Rome Seminar Jannecke Wiers-Jenssen


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Keynote: Student mobility and labour market outcomes

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Rome Seminar Jannecke Wiers-Jenssen

  1. 1. Student mobility and labour market outcomes Jannecke Wiers-Jenssen, NIFU STEP (Norwegian institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education)
  2. 2. <ul><li>Student mobility is important for a number of reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic cooperation, quality enhancement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing language skills and cultural skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing mutual understanding, European integration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student mobility is mainly addressed by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counting number of students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating exchange programmes (ERASMUS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A underlying notion that mobility is an advantage per se </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measuring impacts of student mobility is challenging task </li></ul>Addressing student mobility
  3. 3. There appears to be little systematic or detailed enquiry/evidence about how mobility enhances the employability of the individual - what employment might they otherwise not have obtained The added value of mobility – A review of the literature (Technopolis group 2009)
  4. 4. <ul><li>Survey among graduates focusing on transition from higher education to work </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing mobile to non mobile students </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected in four countries/autonomous regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norway </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iceland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faroe Islands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiated and financed by the public student banks/funds in the respective countries </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected 2007 </li></ul>Nordic Graduate Survey 2007
  5. 5. <ul><li>Retrospective perspective </li></ul><ul><li>(approx. 3 years after graduation) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows us to compare mobile and non-mobile students </li></ul><ul><li>Allows us to compare different types of mobile students </li></ul><ul><li>(degree students vs. exchange students) </li></ul><ul><li>Allows us to compare mobile students from different Nordic countries </li></ul>What makes the Nordic graduate survey unique?
  6. 6. <ul><li>1111 Mobile students with diploma from abroad </li></ul><ul><li>DEGREE STUDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>517 mobile students with diplomas from Norway </li></ul><ul><li>EXCHANGE STUDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>643 Students with the entire degree from Norway </li></ul><ul><li>NON-MOBILE STUDENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Four educational groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business and administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology and science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Journalism/media </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sample drawn from the customer database of the State Educational Loan Fund (NSELF), Lånekassen </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected and analysed by NIFU STEP </li></ul>The Norwegian part of Nordic Graduate Survey 2007
  7. 7. <ul><li>Long traditions with student mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Student mobility: deliberate political strategy to compensate for limited domestic enrolment capacity </li></ul><ul><li>High proportion of student body abroad </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Education and financing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most HEIs are public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No tuition fees in public HEIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student support: Subsidised loans and grants available trough the State Educational Loan fund </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student support is universal, not means tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile students receive support on the same conditions as non-mobile students + support to cover parts of tuition fees, travel costs etc. </li></ul></ul>Context: Student mobility from Norway
  8. 8. <ul><li>Graduates’ background </li></ul><ul><li>The transition from HE to work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job situation 3 years after graduation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills-mismatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ International job” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retrospective perspectives on outcome of HE from abroad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal outcomes </li></ul></ul>Results to be presented
  9. 9. <ul><li>Social origin: higher among mobile than non-mobile students </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange students have better school performance (upper secondary school) than other groups </li></ul><ul><li>More mobile than non-mobile students have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior experience with living abroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents who have lived abroad </li></ul></ul>Graduates’ background
  10. 10. Mobility capital - aspects
  11. 11. <ul><li>NORWEGIAN GRADUATES </li></ul><ul><li>Degree students 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange students 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Non-mobile 2 </li></ul><ul><li>DEGREE STUDENTS – OTHER NORDIC COUNTIRES </li></ul><ul><li>Finland: 43 </li></ul><ul><li>Faroe Islands: 56 </li></ul><ul><li>Iceland: 16 </li></ul>Proportion of graduates working abroad (approx. 3 years after graduation) Do mobile students return from abroad?
  12. 12. <ul><li>DEGREE STUDENTS….. </li></ul><ul><li>send more applications in order to obtain their first job </li></ul><ul><li>use a wider range of channels to obtain a job </li></ul><ul><li>make less use of professional contacts, and more use of personal contacts to get a job </li></ul><ul><li>are more likely to be unemployed in the first months after graduation </li></ul><ul><li>In sum: Degree student struggle more to get access to the labour market. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange students do not encounter more problems than non-mobile students </li></ul>Transition from HE to work
  13. 13. Unemployment in different phases
  14. 14. Main activity 3 years after graduation Degree students Exchange students Non-mobile Employed 90.7 93.6 92.4 Student 4.4 3.9 3.0 Unpaid domestic work 0.8 0.2 0.2 Unemployed 2 0.4 2 Other 2.1 1.9 2.5 Sum 100 100 100
  15. 15. Average monthly wages November 2007. NOK. Full time employment, working in Norway
  16. 16. Now we will look at another classic indicatior of labour market succes of failure: Skills-mismatch Definition of over education: to have a job that requires education at a lower level than the degree the graduate holds. Over-Education is more prevalent among degree students Increased probability of over-education persist when we control for a lot of variables in multivariate analyses. We saw that unemployment did not have a lasting effect But over-education is a phenomenon that seem to be more persistent Skills-mismatch: Over-education
  17. 17. International firm and business travel
  18. 18. Use of foreign language for professional purposes on a weekly basis
  19. 19. International job - index
  20. 20. Outcome, compared to expectations 1
  21. 21. Outcome, compared to expectations 2
  22. 22. Outcomes of study abroad – enhanced opportunites? Degree students Exchange students HE-to-work transition - (+) Wages + (+) Over-education - + International job + + Outcome compared to expectations + +
  23. 23. <ul><li>POSITIVE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Country-specific and transnational human kapital </li></ul><ul><li>Selectivity: Mobile students may constitute a selected group regarding more indicators than we have measured here </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Employer sceptisism (homosocial reproduction) </li></ul><ul><li>Weaker professional networks </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of relevant country-specific human capital </li></ul>Suggested explanations of the results
  24. 24. <ul><li>There are positive as well as negative labour market effects of student mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree students encounter some difficulties entering the labour market, but receive higher economic returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange students do not seem to face more barriers than non-mobile students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both groups of mobile students have more international jobs than non-mobile students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are reasons to question that student mobility enhances individual career opportunities in the first years after graduation </li></ul><ul><li>Student mobility have more effects than we have measured here </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects on HEIs and society </li></ul></ul>Concluding remarks
  25. 25. <ul><li>Wiers-Jenssen, J. (2008) “Career Impacts of Student Mobility”. I Gornitzka, A. and L. Langfeldt (ed.); Borderless knowledge . New York: Springer. </li></ul><ul><li>Wiers-Jenssen, J. (2008): Does Higher Education Attained Abroad Lead to International Jobs? Journal of Studies in International Education 101-130. </li></ul><ul><li>Wiers-Jenssen J. and S. Try (2005): Labour market outcomes of higher education undertaken abroad. Studies in Higher Education 681-705. </li></ul><ul><li>Wiers-Jenssen, J. (2003): Norwegian Students abroad: experiences of students from a linguistically and geographically peripheral European Country. Studies in Higher Education 391-411. </li></ul>Other publications in English on Student mobility from Norway