Acoe 2010 presentation


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Acoe 2010 presentation

  1. 1. How to write a manuscript Get your paper accepted Asian Conference on Organic Electronics Seoul National University Daniel Broaddus, PhD Senior Editor and Trainer, Edanz Group November 5, 2010
  2. 2. Presentation  Introduction  Section One: Preparations before writing  Section Two: Manuscript structure  Section Three: Tips for successful publishing Edanz Group | 2
  3. 3.  To share your research findings and opinions with the international research community  To better your understanding of your own findings, by explaining them to outside researchers  To create a full review of a field, so that the acquired knowledge it represents can be more easily taught to a new generation of scientists Edanz Group | 3 Why publish?
  4. 4. Increased competition Edanz Group | 4 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 Growth (%) Year Journal numbers Journal submissions Relative growth from 1990
  5. 5.  How to identify hot topics  Study design  What do journal editors want?  How reviewers assess manuscripts  Choosing an appropriate journal  Ethical issues Edanz Group | 5 Section One Preparations before writing
  6. 6. Look for clues— unexplained findings, controversies Read the literature, including related fields Attend international meetings Greater interest = Greater competition Identify your advantages and use them How to identify hot topics Edanz Group | 6
  7. 7.  Have an hypothesis or research question  Use appropriate methods and controls  Ensure sample sizes are large enough  Use appropriate statistical tests  Remove investigator/researcher bias  Comply with ethical requirements Study design Get it right first time Edanz Group | 7
  8. 8. Good quality science  Positive peer review outcome  Well designed and executed original research  Findings of interest to the journal’s readership  Work in an active research area (=citations!)  Work that advances the field in some way  Compliance with ethical regulations  Clear, concise writing Edanz Group | 8 What do journal editors want?
  9. 9. Is the manuscript sufficiently novel? Is the manuscript of broad enough interest? Reviewers What do they look for? Edanz Group | 9 Novelty Significance Aims and Scope Impact Factor
  10. 10. Reviewers About the manuscript Edanz Group | 10 Are the rationale and objectives defined? Is enough background given to understand the rationale? Could a capable researcher reproduce the experiments? Are the results clearly explained and in the best format? Are the findings described in context? Are the limitations discussed? Are the conclusions supported? Is the literature cited appropriate?
  11. 11.  Can be the difference between success and rejection  What is the main focus of your research and who will be interested in it?  What are its strengths and weaknesses?  How significant are your findings?  Are your findings preliminary or are they sufficient to make a story?  How widely will your research appeal? To researchers in the same field or to the broader scientific community? Journal Selection Edanz Group | 11
  12. 12. Edanz Group | 12 Journal Selection what are the differences?
  13. 13. Edanz Group | 13
  14. 14. Unethical behavior could lead to rejection and a possible ban from a target journal. Multiple submissions Referees often review for similar journals Redundant publications Plagiarism Data fabrication and falsification Improper author contribution Publication ethics Edanz Group | 14
  15. 15.  The ‘ Yin’ and ‘Yang’  Title  Abstract and keywords  Introduction  Materials and Methods  Results and Discussion  Display items  Conclusions  References Section Two Manuscript structure Edanz Group | 15
  16. 16. The Yin and Yang Edanz Group | 16 Writing Reading
  17. 17. The Taegeukgi 태극기 Edanz Group | 17
  18. 18. The Taegeukgi 태극기 Edanz Group | 18 Introduction Methods Writing Reading Background Title Design Abstract Results and Discussion Journal Selection Feedback Peer Review
  19. 19. Hook to catch readers Relevant readers increase citations Journal editors like citations Everybody likes citations Edanz Group | 19 The importance of your title Introduces your manuscript to the editor Physics Manuscript World Class
  20. 20.  Convey the main findings of the research  Be specific and concise without focusing on only one part of the content  Avoid jargon, non-standard abbreviations and unnecessary detail  Comply with character limits  Try writing three titles and picking the best A good title Edanz Group| 20
