How to Write for and Get Published in Scientific Journals<br />Nara Women’s University<br />Diana Bowler, PhD<br />Special...
A little about me…<br /><ul><li>Editor for Edanz Group
Research area: Ecology and Environmental Science </li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 2<br />
Presentation<br /><ul><li>Section One: Scientific publishing
Section Two: Before you start…
Section Three: Structuring your manuscript
Section Four: Hints and tips</li></ul>EdanzGroup Japan | 3<br />
Why publish?<br />Nature is complex<br />EdanzGroup Japan | 4<br />
Why publish?<br />We develop theory and use complex technologies and methods to test our understanding of nature.<br />Nat...
Why publish? To exchange ideas globally<br />…and the science is often necessarily complex<br />Language clarity is theref...
Why publish?<br /><ul><li>The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
Published since 1665</li></ul>“science can only move forward through a transparent and open exchange of ideas backed by ex...
Why publish in English?<br /><ul><li>The international language of science
Other scientists WANT to hear from you!
Allows you to become an effective science communicator
Number of publications is linked to funding success
Your obligation/duty as a scientist!</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 8<br />
Publish or perish<br />Funding Bodies<br />Grant  Writing<br />Researchers<br />Journal Publication<br />Edanz Group Japan...
Increased competition<br /><ul><li>Relative growth from 100% baseline in 1990</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 10<br />
Publishing timeline<br /><ul><li>Submission to publication, 3–12 months</li></ul>Editor assigned rapid rejectionORpeer rev...
Section Two Before you begin…<br /><ul><li>Read
Hot topics
Experimental design
Journal selection
Ethics</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 12<br />
Read<br /><ul><li>Read broadly
Determine the key papers in your field
What is the current state of understanding?
Identify gaps in the knowledge
Novel and original research important for publication success</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 13<br />
Reading helps your writing<br /><ul><li>Both sides of the brain are essential and work in harmony</li></ul>Reading<br />Cr...
Reading improves your writing<br /><ul><li>Read as often as possible
Discuss with your co-workers</li></ul>Reading<br /><ul><li>Assists you with journal selection
Provides ideas for your next manuscript</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 15<br />
Literature search<br /><ul><li>PubMed
Google Scholar
HighWire (highwire.stanford.edu)
Scirus (www.scirus.com)
Scopus (www.scopus.com)</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 16<br />
Hot topics<br /><ul><li>Look for clues…
How?
Controversies
Unexplained findings
Reviews, editorials, commentaries, letters to the editor, </li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 17<br />
Hot topics<br /><ul><li>Talk to other scientists!
Local society meetings
National conferences
International congresses</li></ul>These are the places where the very latest results are presented<br />Edanz Group Japan ...
Experimental design <br /><ul><li>Quality science is essential for quality publications
What is your hypothesis or research question?
Plan your study methods
Do you have the relevant resources?
Keep detailed laboratory notebooks</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 19<br />
Experimental design Get it right<br /><ul><li>Sample sizes (n) large enough?
Power analysis
Which statistical test(s)?</li></ul>When in doubt – talk to a statistician!<br /><ul><li>Does your study comply with ALL e...
Journal Selection<br />Edanz Group Japan | 21<br />
Journal Selection<br /><ul><li>What is the main focus of your work?
Who will be interested?
How significant are your results?
