its interactions with the earth. 30
  31. 31. Arctic Warming A Profit in the MeltingBy: Steve WestermanFor centuries man has looked for a quicker route between the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean.Whether it was a search for a faster route to Asia or for the honor of being the first to sayI made it through this Icy hell and came out the other side.The Northwest Passage has been at the center of that search since the late 1500s by manyexplorers such as Henry Hudson and John Davis.Most of these explorations were unsuccessful due to harsh, icy and at some pointscompletely frozen impassable water. But with the arctic warming, there will be manybenefits that will come from this changing environment.One place that will benefit directly is Canada. To be more specific, a little unknown towncalled Churchill. In Stephan Faris book, "Forecast", he visits a place that has directlybenefited or suffered, depending on the Arctic conditions. A place knows for its polarbear population."This town was established in 1717 by the Hudson Bay Company" (Forecast, StephFaris, pg. 157). The town has seen its ups and downs from a booming whale oil exporterto a barely functioning grain port. From a military out post controlled by the U.S. andCanadian government. 31
  32. 32. But "Then, in 1997, the Canadian government sold the port and railroad to OmniTRAX,an American transportation company based out of Denver, Colorado, not wanting to putany more investment into the infrastructure."(Forecast, Steph Faris, 159).This didnt seem like a good investment at the time until the ice started melting and overtime the ports potential started to show. One of the times is stated in an interview thatStephan has with a port official named Fetterly, they discuss how the melting of the arcticice is good for the port, there for good for Church Hill, Manitoba and Canada. Becausethe waters are deep enough for cargo ships to dock without going through channels orlocks like other port.Fetterly states, "Global warming has stretched the shipping season by roughly two weeks.The waters are now navigable about four months out of the year." (Forecast, Steph Faris,160) "Since OmniTRAX made its purchase, climate changes has increased the work itcan handle by 15% which means the port will ship 621 metric tons of grain and isexpected to exceed a million metric tons in the following years." (Forecast, Steph Farris,161)."Other potential benefits of a clear Northwest Passage are significant. Oil from Alaskacould move quickly by ship to Eastern North America and European markets, the VastMineral resources of the Canadian North will be much easier and economical todevelop." (Geology.com, Hobart M. King Ph.D.). The unknown amounts of resourcesthat lie beneath the ice is the real treasure that can only be imagined. One of theseimportant resources is Natural gas, "Natural gas is a fuel of choice to replace oil forelectricity generation (Darley, 2004)."(Oil, Water and Climate Change, pg 143). This 32
  33. 33. resource could be reached with greater ease and shipped economically through the oncefrozen Arctic sea.Some critiques may disagree because we can predict to some degree what temperaturesour planet will be in within 50 to 100 years and what it might cause to life on this planetbut it is difficult to predict the technology and scientific understanding of CO2 gases inour atmosphere and our abilities to remove it or change it. In the book "Oil, Water andClimate" written by Catherine Gantier, she explains that El Ninoeffects of weather andhow this will have serious disruptive impacts on places such as Southern Californiawhere torrential rains may damage crops or destroy homes. But I feel that humankindwho once lived in caves and Teepees, has evolved to the point we live on ships in theocean, and even on the farthest edge of our planet in a space station. In conclusion I believe it is inevitable that the arctic is going to warm and the ice will continue to melt. We must embrace thischange and evolve and adapt to our environment. As we have since humans first walkedup right and grabbed a stick in one hand and a rock in the other. The need for fossil fuelsis greater than ever, as well as other natural resources that may or may not contribute tothe arctic melting are all necessary steps to man progression. One day we will walk onMars and mine asteroids but we cant get there with out change and without using these 33
  34. 34. resource. Humankind will evolve, adapt and continue to grow. So as I see it, as the arcticwarms, the profits and benefits will flow with the melting of the snow. 34
  35. 35. Offshore DrillingBy: Yu Hong Wu Global energy demand has increased tremendously for the past decade. Oil pricesalso increased substantially due to geopolitical instability in the Middle East regions. Themain street people began to feel the pain. Oil reserved in the sea bed wasn’t the mainsupply for USA, but oil exploration and drilling on the mainland USA has quadrupledduring this period. However, the modern technologies make the deep water drillingbecome more possible and more profitable. Offshore drilling starts to draw oil companiesand public attention. Why offshore drilling? Can offshore drilling really help us? To answer this question, let us begin with offshore drilling. Offshore drilling isreferred to a mechanical process where a well is drilled through the seabed. It is typicallycarried out in order to explore and subsequently produce hydrocarbons, which lie in rockformations beneath the seabed. [1] Offshore drilling actually starts at late 1800’s, but dueto technology it only limited on the beach area. [2] Recently, we talk about offshore drilling, most likely, is the deep water drilling; it will take place within our coastline- Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). It goes into the ocean. Deep water drilling 35
