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  1. 1. Deffinition of science 1. a. The observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena. b. Such activities restricted to a class of natural phenomena. c. Such activities applied to an object of inquiry or study. 2. Methodological activity, discipline, or study: I've got packing a suitcase down to a science. 3. An activity that appears to require study and method: the science of purchasing. 4. Knowledge, especially that gained through experience. 5. Science Christian Science. Branches of science The main branches of science (also referred to as "sciences", "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines") are commonly divided into two major groups: social sciences, which study human behavior and societies, and natural sciences, which study natural phenomena (including fundamental forces and biological life). These groupings are empirical sciences, which means the knowledge must be based on observable phenomena and be capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under the same conditions. [1] In addition to empirical sciences, there are the formal sciences, such asmathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to factual methodology to study formal systems. These three categories make up the fundamental sciences, on top of which are interdisciplinary and applied science, such as engineering andmedicine. Specialized scientific fields that exist in all categories can include parts of other scientific disciplines but often possess their own terminology and expertise. [ Scientific Attitudes The methods and skills used by scientists are intimately connected to a set of attitudes common in the practice of science. A scientific attitude is a disposition to act in a certain way or a demonstration of feelings and/or thoughts. Studies of the actions of scientists have led to lists of scientific attitudes such as displayed below. Some attitudes such as honesty would be expected in any human endeavour, but other attitudes such as tolerance of uncertainty are more characteristic of scientists. Note that scientific attitudes are different from attitudes about/towards science. Also note the exercises available in the top of the left frame on this webpage. Collect the other data The choice of method is influenced by the data collection strategy, the type of variable, the accuracy required, the collection point and the skill of the enumerator. Links between a variable, its source and practical methods for its collection (Table 6.1, Table 6.2 and Table 6.3) can help in choosing appropriate methods. The main data collection methods are: · Registration: registers and licences are particularly valuable for complete enumeration, but are limited to variables that change slowly, such as numbers of fishing vessels and their characteristics. · Questionnaires: forms which are completed and returned by respondents. An inexpensive method that is useful where literacy rates are high and respondents are co-operative. · Interviews: forms which are completed through an interview with the respondent. More expensive than questionnaires, but they are better for more complex questions, low literacy or less co-operation. · Direct observations: making direct measurements is the most accurate method for many variables, such as catch, but is often expensive. Many methods, such as observer programmes, are limited to industrial fisheries. · Reporting: the main alternative to making direct measurements is to require fishers and others to report their activities. Reporting requires literacy and co-operation, but can be backed up by a legal requirement and direct measurements.
  2. 2. Superstition is an irrational belief that is deeply held, even in the absence of evidence, and that always causes some degree of anxiety when it plays out [situations for example where you have no alternative but to walk under a ladder, or step on a crack-- and then something horrible happens!]. Superstitions are inner convictions about how the world operates, and they are hard to overcome. Even though they may lead to some anxiety, they are ways for us to experience consistency in the world, and sometimes it is easier for us to want our superstitions to be 'true' [yes, once again I see that the world is consistent] than it is to give them up [I'm free of that, and now open to new possibilities]. which means not true or Scientific Belief' on the other hand should refer to knowledge that has been theorized and repeatedly tested out. But clearly not everything we do and believe has come under the scrutiny of the 'scientific method'. It would be absurd for us to require scientific backing for every step we take and every move we make. We can just be 'reasonable' about how we approach things. It sometimes surprises us to learn that one of our pet 'scientific beliefs' is really urban legend, and to discover how hard it is to give up one of these beliefs in favor of something more supportable. We've all experienced this kind of 'clash in the head' when we learn that something we have comfortably assumed for a long time is, in fact, not true. The history of science highlights many times when world views have abruptly changed, and adherents to the older theory fought tooth-and-nail to maintain their ways of thinking, even though they clearly represented what had become irrational thinking.
  3. 3. Laboratory Instrument And Their Uses