Where have similar articles been published?</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 22<br />
Journal Selection<br />Factors to consider:<br /><ul><li>Impact factor
Other indicators of impact (SJR, SNIP, downloads, citations)
Target audience
Aims and scope
Publication types
Publishing frequency
Open access or subscriber
Cost</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 23<br />
Publication ethics<br />DO NOT…<br /><ul><li>Multiple submissions
Plagiarism
Data fabrication and falsification
Improper use of human subjects and animals
Improper author contribution</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 24<br />
Section Three Manuscript structure<br /><ul><li>You are telling a story	Beginning  Middle  End
Expanded IMRaD model
Title
Abstract
Key words
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Edanz190511 How to Write for and Get Published in Scientific Journals

  1. 1. How to Write for and Get Published in Scientific Journals<br />Nara Women’s University<br />Diana Bowler, PhD<br />Specialist Editor in Ecology and Environmental Science <br />Edanz Group Japan<br />May 19, 2011<br />
  2. 2. A little about me…<br /><ul><li>Editor for Edanz Group
  3. 3. Research area: Ecology and Environmental Science </li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 2<br />
  4. 4. Presentation<br /><ul><li>Section One: Scientific publishing
  5. 5. Section Two: Before you start…
  6. 6. Section Three: Structuring your manuscript
  7. 7. Section Four: Hints and tips</li></ul>EdanzGroup Japan | 3<br />
  8. 8. Why publish?<br />Nature is complex<br />EdanzGroup Japan | 4<br />
  9. 9. Why publish?<br />We develop theory and use complex technologies and methods to test our understanding of nature.<br />Nature is complex<br />Nature is complex<br />Edanz Group Japan | 5<br />
  10. 10. Why publish? To exchange ideas globally<br />…and the science is often necessarily complex<br />Language clarity is therefore very important<br />Edanz Group Japan | 6<br />
  11. 11. Why publish?<br /><ul><li>The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
  12. 12. Published since 1665</li></ul>“science can only move forward through a transparent and open exchange of ideas backed by experimental evidence” – The Royal Society<br />Edanz Group Japan | 7<br />
  13. 13. Why publish in English?<br /><ul><li>The international language of science
  14. 14. Other scientists WANT to hear from you!
  15. 15. Allows you to become an effective science communicator
  16. 16. Number of publications is linked to funding success
  17. 17. Your obligation/duty as a scientist!</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 8<br />
  18. 18. Publish or perish<br />Funding Bodies<br />Grant Writing<br />Researchers<br />Journal Publication<br />Edanz Group Japan | 9<br />
  19. 19. Increased competition<br /><ul><li>Relative growth from 100% baseline in 1990</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 10<br />
  20. 20. Publishing timeline<br /><ul><li>Submission to publication, 3–12 months</li></ul>Editor assigned rapid rejectionORpeer review<br />Reviewers evaluate accept, rejectORrevise<br />Manuscript submitted<br />Publication!<br />Revise manuscript<br />Editor sources reviewers<br />Edanz Group Japan | 11<br />
  21. 21. Section Two Before you begin…<br /><ul><li>Read
  22. 22. Hot topics
  23. 23. Experimental design
  24. 24. Journal selection
  25. 25. Ethics</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 12<br />
  26. 26. Read<br /><ul><li>Read broadly
  27. 27. Determine the key papers in your field
  28. 28. What is the current state of understanding?
  29. 29. Identify gaps in the knowledge
  30. 30. Novel and original research important for publication success</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 13<br />
  31. 31. Reading helps your writing<br /><ul><li>Both sides of the brain are essential and work in harmony</li></ul>Reading<br />Creativity<br />Logic<br />Reading<br />Writing<br /><ul><li>Similarly, reading and writing are connected </li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 14<br />
  32. 32. Reading improves your writing<br /><ul><li>Read as often as possible
  33. 33. Discuss with your co-workers</li></ul>Reading<br /><ul><li>Assists you with journal selection
  34. 34. Provides ideas for your next manuscript</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 15<br />
  35. 35. Literature search<br /><ul><li>PubMed
  36. 36. Google Scholar
  37. 37. HighWire (highwire.stanford.edu)
  38. 38. Scirus (www.scirus.com)
  39. 39. Scopus (www.scopus.com)</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 16<br />
  40. 40. Hot topics<br /><ul><li>Look for clues…
  41. 41. How?
