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Tokyo 2014
business model
innovation & design
!
yves.pigneur@unil.ch (イヴ・)
ビジネスモデルイノベーションとデザイン
November 2012
business model
innovation & design
Alex (アレックス・)
?How to design innovative
business models?
どのようにして成功するビジネスモデルを思いつくのか?
time
performance
sustaining innovation
disruptive
innovation
破壊的革新
2013
2012
2011
2010
2005
2000
1997
Larry Page & Sergey Brin
1995
1990
1985
1984
柳井 正 Yanai Tadashi
1983
1982
1981
1980
Nicolas Hayek
[source: rezonance]
?what do these examples
have in common?
これらの事例に共通することは何でしょうか?
they focused on product
innovation alone
they empower the product
through the business model
製品イノベーションを超えていく
they simply copied
from competitors
they invented a new
business model
競合他社を後追いするのではなく
they could prove in advance
that the model would work
they had to take some risk
and experiment
証明出来るまで待つのではなく
Our Vision
In the future, business leaders will
- operate more like surgeons,
- prototype like designers, and
- experiment...
right tools 適切なツール
design thinking デザイン思考
experimenting 実験を
Business
Model
1 Design
Thinking
2 Model
testing
3
ビジネスモデル デザイン思考 モデルをテストする
!38
your expectations ?
あなたの期待?
right tools 適切なツール
1 43
Business
Model
ビジネスモデル
question
質問
?How much did the cost of home
coffee consumption change for
Swiss households over the last
couple of years?
家庭用コーヒーの消費コスト...
2004
¥10’000.-
2014
¥ ?(CHF 100.-)
+800%+600%
http://www.flickr.com/photos/joeshlabotnik/2294656527/!
Discuss:
What is Nespresso’s
Business Model?
Nespresso ビジネスモデル?
?what is a business model? discuss
with your seat neighbour and write
down your definition
ビジネスモデル の定義?
common language
共通言語
simple
容易
holistic
全体的な
visual
ビジュアル
Business Model
Canvas
ビジネスモデルキャンバス
customer segment
images by JAM
顧客セグメント
value proposition
images by JAM
価値提案
distribution channel
images by JAM
(販売) チャンネル
customer relationship
images by JAM
顧客との関係
revenue stream
images by JAM
収益の流れ
key resources
images by JAM
主要リソース
key activities
images by JAM
主要な活動
key partners
images by JAM
パートナー
cost structure
images by JAM
コスト構造
customer
segments
key
partners
cost
structure
revenue
streamsdistribution
channels
customer
relationshipskey activities
ke...
!69
ビジネスモデルキャンバス
VALUE PROPOSITION RELATIONSHIP CUSTOMER SEGMENTS
CHANNELS
KEY ACTIVITIES
KEY RESOURCES
KEY PARTNERS
COST ...
A VALUE
PROPOSITION
A CHANNEL
A CUSTOMER
TARGET
A REVENUE
STREAM
RELATIONSHIP
A RESOURCE
COST
A PARTNER
AN ACTIVITY
ANOTHE...
www.businessmodelgeneration.com
strategyzer.com
開発元: 著作権はBusiness Model Foundry AGに帰属します。ビジネスモデルキャンバスとStrategyzerの開発者
製造元:...
example:
airBnB
prepared with Mathilde Krause
Joe Gebbia
Brian Chesky
1週間で千ドル
In 2007, they earned $1’000 in just one week
会議への参加者3
3 attendees to a conference preferred to live with locals
?How to build a service matching
visitors who wants rooms with locals
who wants to rent out extra space
部屋を探している観光客と、空いている...
??? images by Mathildeimages by Mathilde
価値提案 顧客との関係
コスト構造
主要な活動
チャンネル主要リソース
収益の流れ
顧客セグメントパートナー
Nathan Blecharczyk proposed to Brian Chesky & Joe
Gebbia to do something more global
!
!
an open peer-to-peer marketplace
for people to stay anywhere
around the world
!
