JERRY YUDELSON 
© 2014 GBI 
2014 Expo Arquitetura Sustentável
© 2014 GBI 
The World’s Greenest Buildings 
São Paulo, Brasil
© 2014 GBI 
Take-Aways
Testable Propositions – Green Building 
New York City 
© 2014 GBI
Green Building . . . 
Reduces Carbon 
© 2014 GBI
Green Buildings = Carbon Solution 
© 2014 GBI
Green 
Building 
Boosts 
Bottom 
Line 
© 2014 GBI
Business Case Proven 
© 2014 GBI
• Financial & Economic 
Return 
• Risk Management 
• Marketing & Public 
Relations 
• Productivity & Health Gains 
• Susta...
Range Of Proven Benefits 
Absenteeism 
(15%) 
Carbon Emissions 
(35%) 
Energy Costs 
(30%) 
Hospital Stays 
(2.5 Days) 
Wa...
Productivity Gains Very 
Important 
© 2014 GBI
Green Building Growing Rapidly 
© 2014 GBI
Potential Impact Of Rapid 
Greening 
© 2014 GBI
BUT…Energy Performance Reports 
Lacking 
© 2014 GBI
Performance Counts! 
© 2014 GBI
Some Green Buildings Under-Perform . . © 2014 GBI
© 2014 GBI 
Energy Savings in LEED 
Buildings
What’s The Issue? 
© 2014 GBI
© 2014 GBI 
Only Carbon Emissions Count
Zero-Net-Energy Buildings 
NREL Research Support Facility I 
Golden, Colorado 
© 2014 GBI
How Much Energy Should Buildings Use? 
Solon Corporate HQ, Berlin, Germany 
Zero-Net-Energy Building 
© 2014 GBI
World’s Greenest Buildings: Research 
© 2014 GBI 
CRITERIA FOR STUDY: 
• New construction 
• 5000 sq.m., or larger 
• Non-...
North American Buildings 
© 2014 GBI
Winnipeg, Canada 
© 2014 GBI 
Manitoba Hydro Place 
111 kWh/m2/year
© 2014 GBI 
Golden, Colorado 
NREL RSF I 
111 kWh/m2/year
Rockville, Maryland 
2000 Tower Oaks 
182 kWh/m2/year 
© 2014 GBI
Yale University, 
Connecticut 
Kroon Hall 
91 kWh/m2/year 
© 2014 GBI
Portland, Oregon 
Twelve West 
138 kWh/m2/year 
Double LEED Platinum 
© 2014 GBI
European Buildings 
© 2014 GBI
Heinrich Böll Foundation 
Berlin, Germany 
DGNB Gold 
98 kWh/m2/year 
© 2014 GBI
Daniel Swarovski 
Corp. 
Männedorf, Switzerland 
Swiss Minergie Plus 
© 2014 GBI 
74 kWh/m2/year
Dübendorf, Switzerland 
Swiss Minergie Plus 
Forum 
Chrie1s0b3 akWchh/m2/year 
© 2014 GBI
© 2014 GBI 
Hoofddorp, The Netherlands 
LEED-CS Platinum 
TNT Express 
114H/kQWh/m2/year
© 2014 GBI 
Asia/Pacific Buildings
BCA Headquarters–Singapore 
41 kWh/m2/year 
Zero Energy Building 
Green Mark Platinum 
© 2014 GBI
Pune, India 
GRIHA 5-star 
Suzlon One Earth 
59 kWh/m2/year 
© 2014 GBI
2 Victoria 
62 kWh/m2/year 
© 2014 GBI 
Perth, Australia
The Gauge 
193 kWh/m2/year 
© 2014 GBI 
Melbourne, Australia
Council House 
190 kWh/m2/year 
2 
© 2014 GBI 
Melbourne, Australia
Workplace6 
111 kWh/m2/year 
© 2014 GBI 
Sydney, Australia
One Shelley 
116 kWh/m2/year 
© 2014 GBI 
Sydney, Australia
1 Bligh 
106 kWh/m2/year 
© 2014 GBI 
Sydney, Australia
Tainan City, Taiwan 
EEWH Diamond 
© 2014 GBI 
Magic School of Green Technology 
40 kWh/m2/year
© 2014 GBI 
Where Do We Go From Here?
Source Energy Goal: 100 kWh/m2! 
Frankfurt, Germany 
© 2014 GBI 
KfW Bank 
100 kWh/m2/year
The Future Will Be Green, But . . .
If It Doesn’t Perform . . . 
© 2014 GBI 
Are you willing to say:
. . . It Can’t Be Called 
Green? 
© 2014 GBI
© 2014 GBI 
Take-Aways
Thanks 
!
Let’s Stay In 
Touch! 
JERRY YUDELSON 
thegbi.org 
jerry@thegbi.org
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The World's Greenest Buildings: Promise vs Performance in Sustainable Design

