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Is green always green eng

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Lecture describing research on public open spaces in Israel, questioning current standards, their effect on the low quality of POS and their contribution to low density and lack of sustainability of modern cities.

Published in: Design, Technology, Real Estate
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Is green always green eng

  1. 1. Is Green Always Green? Quantity, Activities and Quality of Urban Public Open Spaces (POS) A case study from Israel Dr. Yodan Rofè Gabriela Feierstein Inbal Zarchin This research was funded by the Israel Science Foundation grant No. 546/07Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  2. 2. In orthodox city planning, neighborhood open spaces are venerated in an amazingly uncritical fashion, much as savages venerate magical fetishes… Walk with a planner through a dispirited neighborhood and though it be already scabby with deserted parks and tired landscaping festooned with old kleenex, he will envision a future of More Open Space. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, pp. 96 BACKGROUNDDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  3. 3. The Best Cities in the World - BarcelonaDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  4. 4. The Best Cities in the World - ParisDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  5. 5. The Best Cities in the World - BolognaDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  6. 6. What do these cities have in common? • They were built by human beings • Historic cities (until the end of the 19th century), but used by modern people • Undergo continuous processes of renewal • Extremely high land values (demand much exceeds supply) • Built around streets and streets make most of their public open space • High density, high land coverage, low to mid rise (3-6 floors)Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  7. 7. Bologna – post WWII extensionsDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  8. 8. In the 20th century human kind “forgot” how to build citiesFewer streets – greater distances between intersections • And... • Or... – Mid – low density – Low density – High rise – Low rise – Low coverage – Medium coverage – Extensive open spaces – Extensive open spaces Are street standards the only problem? Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  9. 9. The six destroyers of urbanism • Prescriptive zoning and aversion to density • The hierarchical classification of streets • The neighborhood unit • Street design and parking standards • Parking standards • Public open space standardsDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  10. 10. Is it true that there aren’t enough POS? Are people using the POS? How do people feel when they are in the POS? How do climate zones and settlement size differ? Conclusions and lessons for practiceA LOOK AT PUBLIC OPEN SPACE (POS)STANDARDS AND WHAT THEY DODesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  11. 11. Established standards in Israel for POSOpen Space Type Space Demands Characteristics of Use Location and Remarks CharacteristicsUrban park 3 m2 per person. Sport, playgrounds, sitting Accessibility of >100 dunam. corners, shade areas, etc pedestrians and bike riders.Quarter park 2 m2 per person. Playgrounds, sitting Up to 30000 residents 10 - 50 dunam. corners, shade areas, Next to community grass, etc center.Neighborhood park 3 m2 per person. Like quarter park. Next to neighborhood. 5-10 dunam. No need to cross main roads.Inner playgrounds 2 m2 per person. Playing facilities, sitting Part of the 2-5 dunam. corners, fitting to all year neighborhood. climate conditions.Wide and Open Up to 1 dunam Flooring, gardening, Fitting the location.Sitting Corners planting.Pedestrians and Path width of 5-8 Pavement. Combination of Connecting urban andBicycle paths meters. planting and gardening. neighborhood centers. Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism 11
  12. 12. What the Environmentalists want?In recent years, the Israel Union of Environmental Defense(IUED), and the Ministry of the Environment advocate anincrease in urban open space standards and theirimplementation and management.Source: www.adamteva.org.il Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  13. 13. The effect of the standards on gross and net density 10000 Units 3.1 Person/unit 90 sq.ft. per person open space Total %Gross Neede Public Public public Residential NetDensity d area Roads buildings POS areas areas area DensityDU/acre Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres Acres DU/acre 10 1,000 200 12.5 64.05 277 28% 723 13.82 20 500 113 12.5 64.05 189 38% 311 32.16 30 333 83 12.5 64.05 160 48% 173 57.65 40 250 75.0 12.5 64.05 152 61% 98 101.57 50 200 60.0 12.5 64.05 137 68% 63 157.60 60 167 50.0 12.5 64.05 127 76% 40 249.27 70 143 42.9 12.5 64.05 119 84% 23 426.43 80 125 37.5 12.5 64.05 114 91% 11 913.21 Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  14. 14. Gross Density, Net Density and Land Coverage • Typical recent plan in Israel (Bialik on the Park, Fogel and Shoham) • 247 Acres, 4,935 du • 20 du/acre gross density • 12,500 p/sq.km. • Very high net density • Very low land coverage Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  15. 