  21. 21. Poor  Generation of few-cycle optical pulses at high-glass- transmission wavelengths using a low-cost Er3+- amplified carbon nanotube laser system via two-stage broadening and compression for research and applications in high-speed telecommunications, Part I: System design Good  Generation of few-cycle optical pulses at telecom wavelengths via a low-cost carbon nanotube laser system Edanz Group | 21 A good title Short and easy to understand contents
  22. 22. Many researchers will only read the abstract so must be able to ‘stand alone’ Must give an accurate summary of your research, and enough information so that readers can understand: What you did Why you did it What your findings are Why your findings are useful and important Edanz Group | 22 Abstract
  23. 23. General rules for abstracts:  Within the word limit  Avoid technical jargon  Avoid abbreviations unless necessary  Avoid references  Should the abstract be structured? Always consult the target journal’s Guide for Authors to determine allowable length, style and abbreviations Edanz Group | 23 Abstract
  24. 24.  Abstracts are often followed by a list of keywords selected by the authors.  Choosing appropriate keywords is important for indexing purposes.  Your manuscript can more easily identified, read and cited.  Keywords should be specific to your manuscript  General terms should be avoided. Edanz Group | 24 Keywords
  25. 25. Manuscript title: Direct observation of nonlinear optics in a isolated carbon nanotube Poor keywords: molecule, optics, lasers, energy lifetime Better keywords: Single-molecule interaction, Kerr effect, carbon nanotubes, energy level structure Edanz Group | 25 Keywords Too general
  26. 26.  Briefly present research question and/or hypotheses and how they were addressed  Give the reader enough background information to put your work into context  Do not write a comprehensive literature review of the field  Do cite reviews that readers can refer to if they want more information Edanz Group | 26 Introduction
  27. 27.  Define technical and non-familiar terms  Present “the problem”, research question and/or hypotheses to explain the rationale for the study  Briefly explain how you addressed this problem and what was achieved (1–2 sentences for each)  Citations must be balanced, current and relevant Edanz Group | 27 Introduction
  28. 28. Recent implementations [of temporal-imaging systems] based on a four- wave mixing (FWM) time-lens require synchronized pump and signal pulses. The demand for ultrafast-pulse characterization and waveform-generation techniques has driven research for high-bandwidth characterization systems. This has led to the development of temporal-imaging and dispersion-based techniques that exploit the space-time duality of electromagnetic fields. This is achieved by extracting the pump and the signal from the same source by spectral filtering. Conversely, using a separate mode-locked fiber laser would provide the necessary bandwidth for ultrafast temporal imaging, but would require repetition-rate locking using a feedback loop to achieve synchronous operation. Ultimately, either of these schemes is restricted by the types of signal that can be measured. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a system in which high bandwidth pump pulses can be produced on-demand via a simple external trigger. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a fully-triggerable temporal- imaging system. We base our system on a time-lens-compressed picosecond pulse source. The output of the pulsed time-lens source is then spectrally broadened in non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber through self-phase modulation (SPM), which provides the pulses with sufficient bandwidth for ultrafast temporal imaging with high temporal resolution. We… Edanz Group | 28 Temporal-imaging system with simple external-clock triggering D. H. Broaddus, M. A. Foster, O. Kuzucu, A. C. Turner-Foster, K. W. Koch, M Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta © 2010 Optical Society of America Statement of the problem Background Rationale What was done
  29. 29.  Clear subheadings for methods/materials  Describe methods in the past tense  Novel methods must be described in sufficient detail for a capable researcher to reproduce the experiment  Give manufacturers/suppliers and their locations  Describe any statistical tests used  Established methods can be referenced Edanz Group | 29 Materials and methods What you did