オープンなピアツーピア市場
!86
images by Mathilde
価値提案 顧客との関係
コスト構造
主要な活動
チャンネル主要リソース
収益の流れ
顧客セグメントパートナー
results
June 2008 June 2010
Guest nights booked since 2008
June 2012
10millions
5millions
JANUARY 2012
Jan 2009 Jan 2012
Number of Listings since 2009
Jan 2013
300thousands
100thousands
Jan 2011Jan 2010
Airbnb hosts in New York in 2008
Airbnb hosts in NewYork in 2011
Airbnb hosts in New York in 2011
$1’650 the earning
average per apartment
per month in NYC
1650ドル の収益 /アパート /月
time
performance
sustaining innovation
disruptive
innovation
破壊的革新
exercise:
Nespresso
describe the Nespresso’s
business model using the
canvas
ネスプレッソのビジネスモデルをキャンバスで説明します
コスト構造 収益の流れ
価値提案 顧客との関係 顧客セグメント主要な活動パートナー
主要リソース チャンネル
販売店・小売
スイスフラン
製造業者
店舗
スイスフラン
クラブ
特許
工場
マーケティング
生産
配送
マーケティング 生産 配送
Nespresso
changed the
business model
for espresso
average growth of 30%
p.a. since 2000
2000年以降の年間平均成長率は30%
estimated 4.5 billion CHF annual
revenue with 1 product line in 2013
(5 bio USD)
[source: FT, Nov 2013]
1製品群で45億スイスフランの年間売上
time
performance
traditional industry
disruptive
BM
破壊的革新
what else...?
!Nespresso almost went
bankrupt in 1987 !
倒産寸前
JOIN VENTURE W/
MACHINE MANUFACTURERS
BUSINESS
MACHINE
MANUFACTURERS
MACHINE
PODS
共同事業
the right business model can
be the difference between
success and failure for the
same product
Business model
mechanics
力学
www.sxc.hu
BM as a checklist (チェックリスト)
Revenue StreamsCost Structure
Customer
Relationships
Channels
Customer
Segments
Value
Propositions
Key ActivitiesKey Partn...
What does that have to do
with business models?
?それはビジネスモデルにおいてどんな意味を持つだろうか?
1
2
3
4
5
example:
airBnB
prepared with Mathilde Krause
VALUE
PROPOSITION
CUSTOMER
RELATIONSHIP
CUSTOMER
SEGMENT
DISTRIBUTION
CHANNEL
KEY
ACTIVITIES
KEY
RESOURCES
KEY
PARTNERS
CO...
VALUE
PROPOSITION
CUSTOMER
RELATIONSHIP
CUSTOMER
SEGMENT
DISTRIBUTION
CHANNEL
KEY
ACTIVITIES
KEY
RESOURCES
KEY
PARTNERS
CO...
design thinking デザイン思考
2 143
Design
Thinking
デザイン思考
decision Vs design
決定 / デザイン
decision attitude:
it’s easy to come
up with
alternatives, but
difficult to choose
between them
決定 : 選択肢の中から選択するのが難しい
existing choices
a b c
existing choices
abcgko
designing alternatives
making choices
abcgko
How do you design business model alternatives?
複数のモデル
business people don’t
just need to understand
designers better; they
need to become
designers
– Roger Martin, Rotman Schoo...
Design
デザイン
1
think out of the box
箱から出して
– David Kelley, IDEO
We evaluate potential
solutions through user
observation & iterative
rapid prototyping.
“
”
http://www.stanford.edu/group/dschool/
Customer
insight
顧客インサイト
2
Business Model
Key Partners Key Activities
Key Resources
Value
Proposition
Customer
Relationships
Customer
Segments
Channe...
160
Designing a great value
proposition starts with a
deep understanding of
customers
(提供できる素晴らしい価値をデザインすることで)顧客への
理解を深めること
Key Partners Key Activities
Key Resources
Value
Proposition
Customer
Relationships
Customer
Segments
Channels
Revenue
Stre...
? 162
How to define
customer/user centricity?
顧客中心主義?
フランス人デザイナーのフィリップ・スタルクによるデザイン
?Great, but what if you don’t
have a designer handy?
put yourself in the
customers’ shoes
お客様の靴を履く
168
customer
顧客
value proposition
価値提案
job-to-be-done
やるべき仕事
Jobs-to-be-done offers a clear
way to innovate
– Clay Christensen, HBS
“ ”
“やるべき仕事”を考えることは革新するための明解な方法です
Value Proposition
Canvas
価値提案キャンバス
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams
Channels
Customer SegmentsValue PropositionsKey ActivitiesKey Partners
Key Resou...
The Value Proposition Canvas
Gain Creators
Describe how your products and services create customer gains.
How do they crea...
The Value Proposition Canvas
Gain Creators
Describe how your products and services create customer gains.
How do they crea...
The Value Proposition Canvas
Gain Creators
Describe how your products and services create customer gains.
How do they crea...
prototype
プロトタイプ (原型)
3
? 177
How do architects
apply design thinking?
