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Vickie Shoap - “Application of Restorative Practices and Restorative Justice in Fairfax County Public Schools”

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Vickie Shoap -

Part of the Youth-Nex Conference: Youth of Color Matter: Reducing Inequalities Through Positive Youth Development #YoCM15

Panel 5 - RESTORING JUSTICE IN OUR SCHOOLS: POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES TO THE DISCIPLINE GAP
Youth of color are disproportionately suspended from school, causing youth to miss critical time of instruction, evoke feelings of hopelessness, and contributing to the “school to prison pipeline.” This panel considered what research and practice tell us about dismantling the pipeline and promoting positive developmental outcomes for youth of color with a focus on youth-centered principles of restorative justice.

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Vickie Shoap - “Application of Restorative Practices and Restorative Justice in Fairfax County Public Schools”

  1. 1. RESTORATIVE PRACTICES AND RESTORATIVE JUSTICE IN FAIRFAX COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS Vickie Shoap Restorative Justice Specialist II FCPS Special Services, Student Safety and Wellness Office vrshoap@fcps.edu 571-423-4278 Slides cannot be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  2. 2. Fairfax County Virginia  Population: 1,137,538 Borders Wash. DC  10th largest public school system in the US  FCPS includes 244 schools and centers  200,000 students, 1 out of 6 residents are FCPS students  24,611 full time staff Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  3. 3. FCPS Diversity  Students from over 175 countries.  10% African American  24.6% Hispanic  19% Asian American  40% White  48 alternative learning and special needs sites. Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  4. 4. What is Restorative Justice?  A philosophy that looks at crime and wrongdoing as relational.  Restorative practices are relationship building skills that grew from the principles of RJ.  People and relationships are the focus of a restorative approach to prevention and discipline.  Degrees of responsibility in wrongdoing.  Reasonable consequences are created by offending student and those most harmed.  Victim centered process of justice.  Evidence based alternative to suspension and expulsion. Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  5. 5. Principles of Restorative Justice All FCPS Applications Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission Focus on the harms of wrongdoing more than on the rule or law that has been broken. Empower victims and show equal concern for their needs in the discipline process. Support students who have harmed others while encouraging them to take personal responsibility for their actions and understand, accept and carry out their obligations.
  6. 6. Principles of Restorative Justice All FCPS Applications Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission Provide opportunities for dialogue between students who have harmed others and those most affected by the wrongdoing. Participation is always voluntary. Involve and empower the affected community through the process of justice. Encourage collaboration and reintegration, rather than punishment and isolation. Show respect to all parties involved in wrongdoing and involve all equally.
  7. 7. Restorative Practices and Restorative Justice in FCPS Restorative practices are skills often utilized in formal restorative justice processes that may also be used in classrooms to build relationships, create connections and prevent harm and violence before they occur. A restorative justice conference is a formal victim-centered process for responding to harm and wrongdoing. Slides cannot be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  8. 8. Restorative Discipline Paradigm Comparison Traditional  Offensive behavior means breaking the rules.  Administrators determine outcome  Focus is on offending student  Can produce defensiveness  Accountability means ‘taking your medicine’ Restorative  Offensive behavior means violating people and relationships  Everyone impacted by incident determines outcome  Focus is on those impacted  Encourages honesty  Accountability means taking personal responsibility for actions Slides cannot be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  9. 9. Restorative Practice Questions I Statements Restorative Questions “It makes me uncomfortable when I hear you tease others.” What happened? “I am frustrated that you are not listening to me.” What were you thinking about at the time? “I get upset when you talk and joke when I am teaching.” Who is being affected by your behavior? “I was shocked to see you act like that.” What impact has this incident had on you? “I think you should apologize!” What do you think you need to do to make things right? Slides cannot be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  10. 10. FCPS Portrait of a Graduate and Restorative Justice • Deep listening, reflection and personal communication skills are modeled and taught through direct engagement. • An RJ process is a collaborative process that seeks to involve and engage people in decisions that affect their lives. • The basic premise of RJ is that strong relationships with adults and other students are fundamental to learning and resilience. • The circle process teaches social-emotional skills such as empathy, compassion and cultural awareness. • RJ is primarily a structured and reflective problem-solving process.