  42. 42. Controversies
  43. 43. Unexplained findings
  44. 44. Reviews, editorials, commentaries, letters to the editor, </li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 17<br />
  45. 45. Hot topics<br /><ul><li>Talk to other scientists!
  46. 46. Local society meetings
  47. 47. National conferences
  48. 48. International congresses</li></ul>These are the places where the very latest results are presented<br />Edanz Group Japan | 18<br />
  49. 49. Experimental design <br /><ul><li>Quality science is essential for quality publications
  50. 50. What is your hypothesis or research question?
  51. 51. Plan your study methods
  52. 52. Do you have the relevant resources?
  53. 53. Keep detailed laboratory notebooks</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 19<br />
  54. 54. Experimental design Get it right<br /><ul><li>Sample sizes (n) large enough?
  55. 55. Power analysis
  56. 56. Which statistical test(s)?</li></ul>When in doubt – talk to a statistician!<br /><ul><li>Does your study comply with ALL ethical requirements?</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 20<br />
  57. 57. Journal Selection<br />Edanz Group Japan | 21<br />
  58. 58. Journal Selection<br /><ul><li>What is the main focus of your work?
  59. 59. Who will be interested?
  60. 60. How significant are your results?
  61. 61. Where have similar articles been published?</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 22<br />
  62. 62. Journal Selection<br />Factors to consider:<br /><ul><li>Impact factor
  63. 63. Other indicators of impact (SJR, SNIP, downloads, citations)
  64. 64. Target audience
  65. 65. Aims and scope
  66. 66. Publication types
  67. 67. Publishing frequency
  68. 68. Open access or subscriber
  69. 69. Cost</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 23<br />
  70. 70. Publication ethics<br />DO NOT…<br /><ul><li>Multiple submissions
  71. 71. Plagiarism
  72. 72. Data fabrication and falsification
  73. 73. Improper use of human subjects and animals
  74. 74. Improper author contribution</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 24<br />
  75. 75. Section Three Manuscript structure<br /><ul><li>You are telling a story Beginning  Middle  End
  76. 76. Expanded IMRaD model
  77. 77. Title
  78. 78. Abstract
  79. 79. Key words
  80. 80. Introduction
  81. 81. Methods
  82. 82. Results
  83. 83. Discussion
  84. 84. References
  85. 85. Acknowledgments</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 25<br />
  86. 86. The ‘write’ order<br />For maximum clarity and consistency, write your manuscript in this order:<br /><ul><li>Methods
  87. 87. Results
  88. 88. Introduction
  89. 89. Discussion
  90. 90. Title
  91. 91. Abstract</li></ul>Write duringthe research<br />Write afterselecting your target journal<br />Write last<br />Edanz Group Japan | 26<br />
  92. 92. The importance of your title<br />World Class<br />Physics Manuscript<br />A label for indexing<br />Grabs the reader’s attention<br />Introduces your manuscript to an editor<br /><ul><li>Convey the main topics of the manuscript
  93. 93. Be specific and concise
  94. 94. Avoid jargon, abbreviations and acronyms</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 27<br />
  95. 95. A good title<br />Late Quaternary evolution of a loess landscape over glacial and interglacial cycles in a region of high tectonic vertical uplift and lateral strike-slip movement in the Charwell Basin located in the South Island of New Zealand<br />Better<br />Late Quaternary loess landscape evolution on an active tectonic margin, Charwell Basin, South Island, New Zealand<br />Poor<br />Too long<br />Shorter and easy to understand<br />Edanz Group Japan | 28<br />
  96. 96. Abstract<br /><ul><li>The majority of people will only read this section
  97. 97. It must be able to ‘stand alone’
  98. 98. Should give an accurate summary of your research and conclusions reached</li></ul>ALWAYS consult the Guide for Authors for specific requirements<br />Edanz Group Japan | 29<br />
  99. 99. A good Abstract should …<br /><ul><li>Be concise
  100. 100. State the objectives and scope of the study/investigation
  101. 101. Describe the methods employed
  102. 102. Summarize the results
  103. 103. State the principal conclusions
  104. 104. Avoid abbreviations AND references</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 30<br />
  105. 105. Introduction WHY?<br />What question (problem) was studied?<br />This question, and the rationale for addressing this question, should be contained within your Introduction<br />Beginning  Middle  End<br />Edanz Group Japan | 31<br />
  106. 106. IntroductionBeginning<br /><ul><li>Provide background information to put your work into context
  107. 107. DO NOT write a comprehensive literature review of the field
  108. 108. DO cite reviews that readers can refer to if they want more information</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 32<br />
  109. 109. IntroductionMiddle<br /><ul><li>What is the rationale/reason for your study?