建築家はどのようにデザイン思考を適用しますか?
[source: sanaa]
[source: sanaa]
西沢 立衛 Nishizawa 妹島 和世 Sejima
Rolex learning center
[source: Sony Pictures]
Frank Gehry
What does that have to do
with business models?
?それはビジネスモデルにおいてどんな意味を持つだろうか?
!203
If you freeze to an idea
too quickly, you fall in
love with it.
– Jim Glymph, Gehry Partner
“
”
最初のアイデアと恋に落ちないでください
... if you refine it too
quickly you become
attached to it..
– Jim Glymph, Gehry Partner
“
”
洗練するのを急ぎ過ぎてはいけません
example:
sunEdison
question
質問
where is solar energy
particularly useful?
太陽エネルギーが特に効果的な場所はどこでしょうか?
Jigar Shah
"212
ショッピングセンター
shopping centers!
"213
冷蔵庫が必要
cold storage requirement!
"214
電気料金の高い請求書
high energy bill!
"215
ほとんどの電力は12時から16時の間に消費される
most energy used between 12:00-16:00!
"216
大型の屋根
large rooftops!
?What could be a scalable
business model for
SunEdison ?
SunEdison社の拡張可能なビジネスモデルとは?
1
PATENTS
特許
SOLAR
EXPERTS
太陽光 の専門家
SOLAR PANEL
INSTALLATION
ソーラーパネル
LONG TERM
RELATIONS
長期的な関係
SHOPPING
CENTERS
ショッピングセンタ...
?why don’t the retail stores
and shopping centers switch
to solar energy?
どうしてショッピングセンターは太陽光発電にシフトしないのか?
[sources: Henry Chesbrough, photo: life.com]
?what if we gave the panels away
for free to eliminate the hurdle
of upfront investment
(発電用)パネルを無償提供したらどうだろう?
2
PATENTS
特許
SOLAR
EXPERTS
太陽光 の専門家
SOLAR PANEL
INSTALLATION
ソーラーパネル
LONG TERM
RELATIONS
長期的な関係
SHOPPING
CENTERS
ショッピングセンタ...
?how to finance the
upfront investment
先行投資の資金はどう調達するか?
3
PATENTS
特許
EXPERTS
太陽光 の専門家
LONG TERM
RELATIONS
長期的な関係 SHOPPING
CENTERS
ショッピングセンター
SALES FORCE
営業部隊
PANEL
MANUFACTURERS
...
results
SunEdison became the
largest solar provider
in the U.S.
米国最大の太陽光発電メーカー
in ’09, SunEdison
bought by MEMC
Electronic Materials for
$200 million
2億ドルのためにMEMCに買収
time
performance
traditional industry
disruptive
BM
破壊的革新
!innovative business models can
unlock opportunities that were not
possible with the traditional models
experimenting 実験を
3 235
Model
Testing
モデルをテストする
DIAGNOSTIC
診断
strength
強さ
weakness
flickr 2363952016_97f10be59f_o.jpg
弱さ
?Why do Business
Models Fail?
なぜビジネスモデルは上手くいかないのでしょうか?
不適切な、顧客の業務を解消する
欠陥のあるビジネスモデル
外部からの脅威
不適切な実行
1
不適切な、顧客の業務を解消する
examples
?How much did they lose on
this business?
損失 ?
$800m
are customers waiting for your product ?
お客様がお使いの製品を待っている?
Customer
development
顧客開発
a business model might
look great on paper...
but really its...
ビジネスモデル
VALUE
PROPOSITION
CUSTOMER
RELATIONSHIP
CUSTOMER
SEGMENT
DISTRIBUTION
CHANNEL
KEY
ACTIVITIES
KEY
RESOURCES
KEY
PARTNERS
CO...
[source: Sony Pictures]
there are no facts in the
building... so get the hell
out and talk to customers
!
– Steve Blank, e...
test each hypothesis
各々の仮説をテストする
What people say, and
what people do are two
different things
... adapt the business model
pivot
ビジネスモデルを適応させる
customer
discovery
customer
validation
customer
creation
company
building
customer
discovery
customer
validation
customer
creation
company
building
spending
支
出
uncertainty
不
確
実
性
¥
¥
¥
¥
¥
searc...
only then should you build your
company or launch the project,
else you’ll risk...
試験後に起動
burning your cash while
searching for a business model
避ける
call for
action
MVP
split
testing
signature
Ad
tracking
innovation
games
pre-
sales
fake
sales
not today
exercice:
Apple iPod
Key Partners Key Activities
Key Resources
Value
Proposition
Customer
Relationships
Customer
Segments
Channels
Revenue
Stre...
