Writing Abstracts Publisher Adaptations Telling a storySimilar to full manuscripts, Abstracts shouldhave a: Beginning ‘tell them what you did and why’ Middle ‘tell them how you did it and what you found’ End ‘tell them again what you did and what it means’.
Writing Abstracts Publisher Adaptations Who’s hungry? First impressions are important!
Writing Abstracts Publisher Adaptations Important points Relevance of Importance of Validity of your your aims your results conclusions First impression of your paper Judge your Probably only part writing style that will be read
Writing Abstracts Publisher Adaptations General guide Background Why the study was done (20%) Aims Your hypothesis (10%) Methods Techniques (10%) Results Most important findings (40%) Conclusion Conclusion & implications (20%)
Writing Abstracts Publisher Adaptations Structured abstract PTEN mutations as a cause of constitutive insulin sensitivity and obesityBACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and genetic evidence links type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cancer. The tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) has roles in both cellular growth and metabolic Background/signaling. Germline PTEN mutations cause a cancer-predisposition syndrome, providing an opportunity to Aimsstudy the effect of PTEN haploinsufficiency in humans.Methods: We measured insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in 15 PTEN mutation carriers and 15matched controls. Insulin signaling was measured in muscle and adipose-tissue biopsy specimens from 5mutation carriers and 5 well-matched controls. We also assessed the effect of PTEN haploinsufficiency onobesity by comparing anthropometric indexes between the 15 patients and 2097 controls from a Techniquespopulation-based study of healthy adults. Body composition was evaluated by means of dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry and skinfold thickness.RESULTS: Measures of insulin resistance were lower in the patients with a PTEN mutation than in controls(e.g., mean fasting plasma insulin level, 29 pmol per liter [range, 9 to 99] vs. 74 pmol per liter [range, 22 to185]; P=0.001). This finding was confirmed with the use of hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping, showinga glucose infusion rate among carriers 2 times that among controls (P=0.009). The patients insulinsensitivity could be explained by the presence of enhanced insulin signaling through the PI3K-AKT pathway, Importantas evidenced by increased AKT phosphorylation. The PTEN mutation carriers were obese as compared with resultspopulation-based controls (mean body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of theheight in meters], 32 [range, 23 to 42] vs. 26 [range, 15 to 48]; P<0.001). This increased body mass in thepatients was due to augmented adiposity without corresponding changes in fat distribution.CONCLUSIONS: PTEN haploinsufficiency is a monogenic cause of profound constitutive insulin sensitizationthat is apparently obesogenic. We demonstrate an apparently divergent effect of PTEN mutations:increased risks of obesity and cancer but a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes owing to enhanced insulin Conclusionsensitivity. Pal et al. (2012). New England Journal of Medicine 367: 1002-1011
Writing Abstracts Publisher Adaptations Unstructured abstract Remarkable changes in behavior and physiology of laboratory mice after the massive 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan A devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011, followed by several long and intense aftershocks. Laboratory mice housed in the Tokyo, located approximately 330 km south of this earthquake’s epicenter, displayed remarkable changes in a variety of behaviors and physiological measures. Although unusual pre-earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals, little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake. In the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated. ‘‘Earthquake-experienced’’ mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gaining body weight in response to the earthquake. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formal fear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing. Water maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the task, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels were elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks were stressful for the mice. These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology. Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in disease models or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers need to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other natural environmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology. Yanai et al. (2012) PLoS ONE 7:e44475.
