• The study ... examined links between
motivation, self-directed strategies for
learning English, and learning outcomes.
• aimed to delve more deeply into these
issues among a smaller group of students
and to investigate the variation in the
• Are there any typical attitudinal diﬀerences
between successful and unsuccessful tertiary-
level Chinese students?
• What strategies do they report using in their
• How are they typically motivated into carrying
out their English learning?
• 18 Chinese learners
• interviews (two per student), diaries in which
participants reflected on their language learning,
and follow-up emails
• Results from analyzing the first interview and
diaries determined questions for the second
interview. → Grounded theory
• ... learners diﬀered in terms of how they
conceptualized language learning, attitudes,
toward instruction, use of out-of-class
opportunities to practice English, perceptions of
control over their learning, and motivation.
• ... interaction among these factors accounts for
diﬀerent outcomes and ... research on learner
diﬀerences take a more holistic approach.