Deffinition of science
a. The observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of
b. Such activities restricted to a class of natural phenomena.
c. Such activities applied to an object of inquiry or study.
2. Methodological activity, discipline, or study: I've got packing a suitcase down to a science.
3. An activity that appears to require study and method: the science of purchasing.
4. Knowledge, especially that gained through experience.
5. Science Christian Science.
Branches of science
The main branches of science (also referred to as "sciences", "scientific fields", or "scientific
disciplines") are commonly divided into two major groups: social sciences, which study human
behavior and societies, and natural sciences, which study natural phenomena (including fundamental
forces and biological life). These groupings are empirical sciences, which means the knowledge must be
based on observable phenomena and be capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers
working under the same conditions.
In addition to empirical sciences, there are the formal sciences, such asmathematics and logic, which use
an a priori, as opposed to factual methodology to study formal systems. These three categories make up
the fundamental sciences, on top of which are interdisciplinary and applied science, such
as engineering andmedicine. Specialized scientific fields that exist in all categories can include parts of
other scientific disciplines but often possess their own terminology and expertise.
The methods and skills used by scientists are intimately connected to a set of attitudes
common in the practice of science. A scientific attitude is a disposition to act in a certain
way or a demonstration of feelings and/or thoughts. Studies of the actions of scientists have
led to lists of scientific attitudes such as displayed below. Some attitudes such as honesty
would be expected in any human endeavour, but other attitudes such as tolerance of
uncertainty are more characteristic of scientists. Note that scientific attitudes are different
from attitudes about/towards science. Also note the exercises available in the top of the left
frame on this webpage.
Collect the other data
The choice of method is influenced by the data collection strategy, the type of variable, the accuracy required, the
collection point and the skill of the enumerator. Links between a variable, its source and practical methods for its
collection (Table 6.1, Table 6.2 and Table 6.3) can help in choosing appropriate methods. The main data collection
· Registration: registers and licences are particularly valuable for complete enumeration, but are limited to variables
that change slowly, such as numbers of fishing vessels and their characteristics.
· Questionnaires: forms which are completed and returned by respondents. An inexpensive method that is useful
where literacy rates are high and respondents are co-operative.
· Interviews: forms which are completed through an interview with the respondent. More expensive than
questionnaires, but they are better for more complex questions, low literacy or less co-operation.
· Direct observations: making direct measurements is the most accurate method for many variables, such as catch,
but is often expensive. Many methods, such as observer programmes, are limited to industrial fisheries.
· Reporting: the main alternative to making direct measurements is to require fishers and others to report
their activities. Reporting requires literacy and co-operation, but can be backed up by a legal requirement
and direct measurements.
Superstition is an irrational belief that is deeply held, even in
the absence of evidence, and that always causes some degree of
anxiety when it plays out [situations for example where you have
no alternative but to walk under a ladder, or step on a crack-- and
then something horrible happens!]. Superstitions are inner
convictions about how the world operates, and they are hard to
overcome. Even though they may lead to some anxiety, they are
ways for us to experience consistency in the world, and
sometimes it is easier for us to want our superstitions to be 'true'
[yes, once again I see that the world is consistent] than it is to
give them up [I'm free of that, and now open to new possibilities].
which means not true or Scientific Belief' on the other hand
should refer to knowledge that has been theorized and repeatedly
tested out. But clearly not everything we do and believe has come
under the scrutiny of the 'scientific method'. It would be absurd for
us to require scientific backing for every step we take and every
move we make. We can just be 'reasonable' about how we
approach things. It sometimes surprises us to learn that one of
our pet 'scientific beliefs' is really urban legend, and to discover
how hard it is to give up one of these beliefs in favor of something
more supportable. We've all experienced this kind of 'clash in the
head' when we learn that something we have comfortably
assumed for a long time is, in fact, not true. The history of science
highlights many times when world views have abruptly changed,
and adherents to the older theory fought tooth-and-nail to
maintain their ways of thinking, even though they clearly
represented what had become irrational thinking.