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Presentation by Jerry Yudelson to Conference on Sustainable Architecture in Sao Paulo Brasil on August 28, 2014. The presentation covers the business case for green building, the importance of documenting building performance and the results of his studies of building performance contained in the 2013 book, The World's Greenest Buildings: Promise vs Performance in Sustainable Design.

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  • Green building vital in global carbon picture
    Green building growing rapidly in all sectors
    Green building business case is proven
    BUT, many green buildings are not performing as predicted
    Building energy & water performance reports vitally needed
    Buildings must measure total carbon performance
    Zero-net-energy buildings feasible today
  • By reducing energy and water use as well as transportation energy use
  • Reducing energy use in buildings is the only Life Cycle Cost-positive carbon mitigation solution
    25% of total carbon solution can come from buildings
    Key stumbling block today is finance, not economics; practice not technology
  • Business case for green building is proven via research and practice. How? (next slide)
  • Financial/economic return
    Risk mitigation
    Marketing/public relations
    Productivity/health gains
    Recruitment/retention
    Environmental benefits
    Sustainability concerns
  • More than 2 billion sq.ft. certified projects, more than 7 billion sq.ft. registered (maybe as much as 9 million sqft), as of September 1st.
  • 14% reduction in CO2, 2025 vs. 2005
    NPV of green building: $650 billion in U.S.
    5x to 10x cost premium
    2020 Prediction:
    Green buildings 95% of new construction
    Green retrofits are 75% of all retrofits
  • If building energy use is this important to our collective future, why not know what’s going on?
  • “What gets measured, gets managed”
    Without reports, we are flying blind/can’t fix
    Why should governments put their faith in green building without performance reports?
  • Here’s the problem: quite a few green building projects are not meeting their projections.
  • Issue: Average savings is 35% vs. standard (Kats)
    BUT, about 25% actually underperform
    One LEED Platinum building:
    Modeled at 61% savings
    Performs at 48% savings
    Underperforming buildings hurt validity of green building premise
  • Issue: Average savings is 35% vs. standard (Kats)
    BUT, about 25% actually underperform
    One LEED Platinum building:
    Modeled at 61% savings
    Performs at 48% savings
    Underperforming buildings hurt validity of green building premise
  • Total carbon emissions should be the only energy points in green rating schemes; this means:
    80% reductions with new buildings
    40% in older buildings
    Relative improvement (%) needs to be retired
    Performance assessment
    Under-performing buildings will be de-rated
  • Importance of embodied energy; forms a barrier to further carbon reductions

  • EU Energy Performance in Buildings Directive: in force since 2010; here’s a UK example.
  • Importance of embodied energy; forms a barrier to further carbon reductions
  • The Question is: HOW to Get to Zero Net Energy Buildings?
    Lean Themes
    Boeing 767: $130 million ea.; each one functions same
    Reduce energy & water use/carbon footprint
    Eliminate waste; make champagne on a beer budget!
    =>Change design process
    Key issue: get green cost premium down to zero, using integrated design process
  • European stretch goal: 100 kWh/sqm/a PRIMARY energy use
    European site use median: 135 kWh/sq.m.; 43,000 EUI
    U.S. Average: 400 kWh/m2/a (2003)
    50% better than average still not good enough!
    75% (or more) required
    2030 Challenge (next slide)
    Solon: 34,000 Btu/sq.ft./year energy use


