1.Three Cycle System Eqf

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1.Three Cycle System Eqf

  1. 1. The Three cycle system Bologna Promoters’ Presentation Material (to be adapted as needed)
  2. 2. Content of the Presentation <ul><li>Bologna Basics </li></ul><ul><li>The Three-Cycle System </li></ul><ul><li>The Qualifications Framework for the European Higher Education Area (QF for EHEA) </li></ul><ul><li>National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs) </li></ul><ul><li>The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Issues </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bologna Basics 1: What is the Bologna Process? <ul><li>Bologna Declaration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>June 1999, 29 countries, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint declaration on ‚The European Higher Education Area‘ (EHEA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to achieve EHEA as a key way to promote citizens‘ mobility and employability and Europe‘s overall development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bologna Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intergovernmental process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meanwhile 45 countries (i.e. EU and non-EU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bologna Follow-up Group, Board, Secretariat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key role of European HE institutions and students </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Bologna Basics 2: Action Lines <ul><li>Easily readable and comparable degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Two cycle structure </li></ul><ul><li>Use of credits such as ECTS </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation in quality assurance </li></ul><ul><li>European dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of students </li></ul><ul><li>Attractiveness and competitiveness of the EHEA </li></ul><ul><li>Doctoral studies and synergies between EHEA and ERA </li></ul>Bologna Prague Berlin
  5. 5. Bologna Basics 3: Participating Countries <ul><li>x </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Three-Cycle System <ul><li>Pre-Bologna: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Various types of degrees across Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased students‘ and academics‘ mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From two to three cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bologna, 1999: first and second cycle (undergraduate and graduate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Berlin, 2003: doctorate as third cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bologna Declaration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First cycle lasts at least three years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First cycle qualification gives access to second cycle and shall be relevant to European labour market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of a credit system (ECTS) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Why Qualifications Frameworks? <ul><li>A tool for fostering transparency, flexibility and mobility of learners </li></ul><ul><li>On the national level: need for systematic articulation and navigation between qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Overarching (European) qualifications frameworks: serve as translation device </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual qualifications do not directly relate to overarching qualifications frameworks (only via national qualifications frameworks or systems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>QFs have to be generic and multi-purpose </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Qualifications Framework for the EHEA: Starting Point - the Berlin Communiqué <ul><li>‘ Ministers encourage the member states to elaborate a framework of comparable and compatible qualifications for their higher education systems , which should seek to describe qualifications in terms of workload, level, learning outcomes, competences and profile… </li></ul><ul><li>… They also undertake to elaborate an overarching framework of qualifications for the European Higher Education Area .’ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Qualification Framework for the EHEA Min. 3 years ECTS Credits Learning Outcomes Cycles QF for EHEA Doctorate Master Bachelor (?) Normally 90 – 120 (Minimum 60) 180 - 240
  10. 10. Learning Outcomes: Dublin Descriptors <ul><li>Generic statements of typical expectations of achievements and abilities associated with qualifications at the end of a cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome approach: Results are more important than how they are acquired </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin Descriptors look at knowledge and understanding, its application, making judgments, communication, learning skills </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptors should be read in relation to each other (Bachelor – Master – Doctorate) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Example: Dublin Descriptors on Making Judgements <ul><li>Bachelor: (involves) gathering and interpreting relevant data… </li></ul><ul><li>Master: (demonstrates) the ability to integrate knowledge and handle complexity, and formulate judgements with incomplete data… </li></ul><ul><li>Doctorate: (requires being) capable of critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas… </li></ul>
  12. 12. Key Features of ECTS <ul><li>ECTS = European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System </li></ul><ul><li>History: from mobility to accumulation </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative measure based on student workload required to achieve learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Additional mobility tools: Diploma Supplement, Learning Agreements, Mobility Pass </li></ul><ul><li>ECTS principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60 credits full-time academic year (1500 – 1800 hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. 1 credit ca. 25 – 30 working hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credits for all components of study programmes – reflect quantity of work each component requires </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Issues to think about when setting up NQFs <ul><li>What is the need for NQF? </li></ul><ul><li>Promote & foster objectives & not just a mechanism – (flexible learning, student-centred learning, LLL, learning outcomes, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide consultation & dialogue has to be first step </li></ul><ul><li>Involve right people in development from beginning (institutions, students, employers) </li></ul><ul><li>Make use of experience of countries that have successful experience </li></ul>
  14. 14. Example of NQF: German Qualifications Framework <ul><li>Three cycles (Bachelor, Master, Doctorate) </li></ul><ul><li>Described in terms of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge and understanding (‚Wissen und Verstehen‘) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to do (‚Können‘) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal aspects, incl. access and articulation, length and workload (ECTS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E.g. Bachelor (formal aspects): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 – 4 years of full-time study/180 – 240 ECTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All Bachelor degrees give the right to access Master programmes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of degrees: BA, BSc, BEng, BMus, LLB, Diplom (FH) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. EQF for Lifelong Learning <ul><li>Eight levels covering different forms of learning incl. basic learning, Vocational Education & Training, HE, informal learning, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes/Descriptors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No measure of workload (no credit system) </li></ul><ul><li>Level 6 – 8: Descriptors ‚correspond‘ to Dublin Descriptors in QF for EHEA </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendation from the European Commission to the European Council & Parliament (EQF for LLL not adopted yet) </li></ul>
  16. 16. QF for the EHEA vs. EQF for Lifelong Learning QF for EHEA EQF for Lifelong Learning 45 Bologna countries 25 (EU) countries Geographical scope Adopted by 45 ministers in Bergen, 2005 Not yet adopted Status 3 Bologna cycles Eight levels Levels/ Cycles Learning outcomes (Dublin Descriptors), ECTS Learning outcomes Elements Higher education Lifelong learning Educational scope
  17. 17. Implementation Issues (from EUA’s Trends reports) <ul><li>Access and articulation: From Bachelor to Master; entry requirements for Doctorate </li></ul><ul><li>Employers understanding: New system well understood by employers? What should be done in order to better promote the new degrees? </li></ul><ul><li>Diploma Supplement: Issued everywhere to all students? </li></ul><ul><li>ECTS: Correct use? </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition: Problems solved? </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum reform: Formal adoption of new degrees or profound reform? </li></ul><ul><li>Students centred learning: Already well understood? </li></ul><ul><li>National Qualifications Frameworks: Do HEIs understand their value and purpose? Are stakeholders involved in the development? </li></ul><ul><li>Overarching Qualifications Frameworks: Helpful or confusing? </li></ul>

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