دور الجغرافية في حل المشكلات البيئية المعاصرة.

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دور الجغرافية في حل المشكلات البيئية المعاصرة.

  1. 1. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٦٣ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬* ‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻤﻠﺨﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺘﺭﺸـﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻅﻬﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬‫ﻭﺼـﻴﺎﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬‫ﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻭﻤﺠﺎ‬ ،‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬‫ﻭﻏﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻭﺴﻁ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻩ‬‫ﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴـﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺴـﺒﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤـﺭﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻀﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻤﻲ‬‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒـﺅ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬(،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺴـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺠـل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤـﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺠﺯﺃ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻷﻥ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻁﺎﺭ‬. * ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻡ‬-‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺩﺍﺏ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬-‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬
  2. 2. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٦٤ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﺫﻴل‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺙ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬)‫ﺍﻻﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬(‫ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬ ،‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩ‬،‫و‬‫ﻫـﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺭ‬‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻑ‬)‫ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬(،‫ﺸﻲﺀ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬‫ﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺘـﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬‫ﻟﻤﻜـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺼﺒﺢ‬ )Ecosystem(‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﺩﺓ‬‫ﻴ‬،‫ﺔ‬‫ﺘﺸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜل‬‫ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬ )Geosystem(‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺸﻜل‬ ،‫ا‬‫ﺇﺫ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻼ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﺘ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﺎﺒﻪ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻥ‬)Geosystem( ‫ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬)Ecosystem()١( .‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻏﻡ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺼل‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺤـل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻠﻤ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﻋﻭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠـﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨـﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬.‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺙ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻠﻴﻁ‬‫ﺘﺅﺩﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ‬: ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﻤﺠـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺠﺢ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻴـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻤﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ،‫ﺒﻤﺴـﺘﻘﺒﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ (١) ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ،‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻅﻡ‬ ،‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ـ‬٩٩‫ـ‬٢٠٠٠‫ﺹ‬ ،١٧.
  3. 3. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٦٥ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬)٢( .‫ﻭﺘﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬‫ﻭﺴﺭﻋ‬‫ﺘﻪ‬‫ﻭﻤﻘﻴﺎﺴ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻭﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻬ‬ ،‫ﻴﺔ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺄﺨـﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺴـﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺎﺒﻜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻌﻘﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻘﻴﺎﺴ‬)‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﻭﻨﻴ‬(‫ﺃﺜﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬)‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬(‫ﻭﻤـﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻅ‬‫ﺍﻻﻨﻔﺠـﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻠـﻭﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺯﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺎﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﺫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻉ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻤﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻅﺎﻫﺭ‬. ‫ﻭﻭﻅﻴﻔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺭﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل‬‫ﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻬﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌـﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺤـل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺘﻴﻨﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻓـﺈﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﻠﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻘﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺇﻟﺤﺎﺤ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬‫ﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻁـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ )‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬(. ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴـ‬ ‫ﻭﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﻭﺩﻴﻨﺎﻤﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬‫ﺭ‬ (٢) ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻘﻕ‬ ‫ﻫل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ـ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﺩﺍﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬٢٠٠٢‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﻡ‬٢٠.
  4. 4. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٦٦ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴـﻁ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺩﺜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺘﻌﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩﺭﺓ‬. ‫ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻓﻕ‬)‫ل‬.‫ﻥ‬.‫ﻜﺎﺭﺒﻭﻑ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬: ١‫ﻟﻠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤل‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ـ‬‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﺍﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺒل‬ ،‫ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬‫ﺒﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬‫ﺘﺸﺎﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺜﻴﺭ‬‫ﺓ‬،‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﻨﻅﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬)‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬(‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻨﻬﺠﻴ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺃﺴﺎﺴ‬ ‫ﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬. ٢‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻀﻡ‬ ،‫ﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ـ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨـﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺢ‬ ‫ﻜﺴﺠﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻁـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻁﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﻭﺙ‬‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺴﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬. ٣‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺇﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ‬)٣( . ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺜﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺤﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺴـﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺨـﺫﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ (٣) ‫ـ‬ Geography Science And Art, p. ١٤٥. ٠p.Cit.