  110. 110. Explain why you addressed the problem
  111. 111. DO NOT state results from your study</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 33<br />
  112. 112. IntroductionEnd<br /><ul><li>Clearly state the aims of your study
  113. 113. State the methods you used to carry out your aims
  114. 114. Ask yourself: are the citations balanced, current and relevant?</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 34<br />
  115. 115. Materials and methodsHOW?<br /><ul><li>Clear subheadings
  116. 116. Describe methods in the past tense
  117. 117. New methods must be described in sufficient detail for a capable researcher to reproduce the experiment
  118. 118. Established methods can be referenced
  119. 119. Describe statistical tests used</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 35<br />
  120. 120. Materials and methodsExample<br />Materials and methods<br />Materials.Culture media were obtained from Life Technologies (Gaithersburg, MD). Okadaic acid was purchased from Alexis Company (Läufelfingen,Switzerland). Antibodies to MEK1/2 and phosphorylated MAPK were purchased from New England Biolabs (Beverley, MA).<br />Materials described first Suppliers/locations given<br />Clear subheadings<br />Refs used to save space<br />Induction of cell death. Cell death was induced as described previously [15]. Briefly, cell death was induced by adding okadaic acid (0-300 nM, Alexis Co.) after washing slice cultures in serum-free medium.<br />Light and electron microscopy. Cultures were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and 1% formaldehyde, treated with 1% OsO4 in 0.1M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, dehydrated in a graded series of ethanoland propylene oxide, and flat-embedded in an epoxy resin (DurcupanACM, Fluka, Neu-Ulm, Germany). Semithin sections were stainedwith toluidine blue, and ultrathin sections were stained with1% uranyl acetate for 20 min and 1% lead citrate for 2 min.<br />Enough information to reproduce the experiment<br />Statistical test parameters provided<br />Statistics.For statistical analysis, 2-tailed Student’s t test was used to assess the significance of mean differences. Differences were considered significant at a P value of 0.05 or less.<br />Edanz Group Japan | 36<br />
  121. 121. ResultsWHAT?<br /><ul><li>Assemble your findings in a logical order to make a ‘story’ (Beginning  Middle  End)
  122. 122. Use subheadings
  123. 123. Use past tense to describe results
  124. 124. BUT refer to figures and tables in the present tense
  125. 125. Present the facts, DO NOT discuss your results
  126. 126. Include results of statistical analyses</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 37<br />
  127. 127. ResultsWhat did you find?<br />Results<br />Okadaic acid induces death of dentate gyrus neurons selectively.Hippocampal slice cultures treated with OA (1–300 nM) showed selective cell death of neurons in the dentate gyrus, but neurons in the CA1–3 regions were largely unaffected. Cell death occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Propidium iodide staining of treated slides indicated….<br />Clear subheadings<br />Electron microscopy revealed a number of ultrastructural changes in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, particularly those in the CA3 region, in slices treated with 300 nM OA for 24 h (Fig 3). These changes included slight nuclear aggregations (arrow in Fig 3A), accumulation of mitochondria around nuclei (arrowheads in Fig 3B) and an increased amount of endoplasmic reticulum (Fig 3C). As shown in Figure 4, the nuclei of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions…<br />Graphics used to save space<br />Involvement of MAPK signaling in the effect of OA.Compared with slices treated with medium only and treated slices at 0 h, slices treated with 300 nM OA showed increasing levels of phosphorylated MAPK at 4 h, 8 h, 16 h and 24 h, with no corresponding change in the levels of total MAPK. This increase was prevented in slices that were co-incubated with a protein kinase inhibitor. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated Tau were higher in OA-treated slices than in control slices…<br />Clear comparisons made<br />Edanz Group Japan | 38<br />
