Author Academy:Steps to Publication Success    De La Salle University       1 March 2013                             Jeff ...
About Jeff…                         Researcher                           Teacher                           Mentor         ...
Today’s presentation … Reading strategies Abstracts Manuscript structure Increasing readability
Section 1Reading Strategies
Reading Strategies                Reading improves                                  manuscript writing                    ...
Reading Strategies                     Make time to read         Most researchers read 60–90 min per day      Spend 20–30 ...
Reading Strategies                     How to read an article                 From                        Section         ...
Reading Strategies                     Strategies for reading               Read Title and Abstract first             Self...
Section 2Abstracts
Abstracts                 Important points   Relevance of       Importance of    Validity of your    your aims          yo...
Abstracts   General GuideBackground     Why the study was done (20%)   Aims            Your hypothesis (10%) Methods      ...
Abstracts                                           Structured abstract –                                            medic...
Abstracts                                           Structured abstract –                                            medic...
Abstracts                    Unstructured abstract                Differential DNA Methylation Status Between Human       ...
Abstracts                      Unstructured abstractObesity is a multifactorial disease resulting from interactions betwee...
Abstracts                 Writing your abstractObesity is a multifactorial disease resulting from interactions between sus...
Abstracts References                Abbreviations                Don’t              include…                           Non...
Abstracts                                            Do not include a lot of                                            nu...
Abstracts                  Graphical Abstracts Composite of RhyCr2‒yO3/(Ga1‒xZnx) (N1‒xOx) photocatalysts with hydrophobic...
Abstracts             Graphical AbstractsComposite of RhyCr2‒yO3/(Ga1‒xZnx) (N1‒xOx) photocatalysts with hydrophobic  poly...
Section 3Manuscript Structure
Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan  structure      Telling a story  Beginning      ‘tell them what you did and why’  Mid...
Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan  structure     IMRaD          Abstract          Introduction   The beginning         ...
Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan  structure     The ‘write’ order Methods Results        During your research FiguresI...
Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan  structure      Introduction      Sufficient background information         Current s...
Coverage and Manuscript        New biocompatibleStaffing Plan  structure                 material for osteoporosis        ...
Coverage and    Manuscript   Staffing Plan     structure          Methods Multiple methods =      New methods         Esta...
Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan  structure                Results                                         Each subsec...
Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan  structure       Display items Present large amount                                  ...
Coverage and      Manuscript                                 What’s wrong with     Staffing Plan       structure          ...
Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan  structure     Figures                                               Clear figure leg...
Coverage and     Manuscript    Staffing Plan      structure     TablesClear and concise  table captionData aligned and    ...
Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan  structure     Discussion                     Summarize key findingsBeginning        ...
Section 4Increasing Readability    Correct   Readable English
Readability                    Readability                  Your reader should…                   Only have to read once  ...
Readability                       Language requirements• Journals are clear regarding their English  requirements         ...
ReadabilityThe largest company, a Japanese corporation founded in1916 outside of Osaka by Takahiro Tanaka, wasconsidered t...
Readability                 1. Verb placement• Readers expect verbs to closely follow subjects                  Subject   ...
Readability                     Verb placement• Readers become confused when subject and  verb are separated by too much c...
Readability                                 Avoid reader confusionThe smallest ORF, a 105-nucleotide reading frame found i...
Readability                2. Active voice                 Subject                           Verb              Active• Sen...
Readability                         3. Stress position• Readers focus on information at the end of a  sentence.           ...
Readability                         Stress position• Cell attachment increased on UV-O3-treated silicone.• Cell attachment...
Readability                       4. Topic position• Readers expect a sentence/phrase to be a story  about whoever shows u...
Readability                           Topic position                             sentence             idea                ...
Readability      Increasing readability:                   5. Short sentences                 Reading once…4% of readers c...
Section 5Academic Publishing
Academic Publishing Customer Service              Why publish?                           Exchange ideas globally   Communi...
Academic Publishing Customer Service                                       People want to hear    International language  ...
Academic Publishing Customer Service                             The submission process                              Peer ...
Academic Publishing Customer Service                 Publication timeline                      Usually 3–12 months        ...
Academic Publishing Customer Service         Multiple                      Data fabrication                        Plagiar...
Section 6Journal selection
Journal Selection      Factors to consider                    Aims and scope                    Readership                ...
Journal Selection                    Choosing a target journal    Journal selection must be based on an    honest evaluati...
Journal Selection                    Evaluating significance:                            Novelty     How new are my result...