Writing Abstracts Publisher Adaptations Unstructured abstractA devastating earthquake and tsunami hit Japan on March 11, 2011, followed by several long andintense aftershocks. Laboratory mice housed in the Tokyo, located approximately 330 km south ofthis earthquake’s epicenter, displayed remarkable changes in a variety of behaviors and Backgroundphysiological measures.Although unusual pre-earthquake behaviors have been previously reported in laboratory animals,little is known about behavioral and physiological changes that occur after a great earthquake. AimsIn the present study, the effects of Tohoku earthquake on mice behavior were investigated.. Techniques‘‘Earthquake-experienced’’ mice displayed a marked increase in food consumption without gainingbody weight in response to the earthquake. They also displayed enhanced anxiety, and in a formalfear memory task, showed significantly greater tone- and context-dependent conditioned freezing.Water maze performance of earthquake-experienced mice showed the quicker acquisition of the Importanttask, faster swim speed and longer swim distance than the naive mice. Serum corticosterone levels resultswere elevated compared to the naive mice, indicating that the earthquake and aftershocks werestressful for the mice.These results demonstrate that great earthquakes strongly affect mouse behaviors and physiology.Although the effects of a variety of experimental manipulations on mouse behaviors in diseasemodels or in models of higher cognitive functions have been extensively examined, researchers Conclusionneed to be aware how natural phenomena, such as earthquakes and perhaps other naturalenvironmental factors, influence laboratory animal behaviors and physiology Yanai et al. (2012) PLoS ONE 7:e44475.
Writing Abstracts Publisher Adaptations Things to avoid References Abbreviations Do not include… Numbers & Jargon/slang statistics
Writing Abstracts Publisher Describing numbers and Adaptations statistics Transient frictional slip between integrin and the ECM in focal adhesions under myosin-II tensionResultsThis retrograde movement was only seen in nascent adhesions, within 30–90seconds after appearance and occurred in a majority of nascent adhesions observed(65%, nFA=39, ncell=6). The magnitude of retrograde displacement was 0.67±0.33 μm(nFA=39, ncell=6) and, once immobilized, a majority (77%, nFA=39, ncell=6) of adhesionselongated proximally.AbstractWe find that, under low extracellular tension, newly formed adhesions near the cellperiphery undergo a transient retrograde displacement preceding elongation. Aratyn-Schaus & Gardel. (2010). Curr Biol. 20: 1145
Journal Selection Factors to consider Aims and scope Readership Open access Publishing frequency Impact factorWhich factor is most important to you?
Journal Selection Choosing a target journal Journal selection must be based on an honest evaluation of your manuscript Significance Aims and Scope Impact
Journal Selection Evaluating significance: Novelty How new are my results compared with those already published? New findings Incremental Conceptual advances advances Low to medium Medium to high impact impact
Journal Selection Evaluating significance: Relevance How broadly relevant is my work? Population specific? Restricted to geographical Medical location? How common is the disease? Specific to cell-type or organism? Biology Relevant to human disease? How broadly applicable is the design?Engineering Is it cost-effective?
Journal Selection Evaluating significance: Appeal Is my work in an area of ‘popular appeal’ Examples: Stem cells Higgs boson Green energy Global warming Tissue engineering Artificial intelligence
Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan Make it easy Is there a Cover Letter? Are there reviewer recommendations? Is it easy to read? Inbox
Coverage and Cover Letters Staffing Plan Cover letters Competition for publication space and for editors’ attention is very highDear Editor-in-Chief,I am sending you our manuscript entitled “Techniques to detect circoviruses inJapanese bird species” by Raye et al. We would like to have the manuscriptconsidered for publication in Virology Methods Online.Please let me know of your decision at your earliest convenience.Sincerely yours,Warren Raye, PhD
Coverage and Cover Letters Staffing Plan A good cover letterDear Dr Graeber,Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Amyloid-like inclusions in the brains of Huntington’s disease patients”, byMcGowan et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a Research Paper in Neurogenetics.Recent immunohistochemical studies have revealed the presence of neuronal inclusions containing an N-terminal portion of Give thethe mutant huntingtin protein and ubiquitin in the brain tissues of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients; however, the role ofthese inclusions in the disease process has remained unclear. One suspected disease-causing mechanism in Huntington’s background todisease and other polyglutamine disorders is the potential for the mutant protein to undergo a conformational change to a the researchmore stable anti-parallel β-sheet structure…To confirm if the immunohistochemically observed huntingtin- and ubiquitin-containing inclusions display amyloid features, weperformed Congo red staining and both polarizing and confocal microscopy on post-mortem human brain tissues obtained What wasfrom five HD patients, two AD patients, and two normal controls. Congo red staining revealed a small number of amyloid-like done and whatinclusions showing green birefringence by polarized microscopy, in a variety of cortical regions.... ….detected inclusions was foundobserved in parallel sections, suggesting that only a relatively small proportion of inclusions in HD adopt an amyloid-likestructure.We believe our findings would appeal to a broad audience, such as the readership of Neurogenetics. As a wide-reaching journal Interest topublishing original research on all aspects of neuroscience… journal’s readersPlease address all correspondence to….
