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Disease case study sermin sayan

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Disease case study sermin sayan

  1. 1. Disease Case Study AIDS and Parkinson’s Disease
  2. 2. AIDS
  3. 3. Cause and Transmission • AIDS is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which is one of a small family of viruses which reproduce in a particular was in a host' cells. • AIDS passes from one person to another by body fluids of an infected person (semen and vaginal fluids, blood and breast milk.) The virus is passed from one person to another through blood to blood and sexual contact.
  4. 4. Symptoms • Early symptoms include: • Swelling of the lymph glands in the neck and armpit • A later condition which may develop is called AIDS- related complex (ARC). Symptoms include: • Fatigue, loss of weight, diarrhoea, and attacks of shingles or herpes. • Full blown AIDS is characterised by the collapse of the immune system which can lead to opportunistic infections and cancers • AIDS can also invade the brain cells resulting in dementia and even schizophrenia.
  5. 5. Treatment • To this day there is no cure for AIDS • Treatments involve antibiotics to prevent and treat infections • Antiviral drugs are used regularly to treat people with HIV and AIDS with the use of zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (DDI), and stavudine.
  6. 6. Prevention • Until there is a vaccine that provides protection against AIDS the only way to prevent infection is to avoid practices that have been known to spreading the disease. Such as: • Touching used sharp objects (e.g. syringes, lancets, etc.) and • Limiting the number of sexual partners you have, checking someone’s status before sleeping with them and using contraceptives (such as condoms)
  7. 7. Incidence • You can catch AIDS any time of the year as it depends on blood-to-blood and sexual contact and not on the time of the year. • AIDS is most common in Africa where over twenty two million people have been diagnosed. Since 1981 25 million people have died due to AIDS • There is no age for who can catch AIDS as it is caught by blood-to-blood contact and be caught by those who are sexually active.
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  10. 10. Parkinson’s Disease
  11. 11. Causes and Transmission • Parkinson’s disease is the combination of slowness of movement, muscle rigidity and resting tremor due to the lack of dopamine. • Parkinson’s disease cannot be caught. • Although the causes are not entirely accurate some factors contributing to why Parkinson’s disease occurs is due to certain toxins in the environment and being inherited (passed on genetically from family members)
  12. 12. Symptoms • Primary motor symptoms include: • • • • The slowness of movement Resting tremor Rigidity Posture and balance • • • • Sexual dysfunction Speech problems Swallowing difficulties Arms may not swing while walking • Secondary motor symptoms include: • Other symptoms may include • Tendency to lean forward • Dementia • Cramping • Sleep problems • Drooling • Fatigue • Constipation • Micrographia • Fatigue, tiredness, loss of energy • Fine finger movements • paraesthesia, • Impaired motor coordination • Reduced sense of pain and smell • Dystonia • Loss of facial expressions • Bladder weakness and urinary retention
  13. 13. Treatments • There are many medications to treat symptoms but non to reverse the effects of the disease • Many treatments try to aim at boosting the dopamine levels in the brain.
  14. 14. Prevention • There is no definitive ways to prevent the disease but some research shows that: • Caffeine and green tea may reduce the risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.
  15. 15. Incidence • There is no exact time of the year in which people develop Parkinson’s disease, as it can occur during any time of the year • Parkinson’s disease can occur anywhere around the world • Many people start developing Parkinson’s disease around the age of 60 years and older • There is a 50% higher chance of men developing Parkinson’s disease than women.
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