?what are the main hypothesis
Apple made for the revenue
stream coming from the music
distribution?
収益の流れ の主な仮説
Key Partners Key Activities
Key Resources
Value
Proposition
Customer
Relationships
Customer
Segments
Channels
Revenue
Stre...
Hypothesis
(we believe that …)
people are ready to pay 99 cents per
track using iTunes
[source:Mullins & Komisar, GETTING ...
Test
(to verify that, we will …)
launch a simplified service with a
limited number of songs
検証
Metric
(we measure …)
the number of music tracks
purchased by users from iTunes
[source:Mullins & Komisar, GETTING TO PLAN...
Data
(we were right if …)
one million downloads the first day,
7.5 million in 3 months
[source:Mullins & Komisar, GETTING T...
Key Partners Key Activities
Key Resources
Value
Proposition
Customer
Relationships
Customer
Segments
Channels
Revenue
Stre...
not today
exemple:
BMGEN
November 2012
question
質問
?How many new business books
appear every year ?
どのように多くの書籍?
"293
mium
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Augustins_cauchemar_03.JPG
悪夢
314
Business
Model
1 Design
Thinking
2 Model
testing
3
ビジネスモデル デザイン思考 モデルをテストする
Lessons
Learned
学びで得た教訓
the right business model can
be the difference between
success and failure for the
same product
適切なビジネスモデルは、明らかにそうでないものとは異...
rapidly prototype business
models and don’t fall in love
with your first idea
あなたの最初のアイデアと恋に落ちない
get outside the building,
meet customers and
test your business model
オフィスから出て、顧客に会いましょう
SEARCH IMPLEMENT
DESIGN TEST
検索 実装する
ビジネスモデル設計プロセス
business model design process
The Business Model Canvas
Revenue Streams...
322
THE END
p r e s e n t e d b y
A L E X O S T E R W A L D E R & Y V E S P I G N E U R
!
w i t h t h e s u p p o r t o f
S T R A T E ...
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The Value Proposition Canvas
Gain Creators
Describe how your products and services create customer gains.
How do they create benefits your customer expects, desires or would be surprised
by, including functional utility, social gains, positive emotions, and cost savings?
Pain Relievers
Do they…
Create savings that make your customer happy?
(e.g. in terms of time, money and effort, …)
Produce outcomes your customer expects or that go
beyond their expectations?
(e.g. better quality level, more of something, less of something, …)
Copy or outperform current solutions that delight your
customer?
(e.g. regarding specific features, performance, quality, …)
Make your customer’s job or life easier?
(e.g. flatter learning curve, usability, accessibility, more services, lower
cost of ownership, …)
Create positive social consequences that your
customer desires?
(e.g. makes them look good, produces an increase in power, status, …)
Do something customers are looking for?
(e.g. good design, guarantees, specific or more features, …)
Fulfill something customers are dreaming about?
(e.g. help big achievements, produce big reliefs, …)
Produce positive outcomes matching your customers
success and failure criteria?
(e.g. better performance, lower cost, …)
Help make adoption easier?
(e.g. lower cost, less investments, lower risk, better quality,
performance, design, …)
Rank each gain your products and services create according to its relevance to your
customer. Is it substantial or insignificant? For each gain indicate how often it occurs.
Describe how your products and services alleviate customer pains. How do they
eliminate or reduce negative emotions, undesired costs and situations, and risks
your customer experiences or could experience before, during, and after getting
the job done?
Do they…
Produce savings?
(e.g. in terms of time, money, or efforts, …)
Make your customers feel better?
(e.g. kills frustrations, annoyances, things that give them a headache, …)
Fix underperforming solutions?
(e.g. new features, better performance, better quality, …)
Put an end to difficulties and challenges your
customers encounter?
(e.g. make things easier, helping them get done, eliminate resistance, …)
Wipe out negative social consequences your
customers encounter or fear?
(e.g. loss of face, power, trust, or status, …)
Eliminate risks your customers fear?
(e.g. financial, social, technical risks, or what could go awfully wrong, …)
Help your customers better sleep at night?
(e.g. by helping with big issues, diminishing concerns, or eliminating worries, …)
Limit or eradicate common mistakes customers make?
(e.g. usage mistakes, …)
Get rid of barriers that are keeping your customer
from adopting solutions?
(e.g. lower or no upfront investment costs, flatter learning curve, less
resistance to change, …)
Rank each pain your products and services kill according to their intensity
for your customer. Is it very intense or very light?
