Vertical greening systems

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The research focuses on the practical aspects of building a vertical greening structure, and looks at case studies of built green walls around the world.

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Vertical greening systems

  1. 1. Dreer Award 2009 Vertical Greening Systems Stephanie Gautama
  2. 2. inspiration, systems and integration Vertical Greening Systems 3 Continents, 8 Cities, 70 Sites
  3. 3. inspiration, systems and integration Why study vertical greening systems? Rise of Vegitecture Gwanggyo Green Power Center by MVRDV Proposal for Dreer Award Planning the Trip
  4. 4. What got me into studying vertical greening systems?
  5. 5. Rise of Vegitecture Madison Tower by Daniel Liebskind Chonqing Tower by Ken Yeang vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  6. 6. Karst Mountains, China ‘Gwanggyo Green Power Center’ by MVRDV vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  7. 7. Karst Mountains, China ‘Gwanggyo Green Power Center’ by MVRDV vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  8. 8. inspiration, systems and integration TYPES OF VERTICAL GREENING GREEN WALLS The Patrick Blanc Phenomena, Paris Green Fortune, Stockholm Grünewand, Germany Verticalis, Switzerland The Greenwall Company, Sydney Fytowall, Melbourne Modular Green Wall Products - International GREEN FACADE Hotel Naumi, Singapore Green Tapestry, Singapore MFO Park, Zurich Fünf Höfe, Munich
  9. 9. green wall green facade vs Planted walls at Quai Branly. Paris Climbing structures at MFO Park, Zurich vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  10. 10. green wall green facade vs Planted walls at Quai Branly. Paris Climbing structures at MFO Park, Zurich vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  11. 11. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Parc Floral by Patrick Blanc
  12. 12. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Parc Floral by Patrick Blanc
  13. 13. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Parc Floral by Patrick Blanc
  14. 14. Fabric-thin substrate Constant drip irrigation = 60 liters/sqm/day* Water is recycled at the park’s fish pond vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Parc Floral by Patrick Blanc
  15. 15. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama BHV Homme, Paris by Patrick Blanc
  16. 16. Hotel Pershing
  17. 17. Detail from Quai Branly Detail from Hotel Pershing vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  18. 18. Melbourne Central, November 2008 Melbourne Central, November 2009 vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Melbourne Central, July 2009
  19. 19. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama A contractor’s attempt at replicating Patrick Blanc in Singapore NParks HQ
  20. 20. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Mannheimer Swarthing Plantwall by Green Fortune, Stockholm
  21. 21. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  22. 22. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  23. 23. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Structor Architects Plantwall, Stockholm
  24. 24. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Giving the ferns a good shake!
  25. 25. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  26. 26. Plantwall installation at Ålingsas Hospital, Sweden vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  27. 27. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Plantwall installation crew
  28. 28. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Verticalis : The first green wall I ever saw...
  29. 29. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Draping 2-year old Verticalis; the Adiantum ferns starts as a weed!
  30. 30. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Verticalis, 150 x 100 cm module
  31. 31. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Detail of vericalis with spider plant and different kinds of peperomia sp.
  32. 32. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama 1 year old verticalis frame, 120cm x 60 cm
  33. 33. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  34. 34. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  35. 35. Newly planted verticalis at ZHAW Greenhouse July 2009 Hydroplant Showroom October 2009 vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  36. 36. Grünewand
  37. 37. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Grünewand module & irrigation details
  38. 38. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Sydney Accenture HQ by The Greenwall Company
  39. 39. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Bromeliad collection and ‘Bromeliad’ wall by The Greenwall Company
  40. 40. (top) Biodegradable seedling plug (right) Ovegrown wall experiment vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  41. 41. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Wall materials by The Greenwall Company
  42. 42. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Trial wall of The Greenwall Company
  43. 43. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Making the Fytowall Foam
  44. 44. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Curing the foam
  45. 45. (top) Cutting the foam to panel sizes (right) Plant roots adapting to growing on foam vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  46. 46. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Vertical Garden Panels of Fytowall intended for Adelaide zoo. It is in pre-growing phase
  47. 47. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Greenhouse of Fytowall full of vertical garden panels
  48. 48. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  49. 49. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama ANZ Melbourne by HASSEL Architects and FytoGreen
  50. 50. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama ANZ Melbourne by HASSEL Architects and FytoGreen
  51. 51. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Stellaria holostea at ANZ Fytowall
  52. 52. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Junglefy living wall modules for retail sale
  53. 53. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Junglefy Living Wall Module
  54. 54. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Edible living wall - includes strawberry, sage, lettuce, mint and celery
  55. 55. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Ornamental Junglefy Living Wall Module; 3-months old
  56. 56. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Elmich green wall modules stacked to form curved surface
  57. 57. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Elmich green wall modules stacked to form curved surface and make a collumn!