  11. 11. Continuumofrestorativepractices(RP)andrestorativejustice(RJ)applicationsinFCPS Requires training & certification to facilitate Restorative Justice Conference: SR&R violations, student/student, student/staff, parent/staff, etc… Available to all schools Middle School Restorative Behavior Program: RP questions, deeper reflection activities and engagement, circles and RJ discipline conferences Circles, Preventative: Attendance groups, minor disputes, escalating conflicts, bullying education, teaching conflict resolution skills Available to all schools Restorative Practices in the Classroom: RJ philosophy and language for classroom management Available to all schools Can be used by all with training
  12. 12. Student Led Restorative Justice  Thomas Jefferson High School Student Honor Council, 2 Teacher Advisors (2015-16, 3rd year).  RJ Conferences facilitated by RJ trained and certified students for academic integrity discipline issues: cheating, plagiarism etc.  Requirements for training and certification same as FCPS staff.  This year students are training a second high school Honor Council and staff.  Webinar: Eastern Mennonite U. Zehr Institute For Restorative Justice: Student Led RJ in Fairfax County Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  13. 13. Fairfax County Collaborative Agency AAP-Alternative Accountability Program FCPS Juvenile Court NVMS (local service provider) Neighborhood & Community Services POLICE SRO’s Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  14. 14. Fairfax County Collaborative Agency AAP-Alternative Accountability Program  Divert students arrested and/or charged by police for incidents that occur at school or on school property to an RJ process.  Divert youth arrested in the community to an RJ process.  Voluntary. Parents must agree.  Youth has no prior charges.  No court connection, no record.  2nd year, 100% compliance with agreements. Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  15. 15. Restorative Justice Team Assistant Superintendant Special Services, Dr. Jane Lipp Director Intervention & Prevention, Dr. Mary Ann Panarelli Coordinator Student Safety and Wellness Office, Clarence Jones Restorative Justice Specialist II Restorative Justice Specialist I 5 Restorative Behavior Intervention Teachers (RBIT’s): (2 ED backgrd & Spec. Ed Certified, 2 Multi Lingual, 2 art certs.) Northern Virginia Mediation Service (non-Profit provider) Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  16. 16. Restorative Justice Training in FCPS (number of FCPS staff trained up to year 4 of implementation in red)  Level 1 Orientation Training (1700) (RJ 101, pre-requisite for all trainings)  Level 2 Facilitator Training (500 staff, 8 student)  Level 3 Advanced Facilitator Training (26) (Level 2 Certified Staff Only)  Attendance Circle Training (65, new in 2014-15)  Restorative Practices In The Classroom Training For Teachers: Trainings and Extended Academy Class (185, new in 2014-15) Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  17. 17. Why do we need a new discipline paradigm? (Information we share with FCPS administrators.) Slides cannot be reproduced or used in trainings without permission  Repeat suspensions in middle school triple the probability of later involvement with the justice system. (US Dept. of Education, US Dept. of Justice 2012).  One suspension reduces a students trajectory toward graduation by 20%. (US Dept. of Education, US Dept. of Justice 2012).  There is no evidence that poor and minority kids misbehave any worse that children from other socioeconomic backgrounds. (Skiba/Williams 3.14).  U.S. spends $10, 995 to educate one student per school year. (Nat’l Ctr. for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education 2012)  U.S. spends $87,981. to process and confine a juvenile offender for one year. (Justice Policy Inst., The Costs of Confinement: Why Good Juvenile Justice Policies)
  18. 18. Challenges: Myths of Restorative Justice Magic pill aka..butterflies and unicorns Can be used for any situation Soft on wrongdoing You just have to say you’re sorry. Offenders avoid consequences. Only for minor wrongdoing and first-time offenders Substitute for the existing system of justice and discipline Takes too much time Slides cannot be reproduced or used in trainings without permission
  19. 19. Implementation Year 4 Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1st Semester 2013-2014 2nd Semester 2013- 2014 1st Semester 2014-2015 2nd Semester 2014- 2015 Growth in # of Referrals 2013-2015 High School Referrals Middle School Referrals Elementary Referrals
  20. 20. Referrals to RJ 2014-15 Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Nature of Incident NumberofReferrals Primary Nature of Referral 14-15 Fight Escalating/Ongoing Conflict Disrespect/Defiance Bullying Harassment Theft Cyber Warfare Threat Verbal/Cyber Sexual Harassment Other Inappropriate use of cell phone Cheating Assault on Staff
  21. 21. Analysis of Referral Outcomes Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 17% 17%60% 3% 3% #ofStudentsServed # of Students Served # of Students by Referral Outcome 417 Students Represented *Does not include students from cases in-progress Circle/Conference Referral Only Preconference Only Seminar Only Circle/Conference + Seminar
  22. 22. RJ Referrals Participants Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission 77% of all Referrals 17% of all Referrals 6% of all Referrals Conflict Type 2014-2015 Student vs. Student Student vs. Staff Other
  23. 23. Early Data  Very low recidivism for offending students (2013-14, 4-8%).  Victims and parents of victims report 100% satisfaction with RJ process and outcome.  Administrator reports indicate no further involvement with discipline for majority of students participating in RJ.  Students asking for RJ circles to prevent violence and stop ongoing conflict.  Climate Point: “No longer cool to reject RJ” Slides can not be reproduced or used in trainings without permission

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