For each pain indicate how often it occurs. Risks your customer experiences or
could experience before, during, and after getting the job done?
Products & Services
List all the products and services your value proposition is built around.
Which products and services do you offer that help your customer get either a
functional, social, or emotional job done, or help him/her satisfy basic needs?
Which ancillary products and services help your customer perform the roles of:
Buyer
(e.g. products and services that help customers compare offers,
decide, buy, take delivery of a product or service, …)
Co-creator
(e.g. products and services that help customers co-design
solutions, otherwise contribute value to the solution, …)
Transferrer
(e.g. products and services that help customers dispose of
a product, transfer it to others, or resell, …)
Products and services may either by tangible (e.g. manufactured goods, face-to-
face customer service), digital/virtual (e.g. downloads, online recommendations),
intangible (e.g. copyrights, quality assurance), or financial (e.g. investment funds,
financing services).
Rank all products and services according to their importance to your customer.
Are they crucial or trivial to your customer?
Gains
Describe the benefits your customer expects, desires or would be surprised by.
This includes functional utility, social gains, positive emotions, and cost savings.
Pains
Customer Job(s)
Describe negative emotions, undesired costs and situations, and risks that your
customer experiences or could experience before, during, and after getting the
job done.
What does your customer find too costly?
(e.g. takes a lot of time, costs too much money, requires substantial efforts, …)
What makes your customer feel bad?
(e.g. frustrations, annoyances, things that give them a headache, …)
How are current solutions underperforming for
your customer?
(e.g. lack of features, performance, malfunctioning, …)
What are the main difficulties and challenges
your customer encounters?
(e.g. understanding how things work, difficulties getting things done,
resistance, …)
What negative social consequences does your
customer encounter or fear?
(e.g. loss of face, power, trust, or status, …)
What risks does your customer fear?
(e.g. financial, social, technical risks, or what could go awfully wrong, …)
What’s keeping your customer awake at night?
(e.g. big issues, concerns, worries, …)
What common mistakes does your customer make?
(e.g. usage mistakes, …)
What barriers are keeping your customer from
adopting solutions?
(e.g. upfront investment costs, learning curve, resistance to change, …)
Describe what a specific customer segment is trying to get done. It could be the tasks
they are trying to perform and complete, the problems they are trying to solve, or the
needs they are trying to satisfy.
What functional jobs are you helping your customer get done?
(e.g. perform or complete a specific task, solve a specific problem, …)
What social jobs are you helping your customer get done?
(e.g. trying to look good, gain power or status, …)
What emotional jobs are you helping your customer get done?
(e.g. esthetics, feel good, security, …)
What basic needs are you helping your customer satisfy?
(e.g. communication, sex, …)
Besides trying to get a core job done, your customer performs ancillary jobs in differ-
ent roles. Describe the jobs your customer is trying to get done as:
Buyer (e.g. trying to look good, gain power or status, …)
Co-creator (e.g. esthetics, feel good, security, …)
Transferrer (e.g. products and services that help customers dispose
of a product, transfer it to others, or resell, …)
Rank each job according to its significance to your customer. Is it
crucial or is it trivial? For each job indicate how often it occurs.
Outline in which specific context a job
is done, because that may impose
constraints or limitations.
(e.g. while driving, outside, …)
Which savings would make your customer happy?
(e.g. in terms of time, money and effort, …)
What outcomes does your customer expect and what
would go beyond his/her expectations?
(e.g. quality level, more of something, less of something, …)
How do current solutions delight your customer?
(e.g. specific features, performance, quality, …)
What would make your customer’s job or life easier?
(e.g. flatter learning curve, more services, lower cost of ownership, …)
What positive social consequences does your
customer desire?
(e.g. makes them look good, increase in power, status, …)
What are customers looking for?
(e.g. good design, guarantees, specific or more features, …)
What do customers dream about?
(e.g. big achievements, big reliefs, …)
How does your customer measure success and failure?
(e.g. performance, cost, …)
What would increase the likelihood of adopting a solution?
(e.g. lower cost, less investments, lower risk, better quality, performance,
design, …)
Rank each gain according to its relevance to
your customer.
Is it substantial or is it insignificant?
For each gain indicate how often it occurs.
Rank each pain according to the intensity it
represents for your customer.
Is it very intense or is it very light.?
For each pain indicate how often it occurs.
On:
Iteration:
Designed by:Designed for:
Day Month Year
No.
Customer Segment
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Value Proposition
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Published in: Business
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