  • European stretch goal: 100 kWh/sqm/a PRIMARY energy use
    European site use median: 135 kWh/sq.m.; 43,000 EUI
    U.S. Average: 400 kWh/m2/a (2003)
    50% better than average still not good enough!
    75% (or more) required
    2030 Challenge (next slide)
    Solon: 34,000 Btu/sq.ft./year energy use


  • Where SHOULD WE be aiming? I decided to find out!
    LEED Platinum (or equivalent)
    Built since 2003
    >50,000 sq.ft. (>5,000 sqm)
    Non-residential use
    Must provide energy data for one year
    Water data, as available

  • Here is a chart of actual performance of 15/19 buildings (no labs/hospitals)
    Median use = 139 kWh/sq.m. (EUI = 44,000)
  • 2000 workers in bldg.; 700,000 sq.ft.
    Difficult climate: -35C to +35C (-31F – 95F)
    22-story solar chimney
    Passive solar design
    Urban regeneration
    Green roofs
    Passive moisture control

    111 kWh/sqm/year;
    35,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr

  • 800 workers in bldg.; 360,000 sq.ft.
    Design/build; $254/sq.ft.
    Cold, dry climate - Passive solar design
    1600-kW Solar PV
    Labyrinth thermal mass
    Daylighting design
    Control plug loads
    111 kWh/sqm/year; 35,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr
  • 200,000-sq.ft., commercial office
    Vedic architectural design
    LEED-CS/CI
    Long axis north/south, to maximize morning sun
    HVAC: Enthalpy wheel, frictionless chiller
    Space H/C only 13%
    41% less water use
    182 kWh/sq.m./year; 58,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr
  • 56,000 sq.ft. academic building; narrow floorplate
    Cold winters, humid summers
    100-KW BIPV system; 16% of annual electricity
    4 solar DHW collectors
    Geothermal wells; four at 400’ deep
    Rainwater harvesting
    91 kWh/sq.m./year; 29,000 Btu/sq.ft./yr

  • Double LEED Platinum, CS/CI
    Four stories commercial office, with 17 stories rental apartments
    Underfloor air w/chilled beams
    Designed to meet 2030 Challenge targets for 2010
    4 turbines produce 1% of demand
    Solar water heaters provide 24%
    Operable windows
    Harvested rainwater; 6500 sq.ft. green roof
    Energy: 138 kWh/sq.m./year; 44,000 Btu/sq.ft.
  • Here is a chart of actual performance of 15 buildings (no labs/hospitals)
    Median use = 135 kWh/sq.m. (EUI = 43,000)
  • 75,000 sq.ft.
    98 kwh/sq.m.
    Waste heat recycling
    Natural ventilation using atrium exhaust
    Heat recovery from computer servers
    Water-only (no chiller) cooling via trickle vents and heat exchangers
  • 74 kWh/sqm/year
    Lake water heating/cooling
    Double skin façade
    Natural ventilation
    500 employees, 210,000 sq.ft.
  • 92,000 sq.ft., 2006
    77 kWp solar PV, 538 sq.ft. vacuum tube solar thermal
    Primary/source energy demand: 103 kWh/sqm (with 23 kWh/sqm solar) with embodied energy
    Atrium buffer zone
    Active louvers for shading
  • 92,000 sq.ft., 2006
    77 kWp solar PV, 538 sq.ft. vacuum tube solar thermal
    Primary/source energy demand: 103 kWh/sqm (with 23 kWh/sqm solar) with embodied energy
    Atrium buffer zone
    Active louvers for shading
  • Here is a chart of actual performance of 15 buildings (no labs/hospitals)
    Median use = 151 kWh/sq.m. (EUI = 44,000)
  • 50,000 sq.ft. renovation
    On the equator
    Focus on daylighting without heat gain
    41 kWh/sq.m. building energy use
    45 kWh/sq.m. Solar production
  • 816,000 sq.ft.
    59 kWh/sq.m.
    Corporate HQ
    Stack effect ventilation
    Daylighting integration
    Exterior louvers
    Vedic architecture
  • 2 Victoria Avenue, Perth 6-Star Green Star – Office As Built

