Cause and transmission
Influenza is caused by a virus which attacks
the body’s cells
The virus mutates often and new strains arise.
Unfortunately immunity against one strain
does not protect against other strains.
Influenza virus may be transmitted among
humans in three ways:
direct contact with infected individuals
By contact with contaminated objects
By inhalation of virus-laden aerosols
Severe aches and pains (often in the back and
Intermittent sweating and shivering
Sometimes vomiting or diarrhoea
For most people it is best to treat the symptoms
of influenza and await natural recovery.
Take symptom relief eg. paracetamol or aspirin
to help with fever and aches and pains
There are now three influenza treatments
licensed for use in the UK:
Amantadine, taken by mouth
Oseltamivir, taken by mouth
Zanamivir, a powder that is inhaled
There are many influenza viruses. Only one or
two tend to reach epidemic proportions each
year. By monitoring the progress of these
worldwide, the World Health Organisation decide
on the best mixture of influenza types to be
included in that year’s vaccine.
It is advised that people at high risk of infection
are vaccinated yearly.
Influenza is more common during winter, peaking in August
as shown in this map.
Influenza is most common in children younger than 5 and
adults aged 65+, as shown in this map from Western
The exact cause of anorexia remains unclear.
However, there are links between becoming
Lowered resistance to
Extreme weight loss
Dizzy spells and
Women stop having
Swollen stomach, face
Downy hair on the
Poor blood circulation
Loss of bone mass
Distorted body image
Inability to concentrate
Most anorexics go into hospital when they
become extremely ill. Here, the first goal of
treatment is to increase and stabilise their
Behaviour therapy – encouraging the person
to eat by giving privileges (eg. telephone
calls, visits, watching TV) for eating.
Keeping a diary recording food intake, activity
and thoughts and feelings. This may uncover
deeper emotional problems.
There is no certain method of preventing
Parents should ensure that their daughters
have a healthy attitude about themselves, their
bodies and their diets.
It is important to watch for early signs of eating
Anorexia mostly afflicts young women.