Journal Selection                    Evaluating significance:                          Relevance        How broadly releva...
Journal Selection                      Evaluating significance:                              Appeal  Area of popular      ...
Journal Selection   Journal selector                                  Insert your                                   propos...
Journal Selection   Journal selector                              Recommended                                 journals    ...
Journal Selection   Journal selector                               Refined                            recommended         ...
Journal Selection   Journal selector                              Semantic                            matching terms      ...
Journal Selection                    Visit journal websites
Section 7Cover Letters
Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan    Make it easy                        Is there a Cover Letter?                    ...
Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan       Significance                    Why your work        Relevance               ...
Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan   High quality research       Good design                        Original and novel...
Coverage and Cover Letters Staffing Plan              Bad example                             Not personal                ...
Coverage and             Manuscript            Staffing Plan              structure                                A good ...
Coverage and  Cover Letters  Staffing Plan Address editor       Manuscript title/       Background,  personally          P...
Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan     General rulesOriginal and       Not submitted      Authors agree onunpublished ...
Coverage andCover Letters            RecommendingStaffing Plan                           reviewers                   “Auth...
Coverage and Cover Letters   Recommending Staffing Plan                   reviewersWhere to find       From your reading/r...
Section 8Peer Review
Peer Review                              Improves your manuscript   Peer review is a positive process   Improves science  ...
Peer Review              The submission process               Peer reviewAuthor            Editor                         ...
Peer Review                                  Decision letter24-July-2012                               Manuscript ID numbe...
Peer Review                                        Decision letter                                                        ...
Peer Review                   Point-by-point                                       Respond to      Be polite              ...
Peer Review                                         Writing a response letterJohn G. HunterEditor-in-ChiefWorld Journal of...
Peer Review                         AgreementReviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosento use a somewh...
Peer Review                        DisagreementReviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosento use a some...
Peer Review                      “Hidden” questionsReviewer comment: The authors hypothesized to look for thepharmacokinet...
Section 9Avoiding Rejection
Avoiding Rejection                      The research                                Current state of the field   Relevant ...
Avoiding Rejection                      The manuscriptJournal requirements                      Citations                 ...
Avoiding Rejection                     The manuscript                Clearly state your aims               Why did you do ...
Avoiding Rejection                     The manuscript                     Meet journal                     requirements   ...
Avoiding Rejection   Reasons for rejection:                        the manuscript                 Appropriate journal     ...
Avoiding Rejection      Reasons for rejection:                           the manuscript                            Citatio...
Avoiding Rejection   Reasons for rejection:                        the manuscript                     Write clearly       ...
Avoiding Rejection    Reasons for rejection:                         the manuscript                     Appropriate data  ...
Avoiding Rejection    Rejection letter from NeuroRehabilitation…judged to be unsuitable for publication in NeuroRehabilita...
Any questions?          Thank you!edanzediting.com/workshops/sea/manila_03_01        Download and further reading         ...
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130301 Edanz De La Salle

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130301 Edanz De La Salle

  1. 1. Author Academy:Steps to Publication Success De La Salle University 1 March 2013 Jeff Robens, PhD Senior Editor
  2. 2. About Jeff… Researcher Teacher Mentor Author Peer reviewer Senior Editor
  3. 3. Today’s presentation … Reading strategies Abstracts Manuscript structure Increasing readability
  4. 4. Section 1Reading Strategies
  5. 5. Reading Strategies Reading improves manuscript writing Read often! Learn how native Learn manuscript Article and journal English speakers write structure and style quality Learn proper Get new ideas, argument structure identify knowledge gaps Discuss with colleagues
  6. 6. Reading Strategies Make time to read Most researchers read 60–90 min per day Spend 20–30 min every day reading abstracts Spend 60 min 2 or 3 days a week reading papers Join a journal club
  7. 7. Reading Strategies How to read an article From Section start to by finish? section? Not efficient! What do you Where can you want to know? find it?