    Graywater treatment
    Active chilled beams
    Floor-by-floor air handling system
    Annual operating costs savings: $85,000
    5 Star NABERS

  • Blackwater treatment system recycles 96% of wastewater
    Gas-fired cogen plant supplies 25% of energy use
    Individual control of thermal comfort at 90% of stations
    5 Star NABERS
    of energy use

    • Individual control of
    thermal comfort at
    90% of stations
    Annual Operating Savings: $85,000
  • Council House 2, Melbourne 6-Star Green Star – Office As Built & Design
    Thermal cooling, night purge, 5 “shower towers”
    100% fresh air
    Solar thermal
    PV system @ 3.5-kWh/day
    Green roof
    Gas cogeneration system
    Sewer mining
  • Workplace 6, Sydney 6-Star Green Star – Office As Built

    Blackwater treatment + sewer mining capacity
    Tri-generation plant
    Harbor water heat rejection
    Solar thermal



  • One Shelley Street, Sydney 6-Star Green Star – Office Design

    20% Less Space, 35% Less Paper

    Activity Based Working (ABW) design = 20% less space, 35% less paper
    “Diagrid” structure = Flexible interior, 80% daylighting
    Harbor water heat rejection
    Chilled beams
    100% fresh air
  • One Bligh, Sydney 6-Star Green Star - Office As Built

    Blackwater recycling plant for cooling tower makeup
    65,000-liter rainwater tank
    Double-skin glass façade
    Tri-generation system: heating, cooling, electricity generation (vacuum-tube solar collectors)
  • National Cheng Kung University
    52,000 sq.ft.
    40 kWh/sq.m./year energy use
    Forest land permanently set aside for meeting zero carbon goal
  • Every building should be beautiful
    Every building LEED Platinum
    Every building should aim at “BSAGs”
    Achieve measured 35 to 45 kBtu/sq.ft. (EUI) performance
    Don’t settle for less!
    BE WILLING to SAY: If it doesn’t perform, it’s not a green building!
  • 2030 Challenge:
    DOE Annual Energy Outlook; Business As Usual
    AEO (expanded codes)
    AEO (best available technology)
  • 420,000 sq.ft. building
    89 kWh/sq.m. electricity use
    100 kWh/sq.m. total carbon
    Best tall building in Europe 2011
  • If you want to score, run to where the ball is headed, not to where it is.
    Ask yourself and your clients: how green will the built environment be in 2015 to 2020?
    Non-performing green buildings will pay a penalty in that market!
  • The World's Greenest Buildings: Promise vs Performance in Sustainable Design