  128. 128. Display items Tables and figures<br /><ul><li>Figures and tables are VERY EFFECTIVE
  129. 129. Keep it simple — use separate panels if necessary
  130. 130. Avoid duplication with the text
  131. 131. Label all parts of your figures
  132. 132. Include trendlines, scale bars and statistical significance
  133. 133. Legends must be able to ‘stand alone’
  134. 134. Ensure quality is publication-ready</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 39<br />
  135. 135. Display itemsFigures<br />Clear, ‘stand alone’ caption<br />Multi-panel: sets of related data shown in a single figure<br />Fig. 9. The fringe period decreases with increasing separation. (a) 0.5 nm separation with movie showing phase procession between the lasers (Media 1). We believe the non-sinusoidal shape of these peaks arises from soliton effect compression in the amplifier before the temporal imaging stage [31]. (b) 1.5 nm separation, and (c) 2.5 nm separation. (d) The phase slip between the two lasers, which are not phase-locked, washes out the fringes when averaged over multiple shots.<br />Complicated data separated into simpler components<br />Axes clearly labeled<br />Edanz Group Japan | 40<br />
  136. 136. Display items Tables<br />Clear concise heading<br />Data divided into categories for clarity<br />)<br />Abbreviations defined<br />Edanz Group | 41<br />
  137. 137. Statistics<br /><ul><li>Statistical analysis is at the heart of scientific inquiry
  138. 138. Formal objective test of your hypothesis
  139. 139. Consider statistical analysis when you design your study. Before you start your research.</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 42<br />
  140. 140. Statistics Poor statistics<br />Poor statistics <br />Poor interpretation<br />Poor study design<br />e.g., sample size is too small<br />Data are valid<br />Re-analysis or re-interpretation<br />Difficult to recover…<br />Revise manuscript<br />Edanz Group Japan | 43<br />
  141. 141. DiscussionSO WHAT?<br />What do these findings mean?<br />The answer to this question is in the Discussion<br />Beginning  Middle  End<br />Edanz Group Japan | 44<br />
  142. 142. Discussion Beginning<br /><ul><li>Answer the research question
  143. 143. ALWAYS provide the major/main result first
  144. 144. Give your conclusions, based on the results</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 45<br />
  145. 145. Discussion Middle<br /><ul><li>Interpret the results
  146. 146. Compare your results with those from other studies
  147. 147. Same or different?
  148. 148. Possible reasons why?
  149. 149. What are the wider implications of your results?
  150. 150. Briefly describe limitations
  151. 151. If you don’t, the reviewers will!</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 46<br />
  152. 152. Discussion End<br /><ul><li>State your conclusions again
  153. 153. In summary …
  154. 154. In conclusion …
  155. 155. Mention possible applications, and speculation, if appropriate
  156. 156. Suggest future work, if necessary</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 47<br />
  157. 157. References<br /><ul><li>ALWAYS format your references: check the Guide for Authors for the appropriate format
  158. 158. A sign to a journal editor that you have taken the journal guidelines seriously.