  8. 8. Reading Strategies Strategies for reading Read Title and Abstract first Self-assess knowledge of topic Read last paragraph of introduction for hypothesis/objectives Read Figures and then Results Read Discussion for interpretation Refer to Introduction and Methods if necessary
  9. 9. Section 2Abstracts
  10. 10. Abstracts Important points Relevance of Importance of Validity of your your aims your results conclusions First impression of your paper Judge your Probably only part writing style that will be read
  11. 11. Abstracts General GuideBackground Why the study was done (20%) Aims Your hypothesis (10%) Methods Techniques (10%) Results Most important findings (40%)Conclusion Conclusion & implications (20%)
  12. 12. Abstracts Structured abstract – medical and clinicalImmunotherapy using slow-cycling tumor cells prolonged overall survival of tumor-bearing miceBackgroundDespite considerable progress in the development of anticancer therapies, there is still a high mortality rate caused by cancerrelapse and metastasis. Dormant or slow-cycling residual tumor cells are thought to be a source of tumor relapse and metastasis,and are therefore an obstacle to therapy. In this study, we assessed the drug resistance of tumor cells in mice, and investigatedwhether vaccination could promote survival.MethodsThe mouse colon carcinoma cell line CT-26 was treated with 5-fluorouracil to assess its sensitivity to drug treatment. Mice withcolon tumors were immunized with inactivated slow-cycling CT-26 cells to estimate the efficacy of this vaccine.ResultsWe identified a small population of slow-cycling tumor cells in the mouse colon carcinoma CT-26 cell line, which was resistant toconventional chemotherapy. To inhibit tumor recurrence and metastasis more effectively, treatments that selectively target theslow-cycling tumor cells should be developed to complement conventional therapies. We found that drug-treated, slow-cyclingtumor cells induced a more intense immune response in vitro. Moreover, vaccination with inactivated slow-cycling tumor cellscaused a reduction in tumor volume and prolonged the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that targeting of slow-cycling tumor cells application using immunotherapy is a possible treatment tocomplement traditional antitumor therapy. Sun et al. (2012). BMC Medicine 10:172.
  13. 13. Abstracts Structured abstract – medical and clinicalImmunotherapy using slow-cycling tumor cells prolonged overall survival of tumor-bearing miceBackgroundDespite considerable progress in the development of anticancer therapies, there is still a high mortality rate caused by cancerrelapse and metastasis. Dormant or slow-cycling residual tumor cells are thought to be a source of tumor relapse and metastasis,and are therefore an obstacle to therapy. In this study, we assessed the drug resistance of tumor cells in mice, and investigatedwhether vaccination could promote survival.MethodsThe mouse colon carcinoma cell line CT-26 was treated with 5-fluorouracil to assess its sensitivity to drug treatment. Mice withcolon tumors were immunized with inactivated slow-cycling CT-26 cells to estimate the efficacy of this vaccine.ResultsWe identified a small population of slow-cycling tumor cells in the mouse colon carcinoma CT-26 cell line, which was resistant toconventional chemotherapy. To inhibit tumor recurrence and metastasis more effectively, treatments that selectively target theslow-cycling tumor cells should be developed to complement conventional therapies. We found that drug-treated, slow-cyclingtumor cells induced a more intense immune response in vitro. Moreover, vaccination with inactivated slow-cycling tumor cellscaused a reduction in tumor volume and prolonged the overall survival of tumor-bearing mice.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that targeting of slow-cycling tumor cells application using immunotherapy is a possible treatment tocomplement traditional antitumor therapy. Sun et al. (2012). BMC Medicine 10:172.
  14. 14. Abstracts Unstructured abstract Differential DNA Methylation Status Between Human Preadipocytes and Mature Adipocytes Obesity is a multifactorial disease resulting from interactions between susceptibility genes, psychosocial, and environmental factors. However, it is becoming evident that interindividual differences in obesity susceptibility depend also on epigenetic factors, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We have undertaken a genome- wide analysis of DNA methylation of human preadipocytes and mature adipocytes to examine the differences in methylation between them. We found hypomethylation occurring in 2,701 genes and hypermethylation in 1,070 genes after differentiation. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed many significant gene functions and pathways with altered methylation status after adipocyte differentiation. In addition, Signal-Net analysis showed that tumor necrosis factor-α, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and interleukin-8 were important to the formation of this network. Our results suggest that DNA methylation mechanisms may be involved in regulating the differentiation process of human preadipocytes. Zhu et al. (2012) Cell Biochem Biophys 63:1‒15.
  15. 15. Abstracts Unstructured abstractObesity is a multifactorial disease resulting from interactions between susceptibility genes,psychosocial, and environmental factors. However, it is becoming evident thatinterindividual differences in obesity susceptibility depend also on epigenetic factors, Backgroundalthough the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.We have undertaken a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of human preadipocytesand mature adipocytes to examine the differences in methylation between them. MethodsWe found hypomethylation occurring in 2,701 genes and hypermethylation in 1,070 genesafter differentiation. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysisshowed many significant gene functions and pathways with altered methylation status afteradipocyte differentiation. In addition, Signal-Net analysis showed that tumor necrosis Resultsfactor-α, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and interleukin-8 were important to theformation of this network.Our results suggest that DNA methylation mechanisms may be involved in regulating thedifferentiation process of human preadipocytes. Conclusion Zhu et al. (2012) Cell Biochem Biophys 63:1‒15.
