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busin ess model
as sessm ent

a co urse prepared
                  er
by alex osterwald
an d yves pigneur
 with cédric gaspoz
e -business
serv  ice design
s cenario & s  torytelling
 t ask analysis
 p rototyping
        service to  business
 from
     ueprint & v isualization
  bl
  service  innovation
         ess model  innovation
   busin
   busin ess model
   business m  odel design
             s model as  sessment
    ‣busines
how
do
you
change
a
business

model
and
innovate?
re‐inven7ng
the
wheel
???
what if ?
PR EPA RED
           BE




http://www.flickr.com/photos/thefamilymorris/sets/72157603383415256/
PR EPAR ED ?
           NOT




http://www.flickr.com/photos/thefamilymorris/sets/72157603383415256/
3 steps of business model design




 !"                  #"                   %"                 $"
                          ASSESS

 !! "#$%&'(#)#*'$+,-) !! 2$$#$$)           !! (&2',$30&/)0,) !! 3.&,),#
    (.$',#$$)/0"#1)      $3&#,-34$)2,")       '/7&08#/#,3$)9)   ',30)2)7
                         5#26,#$$#$)          0770&3.,'+#$))    &02"/2
diagnostic
business
   model
          ^
a sse ssm ent
nt scan ning
e nviro nme
- foresight -


                                  KEY
                                TRENDS




       INDUSTRY                                      MARKET
        FORCES                                       FORCES




- competitive analysis -                        - market analysis -


                                MACRO
                               ECONOMIC
                                FORCES


                           - macroeconomics -
1
industry forces
pres sure
industry
pre ssures
       COMPETITORS
       (INCUMBENTS)



      NEW ENTRANTS
       (INSURGENTS)



                              INDUSTRY
SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS
                               FORCES
        AND SERVICES



SUPPLIERS AND OTHER    - competitive analysis -
 VALUE CHAIN ACTORS



      STAKEHOLDERS
fore sight
t echn ology
Prediction ...



“ shortcomings to be seriously considered
  This 'telephone' has too many

  as a means of communication. The device
  is inherently of no value to us.
                                     ”
    West Union internal memo, 1876
Prediction ...



“ this country and walked with the best
  I have travelled the length and breadth of

  people, and I can assure you that data
  processing is a fad that won't last out the
  year.
          ”
    The editor of management books at Prentice-Hall, 1957
Prediction ...



“ for maybe five computers.
  I think there is a world market
                                           ”
    Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943
Prediction ...



“ would want a computer in their
  There is no reason anyone

  home.
                ”
    Ken Olsen, President and founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977
“Prediction is
very difficult,
especially if it's
about the
future.”

Niels Bohr
1952
the black swan
no prediction but ...
magic
insurance
futures
science fiction
... scenario planning
“            Scenarios are a way of developing
                            alternative futures based on different
                            combinations of assumptions, facts and
                            trends, […] Building scenarios will force
                            asking relevant questions and identify a
                            range of possible choices or events.
                                                                ”
                              Roger Caldwell, 2002
                              Anticipating the future




cals.arizona.edu/futures/
scenario planning

    accordin g to Caldwe
                         ll
                              ^

 identify driving forces and plausible trends
 combine them to get a series of scenarios
 under the form of stories …
973                                    STORY
             1




http://www.flickr.com/photos/tortugaone/2355765592/
^
scenario planning
             Philips
3 steps of business model design




 !"                  #"                   %"                 $"
                          ASSESS

 !! "#$%&'(#)#*'$+,-) !! 2$$#$$)           !! (&2',$30&/)0,) !! 3.&,),#
    (.$',#$$)/0"#1)      $3&#,-34$)2,")       '/7&08#/#,3$)9)   ',30)2)7
                         5#26,#$$#$)          0770&3.,'+#$))    &02"/2
question your business model
2
SWOT analysis
strength
weakness




flickr 2363952016_97f10be59f_o.jpg
opportunity
threats
3 steps of business model design




 !"                  #"                   %"   INNOVATE      $"



 !! "#$%&'(#)#*'$+,-) !! 2$$#$$)           !! (&2',$30&/)0,) !! 3.&,),#
    (.$',#$$)/0"#1)      $3&#,-34$)2,")       '/7&08#/#,3$)9)   ',30)2)7
                         5#26,#$$#$)          0770&3.,'+#$))    &02"/2
business
  model
          ^
innova tion
Ques7ons




