Task analysis in service design

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Task analysis in service design

  1. 1. e-bus iness tas k analysis ac ourse prepared r by yves pigneu
  2. 2. e-business se rvice design scenario & storytelling !task analysis p rototyping ervice qualit y & usability s busi ness process ation bluepr int & visualiz service pr oductivity servic e compliance bu siness model value cha in & network l innovation service & b usiness mode
  3. 3. service concept consult document customer role: order taking performance: imitative Provide an easy way to borrow a cost: document from the library reduce effort for the librarian
  4. 4. scenario consult document scenario 1 Cécile comes at Céline’s desk and ask her to consult a confidential document Céline notices that Cécile is employed by CRI and is accredited, that the document corresponds to an archive reference, and that is available. Céline records the consultation. On base of the document’s location supplied by the system, Provide an easy way to borrow a she pick up the document and give document from the library it to Cécile .
  5. 5. service (work) system customers: consult document librarian information: analysts documents consultations technologies: web browser work practices: !check analyst !check document !record ... Provide an easy way to borrow a participants: analyst document from the library
  6. 6. task analysis ^ & u se c ase
  7. 7. task alysis user an obser vation
  8. 8. OBSERVATION
  9. 9. the desig ner’s toolk it ...
  10. 10. ob servi ng ...
  11. 11. ^
  12. 12. Direct observation Indirect observation Oral interview Written questionnaire Concurrent protocol Retrospective protocol Use case
  13. 13. Observe and define cash w in a teller ma ithdrawal chine ... rf.snoitartsulli
  14. 14. insert the card
  15. 15. key in the password
  16. 16. select withdrawn
  17. 17. key in the amount
  18. 18. take cash
  19. 19. remove the card
  20. 20. take receipt
  21. 21. TASK MODEL
  22. 22. ? What’s a task model illustrations.fr
  23. 23. A task model ... represents logical activities for users or customers to reach their goals
  24. 24. Task model goal action user
  25. 25. goals www.sxc.hu
  26. 26. goal ^ according to Lorin Hochste in goals are what the user is trying to accomplish these can be defined at various levels of abstraction higher-level goals are decomposable into sub-goals, and are arranged hierarchically
  27. 27. Do you reme mber the lib rary’s scenar ios ? rf.snoitartsulli
  28. 28. GOALS case authorize authorize Check and authorize consultation consultation the consultation of a document required by an analyst, ...
  29. 29. goal ^ Conditions according to Alistair Cockbur n Precondition ... state what must always be true before beginning the execution of a task (use case) Post-condition or success guarantees ... state what must be true on completion of the task (success end and/or failure end condition)
  30. 30. CONDITIONS case quot; Pre-condition: the information officer is identified and authorized quot; Post-condition the consultation of the document by the analyst is recorded in the base
  31. 31. Task model goal action user
  32. 32. users http://www.flickr.com/photos/ntr23/730371240/
  33. 33. users or customers using the online service by performing a sequence of operations to reach their goals
  34. 34. ACTORS case quot; Primary actor: an information officer of the research and information center (CRI); in charge of the library of confidential documents quot; other stakeholders: the senior or junior analysts accredited by the Center, who prepare synthesis and study reports based on documents available in the library
  35. 35. Task model goal action user
  36. 36. actions www.sxc.hu
  37. 37. actions describe the sequence of operations performed by the users necessary to achieve the desired goals
  38. 38. SCENARIO (1) case quot; Cécile comes at Céline’s desk and ask her to consult a confidential document quot; By means of her terminal, Céline notices that Cécile is employed by CRI and is accredited, that the document corresponds to an archive reference, and that is available. quot; Céline records the consultation. quot; On base of the document’s location supplied by the system, she pick up the document and give it to Cécile .
  39. 39. SCENARIO (2) case quot; Benoît comes at Céline’s desk and ask her to consult a confidential document quot; By means of her terminal, Céline notices that Benoît is employed by CRI but he is not accredited for consulting the confidential document. quot; Céline records the reject and records the tentative of non authorized consultation.
  40. 40. SCENARIO (3) case quot; Cécile comes at Céline’s desk and ask her to consult a confidential document quot; By means of her terminal, Céline notices that Cécile is employed by CRI and is accredited, that the document corresponds to an archive reference, but that is already borrowed from. quot; Céline tells Cécile that the document is not available.
  41. 41. Is a task mo del different from a scena rio ? ? How to des cribe a task How to deco mpose a task ? rf.snoitartsulli
  42. 42. task sce nario m odel http://www.flickr.com/photos/barretthall/331459910/
  43. 43. sc hema text http://www.flickr.com/photos/barretthall/331459910/
  44. 44. hierarchy www.sxc.hu
  45. 45. ^ Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) an net t & Dunc accordi ng to An Breaking down the steps of a task performed by a user, viewed at different levels of detail Each step can be decomposed into lower-level sub-steps, thus forming a hierarchy of sub-tasks
  46. 46. GOALS case authorize authorize Check and authorize consultation consultation the consultation of a document required by an analyst, ...
