Getting Started Keep your audience in mindWhat do they want What do you want to know? to tell them? Keep it simple! What will be What will keep theirinteresting for them? attention?
Getting Started My goal My audience feels it was worth their time to listen to me
Writing Comparing manuscripts Presentations and presentations Manuscript Presentation Not limited Limited Time Readers can take Limited attention their time No control Control Flow of Readers can skip Audience has toinformation sections listen to everything
WritingPresentations Slide layout Sans-serif (Arial, Calibri, etc.) 40 pt for titles Font 30+ pt for major points 24+ pt for minor points Limit 8 lines of text per slide Layout Bullet points, not sentences High contrast colors
Formatting Bullet points Useful, better than plain text Often best way to list information But, can be boring Lose your audience attention Bullet points can suggest hierarchy One large block of text more difficult to read
Formatting Graphics Useful way to list Can be boring for information audience Bullet points May suggest One large block of hierarchy text difficult to read
Formatting Graphics Simple and Contrasting colors, organized easy to read Graphics For information, For pictures, use not decoration compressed images
Formatting Simple and clear Avoid jargon Word Choice Use words you can Check speling and pronounce grammar
Formatting Keeping your audience’s attention Focus the attention of Audience cannot your audience read ahead Animation Keep it simple: Do not distract from appear, fade, wipe your information!
Organization Telling a story Beginning Introduction Middle Figures/data End Conclusion
Organization Beginning Brief introduction Background information Aims of your study Use pictures and diagrams
Coverage andExample slide Staffing Plan Why Hepatocytes? Hepatotoxicity is the leading cause preventing drugs from reaching the market Leading cause why drugs are removed from the market Also important for studying hepatitis virus 500 million people worldwide Effective in vitro hepatocyte cultures are required
Coverage andExample slide Staffing Plan Hepatocytes are unique Unlike other epithelial cells, hepatocytes have bi-symmetrical polarity:
Coverage andExample slide Apical Domain is Staffing Plan Medially Located Does the symmetrical basolateral membrane help position the bile canaliculi medially? Dapi + F-actin + β-catenin
Coverage andExample slide Intracellular forces can Staffing Plan position cellular structures Actomyosin Activity Actomyosin Activity Burakov et al. (2003) JCB 162: 963.
Organization Middle of your presentation Methods Flow chart or schematic Figures Important results
Coverage andExample slide Staffing Plan Experimental design Seed primary rat hepatocytes (d1) Collagen overlay (d2) Treat cells with inhibitors (d3) Fix cells (d4) Confocal microscopy
Organization Figures Main limitation? Space! Only choose most important data Organize clearly
Organization Selecting important data U2OS cells on polyacrylamide gels Stricker et al. Biophys J. 2011;100:2883.
Organization Selecting important data U2OS cells on polyacrylamide gelsTake home information Traction forces are strongest close tothe protruding edge Stricker et al. Biophys J. 2011;100:2883.
Organization Selecting important data Go et al. New Engl J Med. 2014;351:1296.
Organization Selecting important data Characteristic Total Cohort ≥ 60 < 60 (N=1,120,295) ml/min/1.73 m2 ml/min/1.73 m2 (N=924,136) (N=196,159)* Age (yr) 52.2 ± 16.3 49.1 ± 15.1 66.6 ± 13.0 Female sex (%) 54.6 53.4 60.2 Ethnic group White 50.9 47.2 68.6 Black 7.4 7.2 5.3 Hispanic 5.9 6.3 4.1 Asian 8.1 8.5 6.7 Mixed 2.4 2.4 2.8 Other 25.3 28.4 12.5 Medical history Coronary heart 6.3 4.5 17.8 disease Stroke 2.6 1.7 8.3 Peripheral 1.8 1.1 6.7 Arterial disease Chronic Heart 2.1 1.0 19.8 failure * estimations Go et al. New Engl J Med. 2014;351:1296.