            ?
Could
we
regroup
customers
be;er
according
to

their
needs?
Ques7ons




            ?
Could
we
complement
our
value
proposi7on

through
agreements
with
partners?
Ques7ons




             ?
Could
we
transform
our
revenue
streams
(rent

vs.
sales)?
Ques7ons




             ?
Do
we
serve
the
right
customers
through
the

right
channels?
Ques7ons




             ?
What
level
of
personaliza7on
do
our

rela7onships
require?
Ques7ons




             ?
Which
key
resources/ac7vi7es
can
we
get
rid
of?
Ques7ons




            ?
With
which
partners
could
we
achieve
fit?
Ques7ons




             ?
Which
areas
can
we
slash
to
reduce
our
cost

structure?
3
blue ocean
s the “blue ocean” ???
who know




                                  illustrations.fr
o, more ser iously ???
n




                          illustrations.fr
http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/b/best_selling_book.asp
“ Market boundaries are
  not given. They are
  reconstructed by the
  actions & beliefs of
  industry players.
                          ”
    Kim & Mauborgne
    Blue Ocean Strategy
RED OCEAN                                     BLUE OCEAN


 • compete in existing markets                            • create uncontested markets

 • beat the competition                                   • make competition irrelevant

 • explore existing demand                                • create & capture new demand

 • make the value/cost trad-off                           • break value/cost trad-off

 • align with differentiation OR low                      • align with differentiation AND
   cost                                                     low cost

[Kim & Mauborgne (2002) Charting Your Company's Future]
A strategy canvas ...
                   o Kim & M
                                  ^
                             auborgne
      ac cording t




 a way to visualize the strategic profile
 based on the factors that affect competition
 showing the strategic profile of competitors
 identifying which factors they invest in
 strategically
CHARTING THE OFFER’S FACTORS
[Kim & Mauborgne (2002) Charting Your Company's Future]
CHARTING THE VALUE PROPOSITION
eliminate                                          raise
                    e factors                                            s  should
        hich of
                  th                                      Whic h factor
     W
                        ry takes                                          a bove the
     that   the indus
                      t
                                                          be ra ised well
                     hould be                                         standard?
     for   granted s                                      i ndustry's
                  ?
      e liminated

                                                                       r s should
                 rs shoul
                           d                              Wh ich facto
    Wh ich facto                                                    d that th
                                                                              e
                w ell below                               be create
    be reduced                                                      has never
                    s tandard?                            industry
    the in dustry's
                                                           offered?
                      reduce
[Kim & Mauborgne (2002) Charting Your Company's Future]
                                                                create
disruptive technology
www.flickr.com/photos/toohotty/2675099789/sizes/l/
^
disruptive technology
                         Christensen
            according to


 results in worse product performance,
 at least in the near-term
 brings to the market a very different value
 proposition than had been available previously
 typically cheaper, simpler, smaller, and,
 frequently, more convenient to use
 [But, they generally] under perform established
 products in mainstream markets.
ive
                                                                       pt
                                                                    sru
                       performance

                                                               di

                                                                                    t
                                                                               marke




                                                        new replaces old technology
                      market for
                      old technology


                                       market for
                                       new technology

                                                                                        time


[Christensen, 1997]
Scanning
competitive forces



Assessment
SWOT analysis



Innovate
Blue ocean strategy
competitive forces
        analysis

rev iew ✓ competitors
        ✓customers
        ✓ suppliers
        ✓ substitute products
        ✓ new entrants
SWOT
        analysis

r evi ew ✓ strengths
        ✓ weaknesses
        ✓ opportunities
        ✓ threats
blue ocean
         canvas

r evi ew ✓ visualizing offer’s factors
         ✓ showing strategic profiles
         ✓ identifying factors