  47. 47. DECOMPOSITION (1) case Authorize the authorize consultation of a consultation document SEQ * check check record give give request request consultation document document Check that the Record the Pick up the document on analyst may borrow consultation of the the shelves and give it to the document from document by the the analyst analyst
  48. 48. DECOMPOSITION (2) case check Check that the analyst may request borrow the document from SEQ * check check check who & what consultation consultation Check if the Check if the analyst and the consultation is documents are allowed based on the known accreditation rules
  49. 49. DECOMPOSITION (3) case check Check if the analyst and the who & what documents are known PAR check check analyst document Check if the Check if the analyst exists in document exists in the database the database
  50. 50. DECOMPOSITION (2) case check Check that the analyst may request borrow the document from SEQ check who & what check consultation * Check if the Check if the analyst and the consultation is documents are allowed based on the known accreditation rules
  51. 51. DECOMPOSITION (4) case Check if the consultation is check allowed based on the consultation accreditation rules PAR check check availability accreditation Check if the Check is the analyst is document is not accredited for consulting already borrowed the document from
  52. 52. TASK DECOMPOSITION case check consultation SEQ check record give request consultation document SEQ check check who & what consultation PAR PAR check check check check analyst document availability accreditation
  53. 53. USE CASE
  54. 54. “ A use case captures a contract between the stakeholders of a system about its behaviour. Different sequences of behaviour, or scenarios, can unfold, depending on the particular requests made and conditions surrounding the requests. The use case collects ” together those different scenarios. Alistair Cockburn
  55. 55. “ form, although they can be written using flow Use cases are fundamentally a text charts, sequence charts, Petri nets, or programming languages. Under normal circumstances, they serve to communicate from one person to another, often to people with no special training. Simple text is, therefore, usually the best choice. ” Alistair Cockburn
  56. 56. TASK DECOMPOSITION case check consultation SEQ check record give request consultation document 1. SEQ 2. 3. check check who & what consultation 1.1. PAR 1.2. PAR check check check check analyst document availability accreditation 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2
  57. 57. MAIN SUCCESS (1) case 1. Check if the analyst can borrow the document from 1.1. check if the analyst and the document exist in the database 1.1.1. check if the analyst exists in the database 1.1.2. check if the document exists in the database 1.2. ...
  58. 58. MAIN SUCCESS (2) case 1. Check if the analyst can borrow the document from 1.1. ... 1.2. check if the accreditation rules are enforced 1.2.1. check if the document is not already borrowed from 1.2.2. check if the analyst may borrow the document from 2. ...
  59. 59. MAIN SUCCESS (3) case 1. Check if the analyst can borrow the document from 1.1. ... 1.2. ... 2. Record the consultation of the document by the analyst 3. Pick up the document on the shelves and give it to the analyst...
  60. 60. FAILURES check consultation case SEQ check record give request consultation document SEQ not found document check check who & what consultation PAR PAR check check check check analyst document availability accreditation unknown unknown borrowed unaccredited analyst document document analyst
  61. 61. EXTENSIONS (1) case 1.1.1a if the analyst does not exist in the files 1. direct the analyst to the person in charge 2. stop the task 1.1.2a if the document does not exist in the files 1. ask the analyst another document reference 2. if necessary, make a new attempt (1.1.2)
  62. 62. EXTENSIONS (2) case 1.2.1a if the document is already borrowed from 1. inform the analyst 2. stop the task 1.2.2a if the analyst is not allowed to read the document 1. inform the analyst 2. record the attempt of fraud 3. stop the task
  63. 63. EXTENSIONS (3) case 3a if the document is not on the indicated shelf 1. trigger an alert ... 2. stop the task
  64. 64. ^ Task Analysis according to Franç ois Boda rt The analyst then suggests ways to make the task more efficient or suggests new tasks which more effectively support the goals. It is important to recognize that the analysis is done from the perspective of the end-users
  65. 65. Equipment Context dition Prerequisite Working con Productivity User Environment profile Task Reproducibil ity Motivation parameters Task organization Experience Importance Knowledge Complexity Usability Learning tim e criteria n Speed of executio Goals d of persist ence Task Perio Sub-goals Error rate structure Task Satisfaction Subtask er D egree of cov Procedure
  66. 66. ge t users involved
  67. 67. task analysis review quot; goal, action & user quot; decomposition quot; task analysis
  68. 68. use case description review quot; context quot; main success quot; extensions
  69. 69. ractice practice pr actice p
  70. 70. Define the a dmission of a patient in an hospita l ... rf.snoitartsulli > see document
  71. 71. task to be analyzed... to be modelled ... http://legacycreative.gettyimages.com
  72. 72. be rigorous
  73. 73. Observe and define the ch at the point eck-out of sale in a s upermarket . .. rf.snoitartsulli > see document
  74. 74. to be continued ...
  75. 75. Observe and describe the on LeShop ... order taking rf.snoitartsulli
  76. 76. to be continued ...

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