  16. 16. Abstracts Writing your abstractObesity is a multifactorial disease resulting from interactions between susceptibilitygenes, psychosocial, and environmental factors. However, it is becoming evident thatinterindividual differences in obesity susceptibility depend also on epigenetic factors,although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We have undertaken agenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation of human preadipocytes and matureadipocytes to examine the differences in methylation between them. We foundhypomethylation occurring in 2,701 genes and hypermethylation in 1,070 genes afterdifferentiation. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysisshowed many significant gene functions and pathways with altered methylation statusafter adipocyte differentiation. In addition, Signal-Net analysis showed that tumornecrosis factor-α, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and interleukin-8 were important tothe formation of this network. Our results suggest that DNA methylation mechanismsmay be involved in regulating the differentiation process of human preadipocytes. Zhu et al. (2012) Cell Biochem Biophys 63:1‒15.
  17. 17. Abstracts References Abbreviations Don’t include… Non-essential Jargon numbers & statistics
  18. 18. Abstracts Do not include a lot of numbers and statistics The effect of high vacuum on the mechanical properties and bioactivity of collagen fibril matricesResults The cell area histogram and mean cell areas for the HV-treated fibril matrices (2030 μm2 ± 137 μm2) are comparable to the cell areas of untreated fibril matrices measured here (2165 μm2 ± 206 μm2) and elsewhere... Cells on LV- treated fibril matrices have larger average surface areas (3450 μm2 ± 175 μm2) than the control untreated matrices, and their spread areas are more similar to that of cells plated on dehydrated fibrils (average cell area of 4348 μm2 ± 287 μm2). Summarize and simplify your results The modulus results for the first analysis reveal that HV treatment of the fibrils leads to a small, but statically significant (p < 0.0001), increase in mechanical rigidity of the fibril matrices. Untreated matrices had a modulus of 8.1 kPa ± 2.2 kPa and HV-treated matrices had a modulus of 13.1 kPa ± 3.8 kPa. However, the HV-treated matrices are approximately a factor of three more compliant than the dehydrated fibril matrices (35.4 kPa ± 4.9 kPa). The modulus results for the second analysis (Table 2) indicate that LV-treated fibril matrices (34.7 kPa ± 3.7 kPa) are nearly as mechanically stiff (p= 0.20) as the dehydrated matrices (36.4 kPa ± 4.2 kPa), and are considerably less compliant than the untreated matrices (11.2 kPa ± 3.7 kPa) in this experiment.Abstract We find that HV exposure has an unappreciable affect on the cell spreading response and mechanical properties of these collagen fibril matrices. Conversely, low vacuum environments cause fibrils to become mechanically rigid as indicated by force microscopy, resulting in greater cell spreading. Anderton et al. (2013) Biointerfaces 8:2.
  19. 19. Abstracts Graphical Abstracts Composite of RhyCr2‒yO3/(Ga1‒xZnx) (N1‒xOx) photocatalysts with hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes for the fabrication of novel reaction sites for water vapor splitting under visible lightRh y Cr2−y O3/(Ga1−x Zn x )(N1−x O x ) photocatalysts immobilized in polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) membranes has been investigated for the design of novel reaction sites. In the caseof hydrophobic PTFE membranes, the Rh y Cr2−y O3/(Ga1−x Zn x )(N1−x O x ) photocatalystsimultaneously evolved both H2 and O2, even from an aqueous AgNO3 solution as sacrificialreagent. This indicates that water vapor was split into H2 and O2 by the Rh y Cr2−y O3/(Ga1−xZn x )(N1−x O x ) photocatalyst particles in the hydrophobic pores of PTFE. Isogai et al. (2013) Catalysis Letters 143:150‒153.
  20. 20. Abstracts Graphical AbstractsComposite of RhyCr2‒yO3/(Ga1‒xZnx) (N1‒xOx) photocatalysts with hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes for the fabrication of novel reaction sites for water vapor splitting under visible light Isogai et al. (2013) Catalysis Letters 143:150‒153.
  21. 21. Section 3Manuscript Structure
  22. 22. Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan structure Telling a story Beginning ‘tell them what you did and why’ Middle ‘tell them how you did it and what you found’ End ‘tell them what you did and what it means’.