  30. 30. Edanz Group | 30 3. Experiment In order to create a suitable, triggerable pump pulse, we used a time-lens-compressed picosecond-pulse source [20,21,26]. Unlike conventional ultrafast laser sources, the time-lens source derives its repetition rate from an input RF signal rather than an oscillator cavity. This makes the source ideal for synchronization, since the laser can be synchronized to a clock signal from any source as its input. While it is true that this system can not be driven at an arbitrarily low repetition rate, a harmonic between 5–10 GHz that will allow for optimal operation of the system while still providing a synchronized pump pulse for every signal pulse can be selected. At repetition rates above 10 GHz, electronic filtering can be used to generate a suitable drive signal from the input clock. We obtained the clock signal from a… 3.2. Operation Achieving fine resolution and long record lengths in temporal imaging systems requires sufficiently high pump bandwidth. At the output of the time-lens source, the pulses had a bandwidth of 1 nm centered at 1546 nm. To increase the bandwidth, we added a spectral broadening stage to the pump source after the time-lens compression stage. After passing the pulses through another EDFA, we sent them through 250 m of Corning Vascade LS+ fiber (Corning Inc., NY). The pulses underwent SPM and saw an increase in bandwidth from 1 nm to 100 nm. We filtered a spectrally flat off-center section of the output roughly 10 nm in bandwidth at 1559 nm to serve as the pump pulse. After the broadening stage, we noted a large amplitude noise at the output for high input intensities [27]. In order to maintain a suitable pump output, we limited the pulse energy at the input of the Corning Vascade LS+ fiber to 2 nJ. Materials described Reference to save space Clear subheadings Detailed information given Suppliers and locations © 2010 Optical Society of America Materials and methods
  31. 31.  Often results and discussion are combined to help assemble your findings in a logical order to ‘tell a story’  Present your findings in subsections (the same as those in your methods section)  Present complementary evidence when possible  Describe results in the past tense  Refer to figures and tables in the present tense  Discuss implications  Do not duplicate data among figures, tables and text  Show the results of statistical analyses in the text  Put findings in perspective Edanz Group | 31 Results and Discussion What did you find?
  32. 32. Edanz Group | 32 3. Results and discussion We characterized our system’s single-shot performance by temporally resolving the output of a bandpass filtered mode-locked fiber laser, and by varying the delay on the signal showing 1.5-ps resolution over a record length of 220 ps. In addition, we calculate magnification factor to be 113×. Figure 7 shows a composite oscilloscope trace showing the timing of the signal pulse as it is varied over the entire record length. Figure 8 shows a blow-up of a single signal pulse demonstrating the temporal resolution of the system. Limited only by the signal repetition rate and magnification factor, the single-shot record length could easily be increased to the full 530 ps by frequency de- multiplexing the output into three channels [30]… In addition, we characterized the small time-scale jitter over 2 s. The experimental configuration allowed for high frame rates, which provided the ability to characterize consecutive pulses [30]. We used this ability to analyze the timing of 77 consecutive pulses from the fiber laser utilizing the sync out for the fiber laser as a timing reference. We found that the root-mean-square (RMS) value of the timing jitter was 0.27 ps over a 2-s measurement period. The histogram in Fig. 8(b) showed the variation in pulse-to-pulse timing. The low RMS value of the jitter suggested that resolution could be further improved. We suspect that reducing phase aberrations from higher-order dispersion and the SPM broadening stage would likely yield the desired result. Graphics used to show data with only brief descriptions in text Present tense to refer to table © 2010 Optical Society of America Combined Results and Discussion section Past tense to describe results Results and Discussion
  33. 33.  Figures and tables are the best way to present your results  Data shown in figures and tables must be easy to interpret — use separate panels if necessary  Avoid redundancies or duplication  Clearly label all components  Show trendlines, scale bars and statistical significance  Captions must be able to ‘stand alone’: write them in the present tense (except when describing methods)  Comply with journal guidelines on display items Edanz Group | 33 Display items Tables and figures
  34. 34.  Some readers will only look at the figures and their legends Which of these is stand alone? Edanz Group | 34 Display items Tables and figures Fig. 1. Effective indices of As2Se3 microspheres, silicon nanowires, and silica nanowires. (a) Effective index vs. sphere diameter for fundamental TE (red) and TM (blue) modes in an As2Se3 microsphere. (b) Effective index vs. material index multiplied by cross sectional area of silicon (red) and silica (blue) waveguides. Fig. 1. Calculated effective index.
