o Define fables, parables and proverbs.
o Distinguish the difference between them.
o You will learn about different fable collections.
o Know why to use fables
o Define myths
o Learn how myths evolved
o Types of myths
o Why to use them with children and what versions to
o Define epics and their characteristics
o Examples of epics
o Why to use traditional lit. with children
o Benefits of its exposure
o How to incorporate their use in class
I. FABLES, PARABLES AND PROVERBS:
Proverbs: are simple and concrete sayings
popularly known and repeated, which express a
Parables: are allegorical stories that teach a basic
truth or religious principle.
Fables: are short tales that use animals or
inanimate objects to teach morals and ethics to
truths in a brief form.
Aim to teach a moral
A proverb tells no story
but only presents a bit
A fable’s characters are
animals while parables’
1. Aesop’s fables:
• is a collection of fables credited to Aesop, a slave
and story-teller believed to have lived in ancient
Greece between 620 and 560 BC.
• He praises peasant virtues such as
discretion, prudence, moderation and forethought.
2. The Panchatantra and the Jatakas:
The Panchatantra is an ancient Indian inter-related
collection of animal fables in verse and prose.
It is for young adults rather than children.
The Jatakas are stories that tell about the previous
lives of the Buddha, in both human and animal
Few of them are suitable for children.
3. The fables of La Fontaine:
Written in verses and prose by the skilled poet La
Points to a moral.
WHY USE FABLES WITH CHILDREN?
Children are fascinated by animals.
Teaches them lessons without preaching.
It is a story with a purpose.
Try to explain the vital outlines of existence through
symbolism. Ex: cosmic phenomena.
Try to simplify painful realities( disease, death…)
Main characters are gods and goddesses.
A. EVOLUTION OF MYTHS:
Give body to forces in the
universe which surpassed
humanity in beauty and wisdom.
The gods they imagined were
brothers and sisters with
A god’s power turned to a
symbolic figure or a moral
Formation of temples and rituals
B. TYPES OF MYTHS:
C. SOURCES OF MYTHOLOGIES:
1. Greek myths: written by the poet Hesiod who
was told by the Muses to write them.
2. Roman myths: which are written by the poet Ovid.
It included tales of transformations ex. Humans to
gods or Caesar into a star.
3. Norse myths: first written down in Iceland. Well
known collections include poetic Edda and prose
D. WHY USE MYTHS WITH CHILDREN?
Provoke their imagination.
E. WHAT VERSIONS OF MYTHS TO USE?
6 to 7 year-olds should read shallow versions of the
9 to 14 year-olds can enjoy the rich versions.
Adaptations should be simple and comprehensible
without sacrificing their richness.
a. The Heroes by Charles Kingsley.
b. Mythology by Edith Hamilton.
c. Children of Odin by Padraic Colum.
III. EPICS: DEFINITION AND
Definition: They are tales of humans fighting the
gods and accomplishing memorable feats.
Written inverse or prose.
The hero is a human not a god.
Characters embody moral attributes and
qualities.(courage, chivalry, justice..)
IV. WHY USE TRADITIONAL LITERATURE
Rich heritage of a story
Introduction to other cultures
Provides moral models( good and evil)
V. BENEFITS OF EXPOSURE TO
Increased awareness of the literary options
Relate experiences in fantasy worlds to human
Ability to encounter historical and folk heroes from a
Can observe the consequences of acceptable and
VI. HOW TO INCORPORATE THE USE OF MYTHS
OR EPICS IN CLASS:
1. Photocopy the selected myth for the ss.
2. Work in pairs or groups.
3. Use question cards including different language
4. Take scores to boost competition.
5. Do speaking activities through acting exercises.
6. Retell a myth as a listening activity.
7. Introduce a grammar lesson and solve activities.
8. Describe a character as a writing activity.
Start a book club or English club at school.
Use library classes.
Use theatre classes.
Use art classes.