  23. 23. Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan structure IMRaD Abstract Introduction The beginning Methods The middle Results and Discussion The end
  24. 24. Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan structure The ‘write’ order Methods Results During your research FiguresIntroduction Discussion After selecting target journal References Title Abstract Write last
  25. 25. Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan structure Introduction Sufficient background information Current state of the field Identify knowledge gaps/problems Puts your work into context General Aims Specific
  26. 26. Coverage and Manuscript New biocompatibleStaffing Plan structure material for osteoporosis Osteoporosis Diagnosis Drug treatments Bioengineering Design Technique Material
  27. 27. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure Methods Multiple methods = New methods Established methodsseparate subheadings described in detail can be referenced What you did Materials General techniques Method order Specific techniques Statistics
  28. 28. Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan structure Results Each subsection Order of results is corresponds to one logical, tells a story figure What you found Avoid data duplication Factually describe among figures, tables, your results and text
  29. 29. Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan structure Display items Present large amount Usually the first thing of data quickly and readers will look at efficiently Figures, graphs & tables Keep it simple: use Must be able to stand separate panels if alone: clear labels necessary and figure legends
  30. 30. Coverage and Manuscript What’s wrong with Staffing Plan structure this figure? Unclear labels Poorly drawn indicatorsUnclear figure legend Figure 1 AHLE demonstrating distorted brachial artery and classical vessel proliferation. Kukreja et al. BMJ Case Rep. 2011;doi:10.1136/bcr.02.2011.3836.
  31. 31. Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan structure Figures Clear figure legend Kindlin-2 knockdown and focal adhesion localization. A. Confocal immunofluorescent microscopy with anti- β1 integrin (green) and anti-paxillin (red) on C2C12 cells transfected with RNAi and then changed to differentiation media for 2 days. Control cells (scr RNAi) show linear staining consistent with localization to costameres (arrows), as well as punctate focal contact staining (arrowheads). Conversely, focal contact proteins in the kindlin-2 RNAi cells fail to form linear structures and instead are concentrated in unusual appearing puncta (*). (Scale bar = 20 μM). Clear indicators Scale bars Dowling et al. (2008) BMC Cell Biol 9:36.
  32. 32. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure TablesClear and concise table captionData aligned and Abbreviations formatted defined Muñoz et al. New Engl J Med. 2003;348:518−527.
  33. 33. Coverage and ManuscriptStaffing Plan structure Discussion Summarize key findingsBeginning State major conclusion Interpret results in context Middle of other studies Describe limitations Restate major conclusion End Applications/implications Suggest future work
  34. 34. Section 4Increasing Readability Correct Readable English
  35. 35. Readability Readability Your reader should… Only have to read once Not have to read slowly Understand your logic immediately
  36. 36. Readability Language requirements• Journals are clear regarding their English requirements Brain Structure & Function Language: Manuscripts will be checked by our copyeditors for spelling and formal style. Clear and concise language will help editors and reviewers concentrate on the scientific content of your paper and thus smooth the peer review process.
  37. 37. ReadabilityThe largest company, a Japanese corporation founded in1916 outside of Osaka by Takahiro Tanaka, wasconsidered to be a model in the development of modernemployee conditions by economists.
  38. 38. Readability 1. Verb placement• Readers expect verbs to closely follow subjects Subject Sentence Verb Verb
  39. 39. Readability Verb placement• Readers become confused when subject and verb are separated by too much contentThe smallest ORF, a 105-nucleotide reading frame foundin the third intron of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptorβ2 subunit gene, was found to be expressed in responseto long-term treatment with 1 µM cytochalasin D.
  40. 40. Readability Avoid reader confusionThe smallest ORF, a 105-nucleotide reading frame found in the third intron of the nicotinicacetylcholine receptor β2 subunit gene, was found to be expressed in response to long-termtreatment with 1 µM cytochalasin D.The smallest ORF was found to be expressed in response to long-term treatment with 1 μM cytochalasin D. This ORF is a 105-nucleotide reading frame found in the third intron of the nicotinicacetylcholine receptor β2 subunit gene.We found the smallest ORF was expressed in response to long-term treatment with 1 μM cytochalasin D. This ORF…
  41. 41. Readability 2. Active voice Subject Verb Active• Sentences written in the active voice are: simple direct clear easy to read
  42. 42. Readability 3. Stress position• Readers focus on information at the end of a sentence. Subject Verb take-home information
  43. 43. Readability Stress position• Cell attachment increased on UV-O3-treated silicone.• Cell attachment increased on silicone after UV-O3 treatment.• UV-O3 treatment of silicone increased cell attachment.• Readers, without thinking, concentrate on the end of a sentence.