Organization End of your presentation Conclusions Summary and implications Future directions How is this being further developed?
Coverage andExample slide Staffing Plan Summary Relaxed tension enhances apical membrane formation MLCK, but not ROCK, may be involved Weak cell-matrix adhesion promotes polarity Lateral compressive force promotes cortical actin accumulation and adherens junction formationUnderstanding the mechanical control of hepatocyte polarity, we hope to develop better in vitro models for drug- and virus-testing applications
Coverage andExample slide Staffing Plan Future directions Measure traction forces on substrates of varying rigidities Microcontact printing to limit cell spreading area and alter surface geometry Elastomeric micropillars to measure real-time localized forces during polarization
Coverage andPresentationStaffing Plan tips Before you present… Most important thing you can do… Practice Learn your presentation, Don’t memorize, don’t read it these are your ideas Practice builds and with Practice alone confidence! others, record yourself
Coverage andPresentationStaffing Plan tips Getting ready Arrive early, everything working? Have backup copies of your presentation Take a deep breath and relax
Coverage andPresentation Presentation tips –Staffing Plan tips appear confident Make eyeAlways face your contact Stand upright audience Non-verbalDon’t be stiff, Smile!move naturally Use hand gestures
Coverage and Presentation Presentation tips – Staffing Plan tips Speaking style Pause for emphasis Vary tone Speak slowly and pitch Verbal Don’t talk to theShow enthusiasm Avoid “filler” screen or podium words (ummm)
Coverage andPresentationStaffing Plan tips Start positive Thank the organizers “I would like to thank [organizer] for kindly inviting me here today.”Introduction Opening comments “I’m very happy to be able to speak to you today.” Start your presentation Never apologize for your English or being nervous “Today, I would like to talk about...”
Coverage andPresentationStaffing Plan tips Develop your story Introduce the sections “As you can see, my presentation is divided into four sections.” Body of Starting the sectionspresentation “First, I would like to discuss...” Summarize each section “I’d like to summarize the main findings from this section.”
Coverage andPresentation Figures –Staffing Plan tips Guide the audience Introduce the figures “Now, I’d like to show you data from our recent experiments.” Describing Talking about the data data/figures “Here, you can see...” Focus on important information “I’d like to draw your attention to...”
Coverage andPresentation Finishing yourStaffing Plan tips presentation Main conclusions “In conclusion, the main findings of this study are...” Thank the audienceConclusions “Thank you for your attention today.” Acknowledgments “I’d like to thank the people who were involved in this project.” Invite questions “I’d now be happy to answer any questions that you may have.”
Customer Service Questions Make sure you understand the question Could the audience hear it Could you hear it clearly? clearly? Do you understand the What do they want to question? know? Is the question appropriate What is the most relevant for the audience? question?
Customer Service Questions Make sure you understand the question Ask them to repeat “Would you mind repeating your question, please?” Handling Ask for clarification questions “Excuse me, I don’t understand your question. Are you asking about…?” May want to rephrase into a Repeat the question more relevant question “Okay, so this question is about...”
Customer Service Questions Difficult questions You are the expert, Unsure of the answer answer with confidence Be honest, but give your You don’t know the answer expert opinion Politely address Unrelated questions the question
Customer Service Questions How to answer difficult questions Tentative answers “I’m afraid I cannot give you a definite answer, but I think that…” Unanswerable Handling “Unfortunately we don’t have an answer at this time, but probably...” questions Unrelated questions “I’m sorry, but we didn’t look at that in this study.” Checking your answers “Does that answer your question?”
Coverage andPresentation Additional tips –Staffing Plan tips time management Stay within your Use a clock or watch time limit Rushing and skipping slides make you look unorganized! Practice often and keep track of each section
Coverage andPresentationStaffing Plan tips Additional tips “B” key makes the “W” key makes the screen black screen white Hold the laser pointer against your body to prevent shaking Remember, you are having a conversation with your audience
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