  58. 58. inspiration, systems and integration TYPES OF VERTICAL GREENING GREEN WALLS The Patrick Blanc Phenomena, Paris Green Fortune, Stockholm Grünewand, Germany Verticalis, Switzerland The Greenwall Company, Sydney Fytowall, Melbourne Modular Green Wall Products - International GREEN FACADE Hotel Naumi, Singapore Green Tapestry, Singapore MFO Park, Zurich Fünf Höfe, Munich
  59. 59. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Hotel Naumi Green Facade
  60. 60. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Hotel Naumi Planter Elevation
  61. 61. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Hotel Naumi Planter section
  62. 62. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Skimpy green?
  63. 63. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Changi Airport Terminal 3’s “Green Tapestry”
  64. 64. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Changi Airport Terminal 3’s “Green Tapestry”
  65. 65. GREEN TAPESTRY 300 x 15 meters (986 x 50 ft.) OVER 10’000 Plants, including: Vines Argyreia nervosa (Elephant Climber) Passiflora foetida (Stinking Passionflower) Clematis aristata (Old Man’s Beard) Philodendron ‘Emerald Green’ Thunbergia grandiflora (Clock Vine) Monstera deliciosa (Window Plant) Clerodendrum thomsoniae (Bleeding Heart Vine) Petraeovitex wolfei (Wolfe’s Vine) Telosma cordata (Tonkin Creeper) Vallaris glabra (Bread Flower) Epiphytes Epipremnum pinnatum (Dragon-Tail Plant) Platycerium coronarium (Stag’s Horn Fern) Bromelaids Guzmania bromeliads Vriesea hybrid Vriesea splendens Orchids Oncidium orchids (Dancing Ladies) vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  66. 66. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama 2 Layers of Stainless Steel climber cables
  67. 67. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Green Tapestry maintenance platform
  68. 68. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Chinese food with a green view?
  69. 69. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama MFO Park
  70. 70. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama MFO Park 2009
  71. 71. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama MFO Park 2004
  72. 72. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama MFO Park 2004
  73. 73. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama View from the top of MFO Park
  74. 74. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama View from the top of MFO Park
  75. 75. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  76. 76. Irrigated planters at the top level Climbers at the ground level MFO Park by Burckhardt + Partner and Raderschall Landschaftsarchitekten vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  77. 77. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama View from the top of MFO Park
  78. 78. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Residential apartment adjacent to the park!
  79. 79. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Funf Hofe by Herzog de Meuron and Indoorlandscaping
  80. 80. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Above the hanging garden
  81. 81. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Fashionable green or waste of energy?