  35. 35. Edanz Group | 35 Display items Multi-panel: sets of related data shown in a single figure Complicated data separated into simpler components Axes clearly labeled Fig. 9. The fringe period decreases with increasing separation. (a) 0.5 nm separation with movie showing phase procession between the lasers (Media 1). We believe the non- sinusoidal shape of these peaks arises from soliton effect compression in the amplifier before the temporal imaging stage [31]. (b) 1.5 nm separation, and (c) 2.5 nm separation. (d) The phase slip between the two lasers, which are not phase-locked, washes out the fringes when averaged over multiple shots. Clear, ‘stand alone’ caption
  36. 36.  Restate key findings and their significance  Propose future studies that might follow on from your current study  Give the reader a ‘take-home’ message Edanz Group | 36 Conclusions
  37. 37. Be humble Don’t overstate the importance of your results Our findings prove that… Our findings show that… Our findings suggest that… Edanz Group | 37 Conclusions
  38. 38. Conclusion We demonstrated a completely triggerable temporal-imaging system. We characterized the system’s performance in both multi-shot and single-shot time-lens-based schemes. We showed 1.4 ps resolution with 530 ps record length using time-to-frequency conversion. We demonstrated 1.5-ps resolution and 220-ps record length in a single-shot temporal magnification system. We characterized the short-term timing jitter present between our pump and signal pulses and showed it to be 0.27 ps, which corresponds to 18% of the temporal resolution. This suggests that sub-picosecond resolution can be achieved in our system. Finally, we illustrated the ability to perform complex waveform measurements by resolving the interference fringes between two frequency-separated laser pulses. In addition to improving the resolution of the system, this system could be adapted to preform a combined phase and amplitude measurement. This would make the system more comparable with popular full-field characterization techniques such as FROG and SPIDER. Edanz Group | 38 Restate the question/problem Restate main findings Put in context of previous work Future research plans Use ‘suggests’ and ‘may’ © 2010 Optical Society of America Conclusions
  39. 39. Your chance to acknowledge anyone who has helped with the study: Individuals who’s contributions did not warrant authorship Any researchers that supplied materials or reagents Anyone who provided technical assistance Anyone who helped with the preparation of the manuscript or provided a critical assessment of it Funding bodies State why each individual is being acknowledged Edanz Group | 39 Acknowledgments
  40. 40.  Serve as your network to past and future science  Convey your knowledge of the field  Give credibility to your work  Acknowledge contributions to the field by others  Help other researchers find your work = more citations  Use a reference manager like Endnote or Zotero. Makes it easy to edit, reformat, add or remove references Edanz Group | 40 References
  41. 41.  Seminal work in your field (Papers that started the field)  All methods used  Physical phenomena discussed  Non-commercial materials used  Conflicting works  Outside areas  Applications! Edanz Group | 41 References
  42. 42. Your cover letter Recommending reviewers Language Good writing Submission Post-referee revisions Summary Language Workshop Section Three Tips for getting accepted Edanz Group | 42
  43. 43. Cover letters Edanz Group | 43 Journal Editors receive hundreds of manuscripts each month They don’t have time to read each manuscript Society journal editors are especially busy, they are usually practicing researchers too Your cover Letter is an opportunity to get the journal editor’s attention
  44. 44. Cover letters Getting the Editor's Attention Edanz Group | 44 Summary of broader appeal Helps journal editors expand readership Highlights importance of research Clarifies context Brings in readers from outside fields Required for Nature journals Trying to explain your work to a broader audience help you understand it better Big questions Saving lives Science fiction Faster computing Cheaper, cleaner energy Popular science
  45. 45. Broader appeal Broader notice Edanz Group | 45 “Scientists Make Black Hole in Fiber Optic Cable: World Doesn't End” – “Scientists Make Fake Black Hole in a Phone Line” – Using an optical fiber and laser light, physicists have simulated a "white hole"-- essentially a black hole working in reverse--as they report on page 1367 of this week's issue of Science. The model might soon mimic the "Hawking radiation" predicted to emanate from black holes. Fiber-Optical Analog of the Event Horizon