15. What are the consequences? • Open space standards do not allow us to reach high densities with low and mid rise building • They force either high rise or mid-low density • These typologies and densities do not allow for a walkable, vibrant city • Public transport is less viable • Sprawl and automobile dependence are increased • Harder to create mixed use areas Existing urban open space standards diminish the sustainability of urban areas in IsraelDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  16. 16. Research Questions: Is it true that there aren’t enough POS? How does the amount of POS differ in different size settlements and neighborhoods? THE QUANTITY AND ACCESSIBILITY OF POSDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  17. 17. Case studies chosen from two climate zones Bat Yam Shoham Lehavim Ashdod Arad Beer Sheva Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  18. 18. NEIGHBORHOOD TYPES Coastal plain Northern NegevMajor city Ashdod Beer Sheva Old center Yud neighb. Tet neighb. Neve Zeev (1950-1970) (1990-2000) (1970-1985) (1990- 2000)Medium Bat Yam Aradcity Center Ramat Center (1960- Gevim (before HaNassi 1975) (1990- 1948) (1960-1975) 2000)Community Shoham Lehavimsettlement Center CenterDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  19. 19. Neighborhood open spaces - definitions Neighborhood Open SpaceAny unbuilt land within the boundary of the neighborhood, or immediately adjacent to it, which provides, or has the potential to provide, environmental, social and/or economic benefits to the community, whether direct or indirect Green Space Civic Space Grey Space• vegetated land • urban squares • areas used for non• water or geological • market places pedestrian movement feature within urban • other paved areas or hard and other functional uses areas landscaped areas• Parks and Gardens • Civic squares • Streets• Amenity Greenspace • Market places • Parking areas• Childrens play areas • Pedestrian streets • Utility areas• Sports facilities • Promenades and sea • Previously developed• Green corridors fronts abandoned sites• Natural/semi-natural greenspaceAdapted from Williams and Green (2001) Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  20. 20. Description and classification of POSVariation to the initial classification of POS:Green CivicGrey Undefined - Others: buildings, private open space. - StreetsDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism 20
  21. 21. Quantity of POS As a % of total neighborhood areaCity Neighborhood Study area Green POS Civic POS Grey POS Undefined POS POS Streets Others Total Center 100 9.16 2.66 3.58 0.00 15.39 22.06 62.55Ashdod Yud 100 8.13 2.73 5.79 3.15 19.81 33.78 46.41 Tet 100 6.67 1.84 5.90 12.17 26.57 17.48 55.95B. Sheva Neve Zeev 100 6.43 0.98 0.30 9.31 17.01 31.07 51.92 R. Hanassi 100 12.52 1.27 9.63 1.05 24.47 20.04 55.49Bat Yam Center 100 7.60 0.68 0.81 1.01 10.10 22.28 67.63 Center 100 3.44 8.09 14.11 0.76 26.41 22.25 51.35Arad Gevim 100 16.65 0.43 0.00 10.43 27.51 23.33 49.16Shoham Center 100 13.96 2.14 4.79 2.45 23.33 16.95 59.71Lehavim Center 100 10.46 1.66 1.26 17.39 30.77 21.80 47.44Mean 9.50 2.25 4.62 5.77 22.14 23.10 54.76Mean Desert 8.73 2.60 4.31 10.01 25.65 24.13 51.16Mean Non-Desert 10.27 1.89 4.92 1.53 18.62 23.02 58.36 Similar amount of land is invested in POS as in streets Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  22. 22. POS accessibility Yud Neighborhood, Ashdod Neve Zeev, Beer ShevaDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  23. 23. Population density and Green POS per person Relation between population density and amount of POS 40 Arad GevimAmount of POS per person (sqm/person) 35 30 Lehavim 25 R² = 0.779 20 15 Shoham Bat Yam R. HaNassi 10 Ashdod Beer Sheva Tet Yud Ashdod center 5 Beer Sheva Arad center Bat Yam center Neve Zeev 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 Population density (Ppl/sqm) Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  24. 24. Green POS per person Amount of green POS per person by neighborhood 40 Low rise sf homes 35 30 Public housing blockSq.m/person 25 neighborhood 20 15 10 5 0 i am v et vim r v im ss ud ter r nte ee nte aT Na oh Y en ha .Z Ge ce ce ev od Ha Sh c Le aN am ad Sh od ad hd R. ev Ar hd tY Ar As er am Sh As Be Ba tY erNeighborhoods satisfy existing standards, but only low rise neighborhoods and Ba Be“Corbusian” high rise neighborhood satisfy the proposed “environmental” standard Neighborhood case studies Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  25. 25. On Quantity and size of POS • In most neighborhoods there is too much POS, many areas are not cared for or used – this is particularly true in desert settlements • Many POS are hardly used, they seem to have only an aesthetic value for residents • Accessibility to POS is ubiquitous. Most homes are less than 150 m. away, almost all less than 300 m. AwayDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  26. 26. Measured by: Intensity of optional and social use (Gehl) Survey of residents on use and evaluation Feeling maps in select POS THE QUALITY OF POSDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  27. 27. Intensity of use by POS type, climate and season Optional activity by season and climate area 300 250 31.9 Ppl/hour per dunam 200 31.6 9.7 23.9 Green w ide 150 Green linear 19.9 Civic 8 100 9.7 9.4 198.7 165.5 50 96.1 99.4 0 Difference between er er r r te te m m in in seasons is m m w w su su Non desert area Desert area stronger in Clim ate areas by season Desert AreasDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  28. 