  159. 159. Use reference management software (Mendeley, Zotero, RefWorks, EndNote)
  160. 160. I highly recommend EndNote
  161. 161. http://www.endnote.com/</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 48<br />
  162. 162. Section Four Tips and hints<br /><ul><li>Peer Review
  163. 163. Language
  164. 164. Cover letters</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 49<br />
  165. 165. Peer Review<br /><ul><li>Only 1.5% of papers are immediately accepted without need for any revisions</li></ul>Complete rejection<br />Rejection with major revisions<br />Journal editor decision<br />Rejection with minor revisions<br />Acceptance<br />Edanz Group Japan | 50<br />
  166. 166. Peer ReviewRapid rejection<br /><ul><li>Failure to state a hypothesis
  167. 167. Inappropriate methods
  168. 168. Contradictions within the manuscript
  169. 169. Superficial or rambling discussion
  170. 170. Conclusion that is not supported by the data</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 51<br />
  171. 171. Peer ReviewWhat do reviewers look for?<br /><ul><li>Is the manuscript sufficiently novel?
  172. 172. Is the manuscript of broad enough interest?</li></ul>Aims and Scope<br />Novelty<br />Significance<br />Edanz Group Japan | 52<br />
  173. 173. Peer review Responding to comments<br /><ul><li>Politely respond to ALL the reviewers’ comments in a response letter
  174. 174. Make it easy to see the changes
  175. 175. Refer to line and page numbers
  176. 176. Different colour font
  177. 177. Highlight the text</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 53<br />
  178. 178. Peer review Responding to comments<br /><ul><li>Consider additional experiments or different statistical analysis if suggested
  179. 179. You can disagree with reviewers BUT provide evidence in your response (cite references)
  180. 180. Comply with deadlines</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 54<br />
  181. 181. Language Minimizing errors<br />Theinternet can help you<br /><ul><li>Google Scholar to check for word usage
  182. 182. Check your target journal’s home page for full instructions
  183. 183. US or UK spelling?
  184. 184. Ask a colleague to check your manuscript</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 55<br />
  185. 185. Language Minimizing errors<br /><ul><li>MicrosoftWord
  186. 186. Track changes function
  187. 187. Comment function
  188. 188. Find (and replace) to check for consistency
  189. 189. Word Count function
  190. 190. Spell Check (but be careful)
  191. 191. Custom Dictionaries (provided by some academic societies for specific fields)</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 56<br />
  192. 192. Cover letters<br /><ul><li>Competition for publication space and for editors’ attention is very high
  193. 193. It is not enough to send a manuscript to a journal editor like this:</li></ul>Dear Editor-in-Chief,<br />I am sending you our manuscript entitled “Techniques to detect circoviruses in Chinese bird species” by Bowler et al. We would like to have the manuscript considered for publication in the Virology Journal.<br />Please let me know of your decision at your earliest convenience.<br />With my best regards,<br /> Sincerely yours,<br />Diana Bowler, PhD<br />Edanz Group | 57<br />
  194. 194. Cover lettersExample<br />Dear DrGerlai,<br />Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Amyloid-like inclusions in the brains of Huntington’s disease patients”, by McGowan et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a Research Paper in BMC Neuroscience. <br />Recent immunohistochemical studies have revealed the presence of neuronal inclusions containing an N-terminal portion of the mutant huntingtin protein and ubiquitin in the brain tissues of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients; however, the role of these inclusions in the disease process has remained unclear. One suspected disease-causing mechanism in Huntington’s disease and other polyglutamine disorders is the potential for the mutant protein to undergo a conformational change to a more stable anti-parallel β-sheet structure…<br />To confirm if the immunohistochemically observed huntingtin- and ubiquitin-containing inclusions display amyloid features, we performed Congo red staining and both polarizing and confocal microscopy on post-mortem human brain tissues obtained from five HD patients, two AD patients, and two normal controls. Congo red staining revealed a small number of amyloid-like inclusions showing green birefringence by polarized microscopy, in a variety of cortical regions.... ….detected inclusions observed in parallel sections, suggesting that only a relatively small proportion of inclusions in HD adopt an amyloid-like structure.