  82. 82. inspiration, systems and integration Plant selection Lighting Irrigation Maintenance Failed wall Urban heat island effects Psychological benefits LEED Cost Pro & Cons
  83. 83. Monstera deliciosa Nephrolepis exaltata Streptocarpus caulescens and Begonia sp. grows so well that you will need to prune is one of the best selection when it comes to are the few flowering plants that thrives in its roots to avoid it from attacking other ferns. This semi-invasive plant is virtually pest and indoor vertical greening systems that is generally plants. It has a characteristic large leaves disease free, but will need to be pruned regularly of low light conditions. that’s a favorite with the office crowds. to avoid it overtaking other plants. Ferns are generally great to plant on the bottom of green walls because it tolerates low light environment. Other ferns to look out for include Asplenium bulbiforum and Adiantum fragrans. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama plants to like
  84. 84. Soleirolia Solerolii Succulents Strawberries has fine texture and looks really cute when it are great for green roofs, but not for green walls. and other edible herbs are short lived and achieves full cover. However it is an ephemeral Because its heavy ‘leaves’ are filled with water, it needs frequent replacement. Above is the pioneer plant and is frequently found dead tends to droop and sometimes drop at maturity. It ‘Strawberry wall’ for Melbourne Flower within six months of planting... on client’s walls. is also a favorite food for large pests such as snails Show 2009, at 6 months old. The fruits are and possums (in Australia). aslo not as sweet as soil grown ones. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama plants to avoid
  85. 85. Why green wall planting designs tend to streak vertically? - plants, especially ferns, propagates downward - when plants are attacked by pests, the pest would need to ‘jump’ several species of plant before it spreads - so that when large plants are used, onle a narrow portion of smaller plants below gets overshadowed. Planting design by Patrick Blanc planting plan Planting design by myself, for Fytogreen vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama
  86. 86. - Outdoor light level is 20,000 -80,000 lux - Indoor office light level is 300 - 500 lux - Preferable indoor light level is 3000-10,000 lux - Absolute minimum 1000 lux (for ferns) vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama lighting
  87. 87. How much water does it take to run the vertical greens? - Backyard gardens need 12 liters/sqm/day (0.3 gallon/sq ft/day) - In summer outdoor greenwalls evaporate up to 4-6 liters/sqm/day (0.15 gallon/sq ft/day) - Indoor greenealls evaporate up to 2-4 liters/sqm/day - If green wall runs with constant irrigation, like Patrick Blanc’s, it will need 60 liters/sqm/day. Let’s hope they recycle the water! (1 gallon/sq ft/day) vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama irrigation
  88. 88. mealy bugs scales Indoor conditions are ideal for pests because it has warm room temperature and low air circulation. Frequent check and maintenance by cleaning out yellowing/rotting leaves is essential to keep the green walls healthy. maintenance vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama + pest management
  89. 89. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama £100,000 dead wall
  90. 90. Shimizu studies states that their Parabienta green wall system can reduce UHI from 40 to 30 Celcius (104 to 86 Farenheit) But with exposed substrate and constant drip irrigation, the Shimizu system is virtually an evaporating sponge of water! Photo from Hortpark’s vertical greening experiment in Singapore vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama urban heat island ?
  91. 91. RESEARCH STATISTICS Plants can... ...Reduce stress by absorbing, diffracting, or reflecting background noise, and increase attentiveness (up to 12%) ... Creates ideal humidity levels (30-60%) ... Reduce symptoms that lead to absenteeism reduced by 23%. Presence of green area reduces complaints of colds and flu from dry air, and correlates with 8.5% fewer days in hospital ... Cleanses the air of emissions from office equipment by efficiently removing toxic volatile organic compound (VOC) such as benzene, toluene, TCE, and a-pinene. This result in reduction of headaches and eye irritation in the workplace ...Positive place/brand identity vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Plants make you happy
  92. 92. Vertical Greeneries can qualify for LEED credit for: - Non-roof heat island reduction (1pt) - Stormwater quantity control (1pt) Positively affects LEED category of: - Water effecient landscaping - Energy effecient performance - Reduction of particulates in air distribution - Occupant comfort - Innovation in operations AUSTRALIA : Green Star rating SINGAPORE : Annual award recognizing new buildings with ‘Skyrise Greeneries’ vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama LEED
  93. 93. Estimated Average Cost: - USD 1500 - 2000/sqm* (10.7 sq ft) - Maintenance contract (usually at 8-10% of construction cost, per year) Other consideration: - 9-24 months lead time to pre-grow the plants - Additional +100kg/sqm live load to building structure. - If indoors: increase in electricity cost to power metal hallide lamps *Pre-tax. Usually excludes plumbing, lighting and electricity work which is done by the contractor. vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama $$$
  94. 94. Expensive Aesthetically pleasing High-maintenance Does not take a lot of space High electricity usage Psychologically beneficial High water usage Reduce UHI Not sustainable Gives ‘green’ image vertical greening systems | stephanie gautama Is it worth it?