Coverage and Cover Letters Staffing Plan General rules Address editor Manuscript title/ Background, personally Publication type rationale, results General rules Why are your Corresponding Reviewerfindings important? author details recommendations
Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan General rulesOriginal and Not submitted Authors agree onunpublished to other journals paper/journal “Must-have” statements Conflicts of Source of Authorship interest funding contributions
Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan Recommending reviewers “When submitting a paper authors are requested to suggest 6 international referees…” “The following items are also required as part of the manuscript submission process:…The names, addresses, phone numbers, and e-mail addresses of four or five potential independent reviewers…”
Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan Recommending reviewers From your reading and references Networking Aim for younger and mid-level scientistsEditors have the final decision on reviewerchoice
Peer Review Improves your manuscript Rejection Acceptance Minor revision Major revisionFew papers are accepted without revisionRejection and revision are integral to thepeer review process
Peer Review Improves your manuscript Peer review is a positive process Improves science Recommend to get involved in the peer review processhttp://www.springer.com/authors/journal+authors/peer-review-academy
Peer Review Submission process Peer review Results novel? Topic relevant? Journal requirements met?Manuscript Editor Reject New experiments Improve readability Accepted— Add information publication! Revision
Peer Review Decision letter24-July-2012 Manuscript ID numberDear Dr. XXXXXManuscript ID WJS-07-5739: “Long-term outcomes following right-lobe living donor liver transplantation."Your manuscript has been reviewed, and we cannot accept the manuscript as submitted. The reviewerconcerns are included at the bottom of this letter.You can submit a revised manuscript that takes into consideration these comments. You will also need toinclude a detailed commentary of the changes made. Please note that resubmitting your manuscript does notguarantee eventual acceptance, and that your resubmission may be subject to re-review by the reviewersbefore a decision is made. Reasons for revisionTo revise your manuscript, log into http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/wjs and enter your Author Center, whereyou will find your manuscript title listed under "Manuscripts with Decisions." Under "Actions," click on "Createa Revision." Your manuscript number has been appended to denote a revision. … How to submit a revision
Peer Review Decision letter…You will be unable to make your revisions on the originally submitted version of the manuscript. Instead,revise your manuscript using a word processing program and save it on your computer. Please also highlightthe changes to your manuscript within the document by using the track changes mode in MS Word or by usingbold or colored text. Once the revised manuscript is prepared, you can upload it and submit it through yourAuthor Center. Procedure for respondingWhen submitting your revised manuscript, you will be able to respond to the comments made by thereviewer(s) in the space provided. You can use this space to document any changes you make to the originalmanuscript. In order to expedite the processing of the revised manuscript, please be as specific as possible inyour response to the reviewer(s).IMPORTANT: Your original files are available to you when you upload your revised manuscript. Please deleteany redundant files before completing the submission. Due date for resubmissionBecause we are trying to facilitate timely publication of manuscripts submitted to the Surgical Endoscopy, yourrevised manuscript should be uploaded by August 31, 2012. If it is not possible for you to submit your revisionin a reasonable amount of time, we may have to consider your paper as a new submission.Once again, thank you for submitting your manuscript to Surgical Endoscopy and I look forward to receivingyour revision.
