Case study diseases


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Case study diseases

  1. 1. Case Study: Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases Whooping Cough and Down Syndrome Ilaria Trecapelli
  2. 2. • Pertussis • Serious and contagious • Respiratory infection Infectious Disease- Whooping Cough
  3. 3. Cause and Transmission Whooping Cough is a respiratory infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The bacterium is spread by inhalation of airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract, when the carrier of the disease coughs or sneezes.
  4. 4. Symptoms The disease begins like a cold and then the unique cough develops, the highpitched ‘whooping’ sound when the carrier takes a breath. Symptoms can include; runny nose, slight fever, diarrhea, choking spell in infants and vomiting due to repeated coughs
  5. 5. Treatment Antibiotics can be used to reduced symptoms of the whooping cough, in its early stages. This means that if this treatment is given within the first 21 days of the illness, the is a reduced risk of passing the infection on to others.
  6. 6. Prevention The best way to prevent whooping cough is with a vaccination. • Adolescents in Year 10 or age equivalent • Adults working in childcare or health care • Adults planning pregnancy • Children under seven should have doses at 2 and 4 years of age and at six months Another way to prevent catching or spreading whooping cough, is to be aware of your surroundings. Cover your mouth!
  7. 7. Incidence Infants have the highest risk of developing the disease and contracting complications that come with it. ‘The great majority of fatal cases in the country each year are in infants less than 6 months of age. Whooping Cough can occur all around the world but countries such as Australia, Canada, the US and the UK, are seeing large scale outbreaks
  8. 8.
  9. 9. • Chromosomal abnormality • Genetic disease • Full or partial copy of chromosome 21 Non-Infectious Disease- Down Syndrome
  10. 10. Cause and Transmission ‘There are no known factors to explain the error in cell development which results in 47 chromosomes rather than the usual 46’. The nucleus of each body cell contains all or part of one extra chromosome. The excess chromosomal material can originate from the mother’s egg or the father’s sperm
  11. 11. Symptoms Genes and chromosomes play a large part in determining a person’s characteristics and distinctive looks, which is the main symptom for identifying down syndrome. Visible characteristics include: • Flat facial profile • Upward slanting eyes • Intellectual impairment of varying degrees • Increased chances of medical conditions such as hearing loss, heart defects and vision difficulties
  12. 12. Treatment Developments in treatment for Down Syndrome have meant that children suffering from the disease are living longer than the short life expectancy. These developments include surgery to repair heart and gastrointestinal defects and special diet and drugs to relieve endocrine gland malfunctions
  13. 13. Prevention Down syndrome has not been linked to any activities before or during pregnancy and ‘roughly equal numbers of males and females with down syndrome are born to mothers of all ages, ethnic groups, countries and economic backgrounds. Essentially, it is unpreventable.
  14. 14. Incidence Down Syndrome effects about 1 out of 800 live births overall. Being the one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities, the birth rate of down syndrome tends to increase when the women is over 35 years old. For this reason prenatal testing for abnormalities is often offered for these women. Babies can be born with the disease or can develop after birth.
  15. 15. Diseases- Detached Retina-Gallstones- Volume 3