Galileo shows the Duke of Padua that water can only be pumped 33 feet. Water cannot be raised more than 33 feet by any suction pump.
How to make a Torrichellian barometer Torrichelli proves the existence of a vacuum. When he tilts the tube the mercury fills the tube. When he raises the tube to upright, the mercury falls to 760 cm leaving a vacuum above. A portrait of Torricelli’s mentor, Galileo, hangs on the wall Torricelli with his newly invented barometer In Italian, “Torre” means “tower”. So, Torricelli means “little tower”.
Capillary action, vacuum pumps, and barometers
How to read a manometer Comparing barometer to manometers:
Absolute pressure vs. Relative pressure (Gauge pressure) We must use absolute pressure readings (and absolute temperature readings) in using the gas laws. Otherwise, our equations our equations become as complex (and even more complex) as the original Charles’ Law.
Compressed gas cylinder and its pressure regulator How we store & utilize gas in lab
Lismore Castle, Ireland birthplace of Robert Boyle Robert Boyle (1637-1691)
An Ideal Gas Thermometer Use of absolute temperature to simplify gas equations