  44. 44. Readability 4. Topic position• Readers expect a sentence/phrase to be a story about whoever shows up first Subject Topic position Verb Stress position
  45. 45. Readability Topic position sentence idea idea idea idea Topic link• Linkage and contextCell death increased after injection into the chamber.Therefore, the flow rate was decreased to help minimizesheer stress. Cell viability significantly improved at a flowrate of o.1 μl/min.
  46. 46. Readability Increasing readability: 5. Short sentences Reading once…4% of readers can understand a 27-word sentence75% of readers can understand a 17-word sentence Pinner and Pinner (1998) Communication Skills Goals to aim for: One idea per sentence 15–20 words per sentence
  47. 47. Section 5Academic Publishing
  48. 48. Academic Publishing Customer Service Why publish? Exchange ideas globally Communicate on a global stage One publication per year Your research is not complete until it is published
  49. 49. Academic Publishing Customer Service People want to hear International language from Asian of academics researchers Why English? International Career Funding reputation advancement
  50. 50. Academic Publishing Customer Service The submission process Peer review Results novel? Topic relevant? Author Editor Reject Revision New experiments Improve readability Accepted— Add information publication!
  51. 51. Academic Publishing Customer Service Publication timeline Usually 3–12 months Manuscript type Peer reviewer availability Will depend on: Fast tracking Number of revisions
  52. 52. Academic Publishing Customer Service Multiple Data fabrication Plagiarism submissions and falsification Publication ethics Author list: Conflicts of interest: Who can be an author? Financial First author? Personal Corresponding author? Intellectual
  53. 53. Section 6Journal selection
  54. 54. Journal Selection Factors to consider Aims and scope Readership Open access Publishing frequency Impact factor IF varies by fieldWhich factor is most important to you?
  55. 55. Journal Selection Choosing a target journal Journal selection must be based on an honest evaluation of your manuscript Significance Aims and Scope Impact
  56. 56. Journal Selection Evaluating significance: Novelty How new are my results compared with those already published? New findings Incremental Conceptual advances advances Low to medium Medium to high impact impact
  57. 57. Journal Selection Evaluating significance: Relevance How broadly relevant is my work? Population specific? Restricted to geographical Medical location? How common is the disease? Specific to cell-type or organism? Biology Relevant to human disease? How broadly applicable is the design?Engineering Is it cost-effective?
  58. 58. Journal Selection Evaluating significance: Appeal Area of popular Stem cells, tissue engineering, appeal global warming, artificial intelligence Important real Rice resistant to high salt conditions, world applications shrimp resistant to infection
  59. 59. Journal Selection Journal selector Insert your proposed abstract
  60. 60. Journal Selection Journal selector Recommended journals Filter by: Impact factor Publishing frequency Open access
  61. 61. Journal Selection Journal selector Refined recommended journals
  62. 62. Journal Selection Journal selector Semantic matching terms Journals IF, Aims & Scope, and Frequency Similar published articles
  63. 63. Journal Selection Visit journal websites
  64. 64. Section 7Cover Letters
  65. 65. Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan Make it easy Is there a Cover Letter? Are there reviewer recommendations? Is it easy to read? Inbox
  66. 66. Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan Significance Why your work Relevance is important! Cover letter: Abstract: First impression for journal editors First impression for readers Recommend Level of English reviewers?
