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A Usable User Interface            forAccessible Web Automation              Yury Puzis           Yevgen Borodin          ...
Introduction• Non-visual browsing is hard  • Not enough and too much information  • Not enough and too much control• Brows...
Making a Purchase on Amazon.com Minimum of 6 – 8 steps just to complete a transaction   Amazon is one of the most usable a...
Web Automation for Sighted People• Approaches:  • Handcrafting scripts  • Programming-by-example• Tools:  •   Form-filling...
Web Automation for Blind People• Screen-readers  • Handcrafting: impractically hard• Hearsay  • Scientific prototype  • pr...
Usable and AccessibleWeb Automation InterfaceVery few actions are applicable in a given browsing state /context, and even ...
Usable and AccessibleWeb Automation Interface A very simple automation interface: 1. Ask for a suggestion of a single acti...
Advantages• Focus on what’s important  • No information overload  • No need to manage macros• Automation without taking aw...
User Study• 17 participants• Comfortable / very comfortable with computers• JAWS is the primary screen-reader• 2 scenarios...
Task Completion Time                          600                                Manual (trial 1)                         ...
Perceived Task Difficulty                               5.00                              Manual (trial 1)                ...
QuestionnaireI wish I could do online transactions faster than I can   3.88 (1.11)with a regular screen readerI often expe...
Conclusion• Web automation can help make the web more  accessible• Automation is good in moderation• Encouraging user stud...
What Is Missing?• Computational model  • Submitted to UIST 2012• Deployment!• Crowd sourcing / Social Accessibility• User ...
Thank You!                                                                     17This material is based upon work supporte...
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A Usable User Interface for Accessible Web Automation

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Web automation has the potential to bridge the accessibility divide between the ways blind and sighted people access the Web; it can enable blind people to accomplish web browsing tasks that were previously slow, hard, or even impossible to achieve. In this paper, we propose and evaluate an intuitive and accessible web automation interface.

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A Usable User Interface for Accessible Web Automation

  1. 1. A Usable User Interface forAccessible Web Automation Yury Puzis Yevgen Borodin Faisal Ahmed I.V. Ramakrishnan Stony Brook University Stony Brook, USA 2012
  2. 2. Introduction• Non-visual browsing is hard • Not enough and too much information • Not enough and too much control• Browsing can be made easier • We will try • Interface > algorithms• Our contribution • Accessible and usable web automation interface 2 • Validation of the interface with a user study
  3. 3. Making a Purchase on Amazon.com Minimum of 6 – 8 steps just to complete a transaction Amazon is one of the most usable and one of the most popular shopping websites with visually impaired 3 Can this be automated?
  4. 4. Web Automation for Sighted People• Approaches: • Handcrafting scripts • Programming-by-example• Tools: • Form-filling in browsers • CoScripter • CoCo • Creo • Robofox • SmartBookmarks • …• Not designed for blind people 6
  5. 5. Web Automation for Blind People• Screen-readers • Handcrafting: impractically hard• Hearsay • Scientific prototype • programming-by-example (record / replay)• Trailblazer • Adaptation of CoScripter to JAWS • No deep integration with JAWS user interface 7
  6. 6. Usable and AccessibleWeb Automation InterfaceVery few actions are applicable in a given browsing state /context, and even fewer can lead to a meaningful anddesirable result. A very simple automation interface 8
  7. 7. Usable and AccessibleWeb Automation Interface A very simple automation interface: 1. Ask for a suggestion of a single action 2. Confirm execution, skip, or ignore … and continue browsing … Atari’s Star Trek video game instructions: 1. Insert coins 2. Avoid Klingons 9
  8. 8. Advantages• Focus on what’s important • No information overload • No need to manage macros• Automation without taking away control • The user knows what’s going on at all times • The user can deviate away from the scenario • The user can steer into a scenario 10
  9. 9. User Study• 17 participants• Comfortable / very comfortable with computers• JAWS is the primary screen-reader• 2 scenarios • Buying a book (audiobooks.com) • Reserving a hotel room (hilton.com)• 3 trials for each scenario • 2 without automation, 1 with• No computational model • Model’s deficiencies may affect the UI evaluation 11
  10. 10. Task Completion Time 600 Manual (trial 1) Manual (trial 2) 500 Average time (seconds) Automated Assistant 400 300 200 100 0 Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Average completion time 12 (1) buying a book (2) reserving a hotel room
  11. 11. Perceived Task Difficulty 5.00 Manual (trial 1) 4.50(1=very easy, 5=very hard) Manual (trial 2) 4.00 Automated Assistant Average Difficulty 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Average difficulty 13 (1) buying a book (2) reserving a hotel room
  12. 12. QuestionnaireI wish I could do online transactions faster than I can 3.88 (1.11)with a regular screen readerI often experience difficulties while doing online 2.62 (1.02)transactions with a screen readerDoing the same online transaction for the second time 4.59 (0.71)was easier than the first timeDoing a transaction with the Automated Assistant was 4.12 (1.27)the easiestI want to use Automated Assistant in the future 4.29 (1.10) 14 Average 5-Point Likert scale values (St. Dev.) Scale 1=Strongly Disagree to 5=Strongly Agree
  13. 13. Conclusion• Web automation can help make the web more accessible• Automation is good in moderation• Encouraging user study resultsTestimonials• “Assistant mode is really, really good”• “Automated Assistant makes the site easier to use”• “Looks like Automated Assistant can save a lot of 15 time, especially if it works with AJAX”
  14. 14. What Is Missing?• Computational model • Submitted to UIST 2012• Deployment!• Crowd sourcing / Social Accessibility• User feedback on a large scale 16
  15. 15. Thank You! 17This material is based upon work supported by the National ScienceFoundation - Awards: IIS-0808678 and CNS-0751083

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