  36. 36. requires high technology. The modern technology development makes offshore drillingmore profitable. Some experts in the oil industry advocate for offshore drilling. They said thetechnology using at offshore drilling, are a proven and reliable technology. They alsoclaimed it is environmental friendly. Do we really have the safe technology to operateoffshore drilling? At the ocean, changes in weather will impact the well operation andraise the safety concerning, especially during severe weather, such as Hurricanes,earthquake, etc. And huge oil well blowout (such as BP Deep Water Horizon well at Gulfof Mexico) still happens due to human error and incomplete technologies and tools wedeveloped for deep sea drilling. Today, most offshore drilling is taking place on outercontinental shelf (OCS). However, even without weather issues, leaking and spilling arethe common problems for offshore drilling. Oil spill is one of the top cause of pollutionin the ocean. According to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation andEnforcement, that U.S. OCS oil spills at 1 bbl or lower are 19,506 times from 1985-1999.[3] So far no scientist can claim he or she has the right technology that can prevent oilleaks and spills. Without solving leaking and spilling problems, the offshore drillingtechnology will not be called safe and reliable technology at all. Not only were the leaks and spills common cause of pollution for the offshore drilling,waste by product of offshore drilling such as the drilling fluids which contain toxicchemicals also cause pollution in ocean. We have not address how to eliminate pollutioncaused by the leaks, spill and waste, instead we move ahead with drilling without a backup plan to prevent potential catastrophic event. On the other hand, not all the well we drill 36
  37. 37. will produce oil and nature gases, but the entire well we drill will produce a lot moreindustry waste such as hydrocarbons. Pollution that caused by offshore drilling has greatimpacts on sea creature, commercial fishing, and tourism. The example of how theoffshore drilling can impact on us was 2010 BP oil spill at the Gulf of Mexico. After twoyear from the oil spill, scientists are now begun to measure the long-term impact of theoil spill. It may still need many more years of research and study to know the full impactof the disastrous spill to our beloved ocean. As off today, some research had shown that“Bottlenose” dolphins in oil-contaminated Barataria Bay off the coast of Louisiana areshowing signs of serious illness, including extremely low weight, anemia, low bloodsugar, and some symptoms of liver and lung disease” but the “control groups of dolphinsliving along the Atlantic coast and in other areas that were not affected by the 2010 spilldid not manifest those symptoms.” (According to a health assessment conducted by U.S.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) scientists and their partners).[4] Why should we wary about offshore drilling? Offshore drilling disaster will not onlydevastate the area around it but also the ocean and our beloved planet, Earth. We have torealize the oceans are connected, and water moves. We are living on a same planet it sick?called Earth. What happens when a dolphin gets Do you know? That’s correct! We live on the same planet. Offshore Drilling is favored by some oilcompanies and by the people who wish it can bring us energy independence or as for themain street people it may just simply mean for lower gasoline price with more oilproduction form the ocean floor. Energy Independence relates to the goal of reducing theU.S imports of oil and other foreign sources of energy, [5] which means not dependent onother countries. Don’t forget the oil market is a global market. The U.S. cannot contain 37
  38. 38. oil prices by its own. Oil prices are due to demand, supply, financial facts, and someother factors beyond our control. Domestic demand and supply of oil is not only themajor factor contributing to oil price spike but global demand and supply also play anequally important role in oil prices. Recently, global oil demand increased tremendouslydue to expansion of global economy. In the U.S. alone, consumption of petroleum andother liquids more than tripled from 1949 through 2010. [6] 2010 estate consumption19.157 million barrels per day. [6] Oil supplied is due to demand. If supplied drop, oilprices will rise; if the demand increases, oil prices will rise too. Also, oil is traded in USdollars. When dollars strengthen, oil prices will drop and vise-versa. No matter howmuch oil we can produce from our OCS, most of it will supply to the global market.Where does the money go? The Oil Company gets the profit; we pay for the price.Energy independent will never come out from the amount of oil we have produced. Therefore, offshore drilling is still an unproven technology. We have not completelyunderstood and mastermind the technology we used in the ocean. We still have long wayto go before we get there. We should perform more research and study before we begindrilling every where. Offshore drilling can bring us the oil we need but it also has hugeenvironmental impact as well; it causes environmental damage. It will not resolve the oilsupply issue and will not bring us toward the energy independent at all. Then why weshould allow offshore drilling to continue to damage our environment? If we really wantto bring our country toward energy independent we should start to think of alternativeenergy, work on finding new energy sources, and not rely on this fossil oil. Fossil fuelresource will not be unlimited in capacity. Total endowment of Oil (estimate) on U.S. theOCS is 115.43 billion barrels (2006). [7] It takes many thousands year to form what we 38
  39. 39. had taken out today. Once we used it, it will never come back. Sooner or latter, this fossiloil will gone forever. We should act today, save our planet for future generation. Stopoffshore drilling now! 39
  40. 40. Sources:[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Offshore_drilling[2] http://www.noia.org/website/article.asp?id=123[3]http://www.boemre.gov/eppd/sciences/osmp/pdfs/AndersonAndLaBelle/AndersonAndLaBelle2000.pdf Update of Comparative Occurrence Rates for Offshore Oil Spills[4] http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2012/04/pictures/120420-gulf-oil-spill-impact-studies/ Dolphins: Signs of Serious Illness[5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_energy_independence[6] http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/annual/perspectives.cfm[7] http://www.boemre.gov/revaldiv/PDFs/InventoryRTC.pdfReport to Congress: Comprehensive Inventory of U.S. OCS Oil and Natural GasResources 40
  41. 41. Answer Key:How many sweat glands are in an adult body? (p4)An adult human has between 1.6 million and 4 million sweat glands.How much do you sweat in a day? (p4)On an average a person loses about 500 ml of water in the form of sweat.What does “Tae Kwon Do” mean? (p11)Tae Kwon Do roughly translated means Art of hand and feet.How many people practice Tae Kwon Do Worldwide? (p17)It is practiced in over 110 different countries by more than 300 millionpeople.When the baby starts have real tears? (p16)Babies cry but they dont produce tears until one to three months after birthTears help you see better. (p16)True.How long is the U.S. coastline? (p26)Total: 12,479 miles (20,083km)Which State has the longest coastline in the U.S.?(p26)Alaska: 6,640 miles (10,690km)What happens when a dolphin gets sick? (p37)It is looked after by the other dolphins until it is better. 41

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