<br />We believe our findings would appeal to a broad audience, such as the readership of Neuroscience. As a wide-reaching journal publishing original research on all aspects of neuroscience…<br />We confirm that this manuscript has not been published elsewhere and is not under consideration by another journal. All authors have approved the manuscript and agree with submission to Neuroscience. We have read and have abided by the statement of ethical standards for manuscripts submitted to Neuroscience. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.<br />Please address all correspondence to….<br />Address the editor personally<br />Give the background to the research<br />Explain what was done and what was found<br />Explain why this is interesting to the journal’s readership<br />Conforms to the journal’s requirements <br />Contact address <br />Edanz Group | 58<br />
  195. 195. Checklist for acceptance<br /><ul><li>Appropriate study design
  196. 196. Compliance with ethics guidelines
  197. 197. Novel and interesting results
  198. 198. Correct statistical tests employed
  199. 199. Significance of findings explained
  200. 200. Clear, concise, accurate writing
  201. 201. Appropriate choice of journal
  202. 202. Compliance with the Guide for Authors</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 59<br />
  203. 203. When submitting manuscripts: <br />Have a positive attitude<br />Opportunity to share your findings with other researchers<br />Peer review helps you improve your work<br />Be professional <br />Submit a high quality document ready for publication<br />60<br />
  204. 204. Thank youGood luck!<br />Presentation available at http://edanzediting.co.jp/narawomen1905<br />Edanz Group Japan | 61<br />
  205. 205. Appendix: useful set phrases Abstract<br /><ul><li>Here, we present…
  206. 206. Here, we show…
  207. 207. Here, we report…
  208. 208. In this work we introduce… </li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 62<br />
  209. 209. Appendix: useful set phrases Abstract<br /><ul><li>These results show…
  210. 210. To test whether (past tense), we performed....
  211. 211. To examine if (past tense) we (past tense)
  212. 212. We used XX to YY. Using this approach, we identified ZZ</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 63<br />
  213. 213. Appendix: useful set phrases Introduction<br /><ul><li>We demonstrated previously…
  214. 214. Previous studies have shown that…
  215. 215. We have previously shown that…
  216. 216. The topic of XX has recently been reviewed1. (insert reference)
  217. 217. To determine whether …
  218. 218. The purpose of this study was …</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 64<br />
  219. 219. Appendix: useful set phrases Introduction<br /><ul><li>Therefore, we tested the hypothesis …
  220. 220. This report describes experiments designed to determine whether …
  221. 221. Therefore, our first objective in these studies was to determine whether …
  222. 222. In this study, we sought to extend our observations and specifically test …</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 65<br />
  223. 223. Appendix: useful set phrases Methods<br /><ul><li>To test whether XX(past tense), we performed....
  224. 224. To examine if XX(paste tense) we performed…</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 66<br />
  225. 225. Appendix: useful set phrases Results<br /><ul><li> Among the cases we analyzed…
  226. 226. XX was/were observed….
  227. 227. The results are summarized in Table 1.
  228. 228. Figure 2a shows the effect of X on Y.
  229. 229. Group X showed higher/lower levels of Y than the control group.</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 67<br />
  230. 230. Appendix: useful set phrases Discussion<br /><ul><li>In the current study, we have shown…
  231. 231. In summary…
  232. 232. To conclude…
  233. 233. In conclusion…
  234. 234. In demonstrating XX, our findings show that/illustrate that…
  235. 235. Taken together these results suggest…</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 68<br />
  236. 236. Appendix: useful set phrases Discussion<br /><ul><li>The above data collectively show…
  237. 237. Our data supports the idea that XX
  238. 238. Our study supports the hypothesis that ZZ
  239. 239. Our study is limited by…
  240. 240. There were some limitations to the current study.</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 69<br />
  241. 241. Appendix: statistics<br /><ul><li>Consult an expert!