28. Movement and Optional Activity - Summer SUMMER Use of POS 250 intentional not Optional activity in POS (Ppl/20) 200 casual 2 R = 0.5018 150 Non Desert area 2 R = 0.2125 Desert area 100 Linear (Desert area) 50 Linear (Non Desert area) 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Pedestrian movement (Ppl/20)Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  29. 29. Most successful – POS combining civic and green spaceDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  30. 30. Survey Results: Preference for outside activities value Activity in open spaces from 1-51 Sitting in the private open spaces of their houses 42 Walking along the neighborhood streets 3.43 Spending time in open spaces out of the neighborhood 3.24 Spending time in the neighborhood commercial center 35 Spending time in the neighborhood park 2.7 People prefer private open space and walking along neighborhood streets to neighborhood commercial centers and sitting in neighborhood parksDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  31. 31. Ranking of Satisfaction with POSCity Neighborhood Grade M2/ppShoham Center 4.4 14.50Lehavim Center 4.3 28.95Arad Gevim 3.9 37.82Bat Yam R. HaNassi 3.5 13.82Ashdod Yud 3.5 5.39Bat Yam Center 3.3 5.34Ashdod Center 3.2 5.33Arad Center 3.1 3.36Beer Sheva Neve Zeev 2.9 3.19Beer Sheva Tet 2.7 7.29Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  32. 32. FEELINGS IN POSDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  33. 33. Factors that influence the perceived qualities of POS Context Individual Site characteristics Weather Location Physical features Urban design Feelings qualities No. of people & activitiesDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  34. 34. Survey of feelings in POSDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  35. 35. Feelings in POS by season summer winter AR AR AS BY BS BS AS BS AS BY BY AR AS BY Used 18 23 Unused 16 24 Used 14 23 Unused W 15 19 Unused E 9 20 Used S 14 14 Used 7 16 Civic 6 16 Unused 8 13 Civic 7 13 Civic 4 15 Used N 1 8 Unused -1 10 Civic -8 -2 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Sum of Mean Feeling EvaluationDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  36. 36. Feelings by climatic zones Mean feeling Mean feeling p-value coastal plain northern Negev All POS 0.55 0.36 0.06 Civic POS 0.41 0.1 0.12 Used green POS 0.52 0.68 0. Unused green POS 0.68 0.29Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  37. 37. Influencing factors Most repeated positive influence All POS Vegetation Aesthetics and the design Northern The Negev surrounding environment Coastal Cleanliness plain and maintenanceDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  38. 38. Influencing factor questionnaire Most repeated negative influence All POS Lack of Lack of vegetation cleanliness and maintenance Northern The Negev surrounding environmentDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  39. 39. The physical quality of POS and Feelings Successful POS Unsuccessful POS Aesthetic and harmonious Vast, unmaintained grassy Shaded play equipment areas Lush Green Unshaded sitting placesDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  40. 40. On People’s preferences and feelings • People prefer private open space to all kinds of POS • People prefer walking on neighborhood streets to Green POS • Even though they do not use them much people value the presence of POS and think they are not good enough • Maintenance is key to good feelings in POS • Despite less use – people feel better in used green POS than in civic POS • POS do not succeed in ameliorating difficult summer conditionsDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  41. 41. • Importance of Civic areas – most used but not well liked. Currently not standard • Green is appreciated but people prefer to walk on streets - Green streets – increasing green, but where people actually prefer to walk • As much as possible connect green space to civic space: town squares, boulevards • Green POS are not attractive per se – they need a qualitative reason for being – a functional and ecological program • Relate POS to the amount of private open space so as to achieve the right balance • Do we even need quantitative standards today?Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  42. 42. THANK YOU!!Desert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  43. 43. The importance of civic areasDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  44. 44. Green StreetsDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  45. 45. Connect green space to civic space Boulevards English squaresDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  46. 46. Green spaces need a program Urban nature Water retention Hammarby-Sjöstad Stockholm, Sweden Images: Kristina HillDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism
  47. 47. Green spaces need a program Agriculture Heat island mitigation Image: Jeremey Nemeth Image: Lutz KatschnerDesert Architecture and Urban Planning, Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, BGU Movement for Israeli Urbanism

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