Biology 120: Module 04: 3 Types of Fractures


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Three types of fractures. Presentation 01, Module 04, Biology 120. Professor Abdullah - Truman College. By Yeo Jeong Kim.

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Biology 120: Module 04: 3 Types of Fractures

  1. 1. 3 Types of Fractures Comminuted • Compression • Colles’ fracture Yeo Jeong Kim Biology 120 • Truman College September 18, 2013 1Wednesday, September 18, 13
  2. 2. Shared Similarities All three fractures (Comminuted, Compression, & Colles’) are common among the elderly These fractures are a result of aging bones that are weakened from conditions such as Osteoporosis or Cancer I picked these 3 out of the 8 because I have experience with them from working as a Physical Therapist in Korea 2Wednesday, September 18, 13
  3. 3. Comminuted Fracture Serious case of fractured bones The affected bone is broken into three or more pieces Termed as a multi-fragmentary fracture Is either Open or Closed 3Wednesday, September 18, 13
  4. 4. Causes & Symptoms Causes Involves crushing or splintering of the bone Results from tremendous force such as a car accident or severe fall Symptoms Unbearable pain at the site of injury Cannot bear any amount of weight in that area 4Wednesday, September 18, 13
  5. 5. Diagnosis The typical diagnosis of Comminuted Fracture includes: Physical examination Medical History of the Patient Laboratory Testing: X-ray & CT Scans 5Wednesday, September 18, 13
  6. 6. Treatment The main aim of treatment is to restore normal position and usage by use of: Pain relieving medication Reduction: Bones are aligned and kept in an immobilized state with plaster and/or splits For impacted fractures surgical nails, screws, plates and wires are used 6Wednesday, September 18, 13
  7. 7. Compression Fracture Compression fracture is the most common type of fracture that affects the spine This type of fracture causes bones to collapse vertically 7Wednesday, September 18, 13
  8. 8. Causes Occurs when forces are too great or the bones in the spine aren’t strong enough Also a result of diseases or conditions that affect the parathyroid gland The Parathyroid gland produces PTH which regulates calcium in the body Can result from Cancers that affect the kidneys, skin, parathyroid gland Trauma to the Spine 8Wednesday, September 18, 13
  9. 9. Symptoms Mild compression: little or no pain at first Traumatic Compression: intense pain in the back that spreads into the legs This can paralyze muscle and impair sensation when bone fragments press into the spinal cord The spine tilts forward into increased kyphosis 9Wednesday, September 18, 13
  10. 10. Diagnosis Physical examination Medical History Laboratory tests: X-Ray, CT Scan, CT Scan with Myelography, MRI, Bone Scan Note that this Diagnosis is different from the Comminuted Fracture 10Wednesday, September 18, 13
  11. 11. 2 Types of Treatment Non-surgical Treatment Most cases are treated without surgery Patients are prescribed medication to control pain, rest, and Orthosis (Special Back Brace) Surgical Treatment Open procedures for cases of severe trauma common to Osteoporosis Purpose is to reduce pain and strengthen fractured bones Procedures include Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty 11Wednesday, September 18, 13
  12. 12. Colles’ Fracture Colles’ Fracture is the most common distal radius fracture It occurs about 1 inch from the tip or end of the bone The broken end of the radius tilts upwards 12Wednesday, September 18, 13
  13. 13. Causes Typically results from a fall onto an outstretched arm Osteoporosis can make a minor fall result in a broken wrist Often times by an elderly patient who fell from a standing position 13Wednesday, September 18, 13
  14. 14. Symptoms Immediate Pain Tenderness Bruising Swelling Wrist hangs in an odd or bent way (deformity) 14Wednesday, September 18, 13
  15. 15. Diagnosis Physical Examination check to see if wrist is deformed or numb; fingers are not pink Medical History Laboratory Testing: X-Ray 15Wednesday, September 18, 13
  16. 16. Treatment Colles’ Fractures have many different treatment options depending on the nature of the fracture, age of patient, activity level, etc. Non-surgical Treatment Plaster cast if the broken bone is in a good position Reduction to realign the broken bone fragments if the bone is out of place Splint or Cast 16Wednesday, September 18, 13
  17. 17. Surgical treatment The purpose of surgery in Colles’ fractures is to correct bone positioning for patients arms that function Typical Procedure: An incision is made Open reduction Application of metal pins, plates, screws, cast, and external fixator 17Wednesday, September 18, 13