  67. 67. Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan High quality research Good design Original and novel Well executed What do journal editors want? Interesting to Clear and concise journal’s readership English
  68. 68. Coverage and Cover Letters Staffing Plan Bad example Not personal No information about Dear Editor-in-Chief, the manuscript I am sending you our manuscript entitled “Techniques to detect entanglement in cats” by Schrodinger et al. We would like to have the manuscript considered for publication in Quantum Theory Frontiers. Please let me know of your decision at your earliest convenience.Too short Sincerely yours, Albert Einstein, PhD
  69. 69. Coverage and Manuscript Staffing Plan structure A good cover letterDear Dr Graeber,Please find enclosed our manuscript entitled “Amyloid-like inclusions in the brains of Huntington’s disease patients”, byMcGowan et al., which we would like to submit for publication as a Research Paper in Neurogenetics.Recent immunohistochemical studies have revealed the presence of neuronal inclusions containing an N-terminal portion ofthe mutant huntingtin protein and ubiquitin in the brain tissues of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients; however, the role of Give thethese inclusions in the disease process has remained unclear. One suspected disease-causing mechanism in Huntington’s background todisease and other polyglutamine disorders is the potential for the mutant protein to undergo a conformational change to a the researchmore stable anti-parallel β-sheet structure…To confirm if the immunohistochemically observed huntingtin- and ubiquitin-containing inclusions display amyloid features, weperformed Congo red staining and both polarizing and confocal microscopy on post-mortem human brain tissues obtained What wasfrom five HD patients, two AD patients, and two normal controls. Congo red staining revealed a small number of amyloid-likeinclusions showing green birefringence by polarized microscopy, in a variety of cortical regions.... ….detected inclusions done and whatobserved in parallel sections, suggesting that only a relatively small proportion of inclusions in HD adopt an amyloid-like was foundstructure.We believe our findings will be of particular interest to the readership of Neurogenetics, which includes researchers and Interest toclinicians studying the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we feel that your journal’s readersjournal provides the most suitable platform for the dissemination of our work to the research community.We would also like to suggest the following reviewers for our manuscript…
  70. 70. Coverage and Cover Letters Staffing Plan Address editor Manuscript title/ Background, personally Publication type rationale, results General rules Why are your Corresponding Reviewerfindings important? author details recommendations “Must-have” statements
  71. 71. Coverage andCover LettersStaffing Plan General rulesOriginal and Not submitted Authors agree onunpublished to other journals paper/journal “Must-have” statementsNo conflicts of Source of Authorship interest funding contributions
  72. 72. Coverage andCover Letters RecommendingStaffing Plan reviewers “Authors are requested to provide the names and full addresses (including e-mail address) of up to four potential referees…”“When submitting your paper, you must provide thenames, affiliations, and valid e-mail addresses of five (5)reviewers. If you do not do so, your paper will bereturned, unreviewed.”
  73. 73. Coverage and Cover Letters Recommending Staffing Plan reviewersWhere to find From your reading/references, them? networking at conferences How senior? Aim for mid-level researchers Collaborators (past 5 years),Who to avoid? researchers from same institution
  74. 74. Section 8Peer Review
  75. 75. Peer Review Improves your manuscript Peer review is a positive process Improves science Get involved in the peer review processhttp://www.springer.com/authors/journal+authors/peer-review-academy
  76. 76. Peer Review The submission process Peer reviewAuthor Editor Accepted— publication!
  77. 77. Peer Review Decision letter24-July-2012 Manuscript ID numberDear Dr. XXXXXManuscript ID WJS-07-5739: “Long-term outcomes following right-lobe living donor livertransplantation."Your manuscript has been reviewed, and we cannot accept the manuscript as submitted. Thereviewer concerns are included at the bottom of this letter.You can submit a revised manuscript that takes into consideration these comments. You will alsoneed to include a detailed commentary of the changes made. Please note that resubmittingyour manuscript does not guarantee eventual acceptance, and that your resubmission may besubject to re-review by the reviewers before a decision is made. Reason for revisionTo revise your manuscript, log into http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/wjs and enter your AuthorCenter, where you will find your manuscript title listed under "Manuscripts withDecisions." Under "Actions," click on "Create a Revision." Your manuscript number has beenappended to denote a revision. How to submit a revision
  78. 78. Peer Review Decision letter Procedure for responding…You will be unable to make your revisions on the originally submitted version of the manuscript. Instead,revise your manuscript using a word processing program and save it on your computer. Please also highlightthe changes to your manuscript within the document by using the track changes mode in MS Word or by usingbold or colored text. Once the revised manuscript is prepared, you can upload it and submit it through yourAuthor Center.When submitting your revised manuscript, you will be able to respond to the comments made by thereviewer(s) in the space provided. You can use this space to document any changes you make to the originalmanuscript. In order to expedite the processing of the revised manuscript, please be as specific as possible inyour response to the reviewer(s).IMPORTANT: Your original files are available to you when you upload your revised manuscript. Please deleteany redundant files before completing the submission.Because we are trying to facilitate timely publication of manuscripts submitted to the Surgical Endoscopy, yourrevised manuscript should be uploaded within 8 weeks. If it is not possible for you to submit your revision in areasonable amount of time, we may have to consider your paper as a new submission.Once again, thank you for submitting your manuscript to Surgical Endoscopy and I look forward to receivingyour revision. Due date for resubmission