  95. 95. The Greener kind of Green
  96. 96. GREEN WALL SUPPLIERS AROUND THE WORLD Other names: Living wall, Bio Wall, Vertical Gardens, Vertical greenery System Name Developed by Website Bioecture BioTecture, Sussex, UK http://www.biotecture.uk.com/index.html Consis Consis Engineering, Singapore N/A* Edible wall project Green Living Technologies, USA http://www.urbanfarming.org/foodchain2.htm VGM Green Wall Elmich, Australia www.kdb-fassaden.de ELT Living walls Elevated Landscape Technologies http://www.eltlivingwalls.com/ Fytowall Fytowall, Somerville, Australia http://www.fytogreen.com.au/Fytowall/default.htm G-Sky G-Sky, Vancouver, Canada http://www.g-sky.com/GreenWallPanels.aspx Green Fortune Green Fortune AB, Stockholm, SE http://greenfortune.com/ Green Living Walls Green Living Technologies, USA http://www.agreenroof.com/ Greenwall Greenwall company, Sydney, Australia http://www.greenwall.com.au/Default.aspx Greenwall Australia Green wall Australia, Sydney, Australia http://www.greenwallaustralia.com.au/ Grunewand l company http://www.indoorlandscaping.de/ Junglefy Junglefy, Sydney, AUS http://www.junglefy.com/ Livewall (retention wall) Hercules Engineering, Missouri, USA http://www.hortech.com/live_wall.php Living Walls University of Guelph, Canada http://www.naturaire.com/index.php Midorie Suntory Midorie, Japan http://www.suntorymidorie.com/ , http://tokyogreenspace.wordpress.com/2009/08/1 Mur Vegetal Patrick Blanc http://www.verticalgardenpatrickblanc.com/ Naturewall Naturewall, Bologna, Italy http://www.naturewall.eu/ENG/E_index.htm Nparks CUGE, National Parks, Singapore N/A* Quadrovivo Quadrovivo, Sao Paulo, Brazil http://www.quadrovivo.com/ Reviwall Reviplant, Moncalieri, Italy http://www.reviplant.it/prod_inn.php Shimizu Parabienta Shimizu Corporation, Japan comm Takenaka (Unamed) Takenaka, Japan http://www.takenaka.co.jp/takenaka_e/news_e/pr0908/m0908_01.html Verde 360 Verde 360, Mexico http://www.verde360.net/ Verde Verticale Poliflor, Faenza, Italy http://www.takenaka.co.jp/takenaka_e/news_e/pr0908/m0908_01.html Vertical Gardens Vertical Garden Design, Stockholm, SE http://www.verticalgardendesign.com/flashtrue.php?w=1440&h=900 Verticalis Zurich University of Applied Sciences http://www.iunr.zhaw.ch/de/science/iunr/fe-dienstleistungen/verticalis.html Wonderwall Copjin, Utrecht, Netherlands http://www.copijn.nl/index.php?page=wonderwall Zinco Vertigreenz Zinco Singapore N/A* *Website cannot be found; prototype of this system can be seen at http://research.cuge.com.sg/images/stories/Papers/vgs.pdf
  97. 97. note This pdf is a compressed version of the “Vertical Greening Systems” Dreer Award 2009-10 presentation that was given on 5th April 2010 in Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, for distribution in the Cornell community. Almost all of the drawing and photographs shown here are of my own, with some exeption which are press-release images of the relevant companies. You are welcome to use it for studio (class) projects, but please let me know if you want to use them for commercial projects or proposal. Added to this document is a useful contact list of vertical greening (in particular, green wall) suppliers and their websites. If you have more questions or want to learn more, you’re most welcome to contact me at: sg356@cornell.edu Stephanie Gautama
  98. 98. thank you! Ithaca, NY, USA : DREER COMMITTEE : Nina Bassuk, Jeremy Foster, and Marvin Pritts Ithaca, NY, USA : CORNELL UNIVERSITY : Peter Trowbridge, Kathy Gleason, Dept. of Landscape Architecture Wädenswil, Zurich, Switzerland : ZHAW : Philipp Stauffer, Wanda Keller and Simone Gruber Stockholm, Sweden : GREEN FORTUNE : Johan Svenson, Hans Andersson, Louise Dahl and Anna Karlin Munich, Germany : INDOORLANDSCAPING : Andreas Schmidt and Simone Egger Sydney, Australia : THE GREENWALL COMPANY : Mark Paul and Carolyn Hurst Sydney, Australia : JUNGLEFY : Alistair Scott -Young Melbourne, Australia : FYTOWALL : Geoff Heard, Jane Heard, Matthew Hazenwinkel, Erik van Zuilekom and Daisy Melbourne, Australia : AECOM : Blake Sandborn, Simone Bussier, and Michaela Prescott Singapore : NParks : Kelly Chiang ... and most of all, thank you to my family and friends who has supported me throughout the journey!

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