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Disruptive Business Model

  • 1. busin ess model as sessm ent a co urse prepared er by alex osterwald an d yves pigneur with cédric gaspoz
  • 2. e -business serv ice design s cenario & s torytelling t ask analysis p rototyping service to business from ueprint & v isualization bl service innovation ess model innovation busin busin ess model business m odel design s model as sessment ‣busines
  • 6. PR EPA RED BE http://www.flickr.com/photos/thefamilymorris/sets/72157603383415256/
  • 7. PR EPAR ED ? NOT http://www.flickr.com/photos/thefamilymorris/sets/72157603383415256/
  • 8. 3 steps of business model design !" #" %" $" ASSESS !! "#$%&'(#)#*'$+,-) !! 2$$#$$) !! (&2',$30&/)0,) !! 3.&,),# (.$',#$$)/0"#1) $3&#,-34$)2,") '/7&08#/#,3$)9) ',30)2)7 5#26,#$$#$) 0770&3.,'+#$)) &02"/2
  • 10. business model ^ a sse ssm ent
  • 11. nt scan ning e nviro nme
  • 12. - foresight - KEY TRENDS INDUSTRY MARKET FORCES FORCES - competitive analysis - - market analysis - MACRO ECONOMIC FORCES - macroeconomics -
  • 13.
  • 16. pre ssures COMPETITORS (INCUMBENTS) NEW ENTRANTS (INSURGENTS) INDUSTRY SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS FORCES AND SERVICES SUPPLIERS AND OTHER - competitive analysis - VALUE CHAIN ACTORS STAKEHOLDERS
  • 18.
  • 19. Prediction ... “ shortcomings to be seriously considered This 'telephone' has too many as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us. ” West Union internal memo, 1876
  • 20. Prediction ... “ this country and walked with the best I have travelled the length and breadth of people, and I can assure you that data processing is a fad that won't last out the year. ” The editor of management books at Prentice-Hall, 1957
  • 21. Prediction ... “ for maybe five computers. I think there is a world market ” Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943
  • 22. Prediction ... “ would want a computer in their There is no reason anyone home. ” Ken Olsen, President and founder of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977
  • 23. “Prediction is very difficult, especially if it's about the future.” Niels Bohr 1952
  • 26. magic
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 33. Scenarios are a way of developing alternative futures based on different combinations of assumptions, facts and trends, […] Building scenarios will force asking relevant questions and identify a range of possible choices or events. ” Roger Caldwell, 2002 Anticipating the future cals.arizona.edu/futures/
  • 34.
  • 35. scenario planning accordin g to Caldwe ll ^ identify driving forces and plausible trends combine them to get a series of scenarios under the form of stories …
  • 36. 973 STORY 1 http://www.flickr.com/photos/tortugaone/2355765592/
  • 38. 3 steps of business model design !" #" %" $" ASSESS !! "#$%&'(#)#*'$+,-) !! 2$$#$$) !! (&2',$30&/)0,) !! 3.&,),# (.$',#$$)/0"#1) $3&#,-34$)2,") '/7&08#/#,3$)9) ',30)2)7 5#26,#$$#$) 0770&3.,'+#$)) &02"/2
  • 40.
  • 46. 3 steps of business model design !" #" %" INNOVATE $" !! "#$%&'(#)#*'$+,-) !! 2$$#$$) !! (&2',$30&/)0,) !! 3.&,),# (.$',#$$)/0"#1) $3&#,-34$)2,") '/7&08#/#,3$)9) ',30)2)7 5#26,#$$#$) 0770&3.,'+#$)) &02"/2
  • 47. business model ^ innova tion
  • 48. Ques7ons ? Could
we
regroup
customers
be;er
according
to
 their
needs?
  • 49. Ques7ons ? Could
we
complement
our
value
proposi7on
 through
agreements
with
partners?
  • 50. Ques7ons ? Could
we
transform
our
revenue
streams
(rent
 vs.
sales)?
  • 51. Ques7ons ? Do
we
serve
the
right
customers
through
the
 right
channels?
  • 52. Ques7ons ? What
level
of
personaliza7on
do
our
 rela7onships
require?
  • 53. Ques7ons ? Which
key
resources/ac7vi7es
can
we
get
rid
of?
  • 54. Ques7ons ? With
which
partners
could
we
achieve
fit?
  • 55. Ques7ons ? Which
areas
can
we
slash
to
reduce
our
cost
 structure?
  • 57. s the “blue ocean” ??? who know illustrations.fr
  • 58.
  • 59. o, more ser iously ??? n illustrations.fr
  • 61. “ Market boundaries are not given. They are reconstructed by the actions & beliefs of industry players. ” Kim & Mauborgne Blue Ocean Strategy
  • 62. RED OCEAN BLUE OCEAN • compete in existing markets • create uncontested markets • beat the competition • make competition irrelevant • explore existing demand • create & capture new demand • make the value/cost trad-off • break value/cost trad-off • align with differentiation OR low • align with differentiation AND cost low cost [Kim & Mauborgne (2002) Charting Your Company's Future]
  • 63. A strategy canvas ... o Kim & M ^ auborgne ac cording t a way to visualize the strategic profile based on the factors that affect competition showing the strategic profile of competitors identifying which factors they invest in strategically
  • 64. CHARTING THE OFFER’S FACTORS [Kim & Mauborgne (2002) Charting Your Company's Future]
  • 65. CHARTING THE VALUE PROPOSITION
  • 66. eliminate raise e factors s should hich of th Whic h factor W ry takes a bove the that the indus t be ra ised well hould be standard? for granted s i ndustry's ? e liminated r s should rs shoul d Wh ich facto Wh ich facto d that th e w ell below be create be reduced has never s tandard? industry the in dustry's offered? reduce [Kim & Mauborgne (2002) Charting Your Company's Future] create
  • 69. ^ disruptive technology Christensen according to results in worse product performance, at least in the near-term brings to the market a very different value proposition than had been available previously typically cheaper, simpler, smaller, and, frequently, more convenient to use [But, they generally] under perform established products in mainstream markets.
  • 70. ive pt sru performance di t marke new replaces old technology market for old technology market for new technology time [Christensen, 1997]
  • 72. competitive forces analysis rev iew ✓ competitors ✓customers ✓ suppliers ✓ substitute products ✓ new entrants
  • 73. SWOT analysis r evi ew ✓ strengths ✓ weaknesses ✓ opportunities ✓ threats
  • 74. blue ocean canvas r evi ew ✓ visualizing offer’s factors ✓ showing strategic profiles ✓ identifying factors