    1. 1. JERRY YUDELSON © 2014 GBI 2014 Expo Arquitetura Sustentável
    2. 2. © 2014 GBI The World’s Greenest Buildings São Paulo, Brasil
    3. 3. © 2014 GBI Take-Aways
    4. 4. Testable Propositions – Green Building New York City © 2014 GBI
    5. 5. Green Building . . . Reduces Carbon © 2014 GBI
    6. 6. Green Buildings = Carbon Solution © 2014 GBI
    7. 7. Green Building Boosts Bottom Line © 2014 GBI
    8. 8. Business Case Proven © 2014 GBI
    9. 9. • Financial & Economic Return • Risk Management • Marketing & Public Relations • Productivity & Health Gains • Sustainability Policies © 2014 GBI Business Benefits
    10. 10. Range Of Proven Benefits Absenteeism (15%) Carbon Emissions (35%) Energy Costs (30%) Hospital Stays (2.5 Days) Waste Management Costs (50-90%) Water Usage (30-50%) Rental Rates (up to 174%) Occupancy Rates (3-4.1%) Office Productivity (2.8-20%) Factory Productivity Retail Sales Per Square Foot Performance on School Tests (20%) © 2014 GBI
    11. 11. Productivity Gains Very Important © 2014 GBI
    12. 12. Green Building Growing Rapidly © 2014 GBI
    13. 13. Potential Impact Of Rapid Greening © 2014 GBI
    14. 14. BUT…Energy Performance Reports Lacking © 2014 GBI
    15. 15. Performance Counts! © 2014 GBI
    16. 16. Some Green Buildings Under-Perform . . © 2014 GBI
    17. 17. © 2014 GBI Energy Savings in LEED Buildings
    18. 18. What’s The Issue? © 2014 GBI
    19. 19. © 2014 GBI Only Carbon Emissions Count
    20. 20. Zero-Net-Energy Buildings NREL Research Support Facility I Golden, Colorado © 2014 GBI
    21. 21. How Much Energy Should Buildings Use? Solon Corporate HQ, Berlin, Germany Zero-Net-Energy Building © 2014 GBI
    22. 22. World’s Greenest Buildings: Research © 2014 GBI CRITERIA FOR STUDY: • New construction • 5000 sq.m., or larger • Non-residential use • Built/occupied since 2004 • LEED Platinum, DGNB Gold or similar rating • Willing to publish performance and cost data – Energy use mandatory – Water use optional
    23. 23. North American Buildings © 2014 GBI
    24. 24. Winnipeg, Canada © 2014 GBI Manitoba Hydro Place 111 kWh/m2/year
    25. 25. © 2014 GBI Golden, Colorado NREL RSF I 111 kWh/m2/year
    26. 26. Rockville, Maryland 2000 Tower Oaks 182 kWh/m2/year © 2014 GBI
    27. 27. Yale University, Connecticut Kroon Hall 91 kWh/m2/year © 2014 GBI
    28. 28. Portland, Oregon Twelve West 138 kWh/m2/year Double LEED Platinum © 2014 GBI
    29. 29. European Buildings © 2014 GBI
    30. 30. Heinrich Böll Foundation Berlin, Germany DGNB Gold 98 kWh/m2/year © 2014 GBI
    31. 31. Daniel Swarovski Corp. Männedorf, Switzerland Swiss Minergie Plus © 2014 GBI 74 kWh/m2/year
    32. 32. Dübendorf, Switzerland Swiss Minergie Plus Forum Chrie1s0b3 akWchh/m2/year © 2014 GBI
    33. 33. © 2014 GBI Hoofddorp, The Netherlands LEED-CS Platinum TNT Express 114H/kQWh/m2/year
    34. 34. © 2014 GBI Asia/Pacific Buildings
    35. 35. BCA Headquarters–Singapore 41 kWh/m2/year Zero Energy Building Green Mark Platinum © 2014 GBI
    36. 36. Pune, India GRIHA 5-star Suzlon One Earth 59 kWh/m2/year © 2014 GBI
    37. 37. 2 Victoria 62 kWh/m2/year © 2014 GBI Perth, Australia
    38. 38. The Gauge 193 kWh/m2/year © 2014 GBI Melbourne, Australia
    39. 39. Council House 190 kWh/m2/year 2 © 2014 GBI Melbourne, Australia
    40. 40. Workplace6 111 kWh/m2/year © 2014 GBI Sydney, Australia
    41. 41. One Shelley 116 kWh/m2/year © 2014 GBI Sydney, Australia
    42. 42. 1 Bligh 106 kWh/m2/year © 2014 GBI Sydney, Australia
    43. 43. Tainan City, Taiwan EEWH Diamond © 2014 GBI Magic School of Green Technology 40 kWh/m2/year
    44. 44. © 2014 GBI Where Do We Go From Here?
    45. 45. Source Energy Goal: 100 kWh/m2! Frankfurt, Germany © 2014 GBI KfW Bank 100 kWh/m2/year
    46. 46. The Future Will Be Green, But . . .
    47. 47. If It Doesn’t Perform . . . © 2014 GBI Are you willing to say:
    48. 48. . . . It Can’t Be Called Green? © 2014 GBI
    49. 49. © 2014 GBI Take-Aways
    50. 50. Thanks !
    51. 51. Let’s Stay In Touch! JERRY YUDELSON thegbi.org jerry@thegbi.org

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