  242. 242. State the statistical tests used to analyze data
  243. 243. Provide the name, version and maker of the statistical package used
  244. 244. E.g. SPSS 11.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA
  245. 245. Only use the word “significant” when describing statistically significant differences</li></ul>Alternatives: notable, substantial, marked<br />Edanz Group Japan | 70<br />
  246. 246. Appendix: statisticsA few rules<br /><ul><li> Precision: Life expectancy of 22.085 years 22 years
  247. 247. Always give numerator and denominator e.g., 25% (740/2958)
  248. 248. Avoid using percentages to summarize small samples
  249. 249. Be very clear with percentages within subgroups:</li></ul>“Of the 1000 patients, 800 (80%) were women; (31%) had a BMI of…”<br />“Of the 1000 patients, 800 (80%) were women; of these, 250 (31%) had a BMI of…”<br />Edanz Group Japan | 71<br />
  250. 250. Language UK or US spelling<br />Be consistent<br /><ul><li>Check the journal’s Guide for Authors
  251. 251. Generally, American journals require US spelling and British journals require British spelling, but many accept either form as long as the spelling used is consistent</li></ul>Edanz Group Japan | 72<br />
  252. 252. Language Comparisons<br /><ul><li>Frequently made in the results sections of papers
  253. 253. Use with, not to</li></ul>The material from the river bank was compared with the landfill.<br />The material from the river bank was compared with that from the landfill.<br />Edanz Group Japan | 73<br />
  254. 254. Language Comparisons<br />Expression levels of p53 in smokers were compared with non-smokers<br />Expression levels of p53 in smokers were compared with p53 levels in non-smokers<br />Expression levels of p53 in smokers were compared with those in non-smokers<br />Edanz Group Japan | 74<br />
  255. 255. Language Comparisons<br /><ul><li>Relative terms, such as more, higher and greater, require a reference for comparison
  256. 256. Use “than” or “compared with”</li></ul>Reactions with the new machine were faster. than what?<br />Reactions with the new machine were faster than those with the old machine.<br />75<br />Edanz Group Japan | 75<br />
  257. 257. Language Between or among<br /><ul><li>Use between for comparisons of two groups</li></ul>…the only difference between the original molecule and the new molecule is... <br /><ul><li>Use among for comparisons of more than two groups</li></ul>..significant differences were observed in the H values among bio-, fully- and semi-synthetic…<br />Edanz Group Japan | 76<br />
  258. 258. Language Presenting numbers<br /><ul><li>Spell out numbers one through nine, numerals for 10 and up</li></ul>EXCEPT<br /><ul><li>Units of measurement, times, and dates: 2 mL; 1996
  259. 259. Beginning of a sentence</li></ul>Fifteen days previously…NOT: 15 days previously<br /><ul><li>A mixture of numbers in one sentence:</li></ul>The sample included 34 men with type A blood, 15 with type B and 3 with type AB.<br /><ul><li>Differentiating consecutive numbers:</li></ul>Five 50-kg women….NOT 5 50-kg women<br /><ul><li>Large numbers in general expressions:</li></ul>A hundred; several thousand….<br />Edanz Group Japan | 77<br />
  260. 260. Language Colon or semi-colon<br /><ul><li>The colon “:” is used to introduce a list or a clause that explains what precedes it
  261. 261. Semicolon “;” is used to separate the items in a list too long for commas or where commas could be ambiguous. Use ‘and’ before the last item in the list. </li></ul>There are a number of journals for surgery manuscripts: Surgery, produced by Elsevier; Journal of Surgery, produced by NMS; British Journal of Surgery… <br />Edanz Group Japan | 78<br />
  262. 262. Language Colon or semi-colon<br /><ul><li>Use a semicolon to join two sentences that are not independent</li></ul>In previous sediments of all salinities, MeHg production was highest at previous sediment depths just below the oxic/anoxic transition;that is, depths where microbial sulfate reduction was present, but where sulfide, which inhibits methylation, was relatively low.<br />One sentence is too long; but the two sentences must be connected<br />Edanz Group Japan | 79<br />

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