  79. 79. Peer Review Point-by-point Respond to Be polite every comment Revision Refer to line and page numbers Easy to see Use a different color font changes Highlight the text
  80. 80. Peer Review Writing a response letterJohn G. HunterEditor-in-ChiefWorld Journal of Surgery Address editor personally16 August 2012 Manuscript ID numberDear Dr. Hunter, Thank reviewersRe: Resubmission of manuscript reference No. WJS-07-5739Please find attached a revised version of our manuscript originally entitled “Long-term outcomes following right-lobe living donor liver transplantation,” which we would like to resubmit for consideration for publication in WorldJournal of Surgery.The reviewer’s comments were highly insightful and enabled us to greatly improve the quality of our manuscript. Inthe following pages are our point-by-point responses to each of the comments.Revisions in the manuscript are shown as underlined text. In accordance with the first comment, the title has beenrevised and the entire manuscript has undergone substantial English editing.We hope that the revisions in the manuscript and our accompanying responses will be sufficient to make ourmanuscript suitable for publication in World Journal of Surgery. Highlight major changes
  81. 81. Peer Review AgreementReviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosento use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In myopinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed.Moreover, the results would be more instructive and easier tocompare to previous results.Response: We agree with the reviewer’s assessment of theanalysis. Our tailored function makes it impossible to fully interpretthe data in terms of the prevailing theories. In addition, in itscurrent form it would be difficult to tell that this measurementconstitutes a significant improvement over previously reportedvalues. We have redone the analysis using a Gaussian fittingfunction.
  82. 82. Peer Review DisagreementReviewer Comment: In your analysis of the data you have chosento use a somewhat obscure fitting function (regression). In myopinion, a simple Gaussian function would have sufficed.Moreover, the results would be more instructive and easier tocompare to previous results.Response: We agree with the reviewer that a simple Gaussian fitwould facilitate comparison with the results of other studies.However, our tailored function allows for the analysis of the datain terms of the Smith model [Smith et al, 1998]. We have addedtwo sentences to the paper (page 3 paragraph 2) to explain theuse of this function and Smith’s model.
  83. 83. Peer Review “Hidden” questionsReviewer comment: The authors hypothesized to look for thepharmacokinetics of the insulin using this 4 mm needle; howeverthey didnt do bioequivalence analyses for glucosepharmacodynamics. That is one of my concerns about thismethodology.Response: Although we wanted to do the bioequivalenceanalyses for glucose pharmacodynamics in our study, we areunable to because…
  84. 84. Section 9Avoiding Rejection
  85. 85. Avoiding Rejection The research Current state of the field Relevant hypothesis Identified knowledge gap Appropriate Up-to-date and valid methods methodology New methods validated Appropriate statistical analysis Good data analysis Consult a statistician Complete data All data are included or discussed Valid conclusions Based on your data
  86. 86. Avoiding Rejection The manuscriptJournal requirements Citations Rationale and aims Grammar Appropriate data and style presentation
  87. 87. Avoiding Rejection The manuscript Clearly state your aims Why did you do it? Why is it important? What are the implications?
  88. 88. Avoiding Rejection The manuscript Meet journal requirements Research is appropriate for the aims/scope of the journal Follow the author guidelines for formatting
  89. 89. Avoiding Rejection Reasons for rejection: the manuscript Appropriate journal selected Journal currently publishing similar papers
  90. 90. Avoiding Rejection Reasons for rejection: the manuscript Citations Cite properly • Broadly from different research groups • A couple of older seminal papers • A couple of review articles • Mostly recent original articles • Field-dependent • Generally within the last 2-3 years
  91. 91. Avoiding Rejection Reasons for rejection: the manuscript Write clearly Check spelling and grammar Microsoft Word “spell check” Customize Microsoft’s dictionary High readability
  92. 92. Avoiding Rejection Reasons for rejection: the manuscript Appropriate data presentation Logical representation Do not duplicate results Only relevant data
  93. 93. Avoiding Rejection Rejection letter from NeuroRehabilitation…judged to be unsuitable for publication in NeuroRehabilitation... The following factors contributed to the final decision: The literature review was incomplete The hypothesis is not mentioned or unclear The subjects’ details are not included The manuscript does not follow journal format The authors draw conclusions that are inappropriate or unsubstantiated The statistical methodology is inappropriate, incorrect, or incomplete The manuscript is poorly written…
  94. 94. Any questions? Thank you!edanzediting.com/workshops/sea/manila_03_01 Download and further reading @JournalAdvisor Follow us on Twitter facebook.com/JournalAdvisor Like us on Facebook www.edanzediting.com

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