Peer Review Revision Conduct additional experiments and analyses as suggested If this is impossible, you must explain why You can disagree with reviewers, but provide evidence (cite references)
Peer Review Revision Polite & Respond to every professional comment Revision Refer to line and page numbersEasy to see Use a different color font changes Highlight the text
Peer Review Writing a response letterJohn G. HunterEditor-in-ChiefWorld Journal of Surgery Address editor personally16 August 2012 Manuscript ID numberDear Dr. Hunter, Thank reviewersRe: Resubmission of manuscript reference No. WJS-07-5739Please find attached a revised version of our manuscript originally entitled “Long-term outcomes following right-lobe living donor liver transplantation,” which we would like to resubmit for consideration for publication in WorldJournal of Surgery.The reviewer’s comments were highly insightful and enabled us to greatly improve the quality of our manuscript. Inthe following pages are our point-by-point responses to each of the comments.Revisions in the manuscript are shown as underlined text. In accordance with the first comment, the title has beenrevised and the entire manuscript has undergone substantial English editing.We hope that the revisions in the manuscript and our accompanying responses will be sufficient to make ourmanuscript suitable for publication in World Journal of Surgery. Highlight major changes
Peer Review Point-by-point responseReviewer comment 1: There are many typosand complicated phrases. This manuscriptshould be corrected by a native English speakerbefore resubmission.Response: Thank you for your comment. Theentire manuscript has undergone English editingby a native speaker.
Peer Review Understanding reviewer comments “The English needs to be improved” “Your writing is difficult to understand” Grammar and spelling Long, complex sentences and paragraphs Gaps in the logic Poor manuscript organization Too much information
Peer Review Point-by-point responseReviewer comment 2: This is an interestingdiscussion providing valuable data examiningthe long-term outcomes after living donor livertransplantation.Response: Thank you. We appreciate your kindcomment.
Peer Review Point-by-point responseReviewer comment 3: Some additional background onthe grafting technique used is required in theIntroduction. What are the advantages anddisadvantages of this technique?Response: In accordance with your suggestion, we haveadded a discussion on the advantages anddisadvantages of the grafting technique used in theIntroduction section of the revised manuscript (p4, lines7–13).
Peer Review Incorporating your response…The technique used for grafting the transplanted liver tothe recipient liver in this study is the conventional methodused at our institution, and in most living donortransplantation procedures currently being conducted .Right-lobe grafting is the preferred technique because itoffers a better position for surgery, has a decreasedchance of hepatic venous obstruction, and providesgreater hepatic mass than left-lobe grafting. However, thistechnique can be difficult for surgeons to master and caremust be taken when choosing the appropriate plane oftransection to avoid graft congestion .
Peer Review Point-by-point responseReviewer comment 4: Of the techniques you describe, isthere a difference in outcomes between their use in youngpatients vs older patients?Response: Because only a small number of surgeries usingeither technique have been performed to date, it is not yetclear whether there is a difference in preferred techniquebased on the age of the patient. However, we have outlinedour reasons why we consider right-lobe grafting to besuperior for all ages in the Discussion section of the revisedmanuscript (p11, lines 12–21).
Peer Review Incorporating your response…As explained above, we chose to examine the long-termoutcomes using right-lobe grafting as it provides manyanatomical advantages when performing the transplant.Because of the small number of surgeries performedworldwide to date, it is not yet clear whether right-or left-lobe grafting has a particular advantage based on the ageof the patient. However, based on the long-term outcomeresults shown here, we consider that there is strongsupport for the primary use of right-lobe grafting in livedonor liver transplantation for patients of all ages.
Peer Review “Hidden” questions“The authors hypothesized to look for the pharmacokinetics ofthe insulin using this 4 mm needle; However they didnt dobioequivalence analyses for glucose pharmacodynamics. Thatis one of my concerns about this methodology.” Questions from reviewers may not always be apparent Cosmetic changes
Coverage and Publish Faster Staffing Plan What happens next? Second round of review? Manuscript re-submittedEditor assigned: Manuscript Reviewers peer review or sent to original evaluate: accept, Additional acceptance reviewers reject or revise revisions Acceptance!
Coverage andPublish Faster Staffing Plan Publishing timeline 3–12 months … Why so long? Manuscript type Availability of peer reviewers Fast tracking Number of revisions Other?
Coverage and Publish Faster Staffing Plan Speed up the process Updatereferences Manuscript Peer Editor review Cover letter List reviewers Revised Accepted Manuscript Editor Manuscript Point-by-point response letter
Coverage and Final StepsStaffing Plan Checklist for acceptance Clear, concise, accurate writing Descriptive, stand-alone Abstract Compliance with Instructions for Authors Cover letter Suggest peer reviewers Suggest potential editors Declare conflicts of interests
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