  46. 46. General rules for cover letters:  Address to the editor personally  Begin by giving your manuscript title and publication type  Give a brief background, rationale and description of results  Explain why your findings are important and why they would be of interest to the journal’s target audience  Consult the journal’s Guide for Authors for cover letter requirements (e.g., disclosures, statements, potential reviewers)  Give corresponding author details Your cover letter Edanz Group | 46
  47. 47. Recommend  Your work supports their hypotheses and ideas  Your research builds on their work  International collaborators in the same field Exclude  Researchers working on the same research question  Your study refutes their work  The findings in your manuscript are opposite to their findings or ideas Reviewers Recommendations and exclusions Edanz Group | 47
  48. 48. Introduction of language screening protocols to check submissions  Editors don’t want to send poorly written manuscripts for peer review  Editors receive enough well written submissions to reject poorly written manuscripts Language screening Edanz Group | 48
  49. 49. Language Edanz Group | 49 Some journals are very clear about the need for high language quality in all of their articles… ACS Nano Editorial Rejecting without Review: The Whys the Hows Language: If the writing is unclear or rife with grammatical errors, then we cannot send it out for review under any circumstances… …If your manuscript looks sloppy, then everyone will assume that your science is equally sloppy.
  50. 50. Clarity Conciseness Correctness (accuracy) Good scientific writing possesses the following three “C”s: Key points: Be as brief as possible without omitting essential details Be as specific as possible Scientific writing Edanz Group | 50
  51. 51. Avoid: Spelling and grammatical errors Insufficient detail/vagueness Redundancy Ambiguity Inconsistency They annoy editors, peer reviewers, and readers Scientific writing Common problems Edanz Group | 51
  52. 52. Use simple language: it is often clearer, more precise and more concise than using more complex language Simple Sentence Structure! Say what you mean in as few words as possible Avoid circular sentences, redundancies and repetition One sentence: one idea Simple is best Edanz Group | 52
  53. 53.  Critically self-evaluate—could anything be done better?  Double-check the Guide for Authors  Are all files in the correct file format and of the appropriate resolution or size?  Is your spelling/grammar correct?  Do you have contact information for all authors?  Have you completed online registration?  Or have you prepared the requested number of print copies plus CD?  Have you written a persuasive cover letter? Submission Final checks Edanz Group | 53
  54. 54. Only 1.5% of papers are immediately accepted without need for any revisions Journal editor decision Complete rejection Acceptance Rejection with major revisions Rejection with minor revisions Revisions Post-referee revisions Edanz Group | 54
  55. 55. Rejection from journals is an important part of the publication process It is not a negative experience It exists to ensure that your paper is as scientifically correct and complete as possible before joining the ‘collective knowledge’ as part of the literature Revisions Post-referee revisions Edanz Group | 55
  56. 56. Revisions Post-referee revisions Edanz Group | 56 When revising your manuscript: Address all points raised by the editor and/or reviewers Describe the revisions in your response letter Perform any additional experiments or analyses requested (unless you feel that they would not add to the strength of your paper: explain why not in your response letter) Provide a polite and scientific rebuttal to any points or comments you disagree with Differentiate comments and responses in your letter Clearly show the major revisions in the text Return revised manuscript and response letter within the requested time period
  57. 57.  Compliance with ethics guidelines  Novel and interesting results  Clear, concise, accurate writing  Compliance with the Guide for Authors  Significance of findings explained  Appropriate choice of journal Summary Checklist for acceptance
  58. 58. Thank you, from all of us! Special thanks to: Professor Kim Professor Adachi
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