  5. 5. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٦٧ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻤل‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬:،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬:،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻜﻨﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬‫ﻴـﺔ‬:‫ﻨﻤـﻭﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻫﻨﺩﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ،‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬ ،‫ﺒﻴﻭﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺇﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ،‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤـﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬)٤( . ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺏ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻌﻴﺩ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼـﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ )‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬(‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻔﻌﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﻴﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺯﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ، ‫ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺩﺍﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺠﻴﻬﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻏﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﺜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﺜ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻨﺒﺄ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺒل‬)٥( . (٤) ‫ـ‬ Smirnov , L.E , Geographical - Ecological Problems And Cartography Are Considered , Geology – Geography Magazine ,Leningrad University , Cycle ,٧ ,N ٣ , ١٩٩٠ , p.٥٠ ( )‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ . (٥) ‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬ ،‫ﻭﺃﻫﺩﺍﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻨﺎﻫﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺨﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﻭﺡ‬ ‫ـ‬٣٧٧.
  6. 6. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٦٨ ‫ﻗﺼ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻁﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴـﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺘﻭﺍﺠﻬﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺍﻓﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸـﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺨﻁﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬. ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﺭﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺨﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺏ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺤل‬،‫ﻭﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ً‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺯﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻬﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬.‫ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﻭﻁﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻭﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬. ‫ﺍﻹﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜـﻭﺍﺭﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀـﺎﺌﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﻀـﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻅﺎﺌﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴ‬‫ﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ‬ ،‫ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻀـﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻔﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺠـﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺁﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻙ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬‫ﻟـﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺴـﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻠﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺴـﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺨـﺫ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬
  7. 7. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٦٩ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺘﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻐﻁ‬ ‫ﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻊ‬. ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬: ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻅﺎﻫﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ‬ ،‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺸـﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺭﺼﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻤﻰ‬٣٣ )٦( . ‫ﺒﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺼﻨﻑ‬‫ﺍﺌ‬‫ﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ،‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻓﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺌﻴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬٤٣ )٧( : ‫ﻭﻤﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺃ‬‫ﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺩ‬:‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺫﺍﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺩﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﺜ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬)‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﺸﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺒﻁﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺤﻔﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬(. ‫ﺏ‬‫ﻤﺴﺘﺒﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺒﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ـ‬:‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬‫ﻤـﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل‬ ‫ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺒﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻤﺜ‬ ،‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺒﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬. )٦( ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺸﺭ‬ ،‫ﻏﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ،‫ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﻫﺎﺠﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺘﺭ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺭﺓ‬١٩٩٦‫ﺹ‬ ،٢٥١. )٧( ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ،‫ﺴﻜﻴﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺎﺽ‬ ‫ـ‬‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻅﻡ‬ ،.‫ﺩﻤﺸـﻕ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼـﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻁﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ١٩٩٧‫ﺹ‬ ،.١١٢‫ـ‬١١٣.
  8. 8. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٧٠ ‫ﻤﻌﻭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻭﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺝ‬:‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻭﻓﻕ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴـﺘﺭﺠﺎﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﻭﻴﻀﻬﺎ‬‫ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻨﺎﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬(‫ﻷﺴـﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ‬ ، ‫ﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬. ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﻨﻅﺭ‬‫ﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﻨﺯﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺒﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺠﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻬ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺠـل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁﺭﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫؟‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬:‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤل‬ ‫ﺸﻤﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺘﻠﻙ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺴـﺒل‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻋﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻠﺘﻔﺎﻋﻼﺕ‬‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻤـﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﺯﺩﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻬﻼﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺠﻬﺔ‬٥٣ )٨( . )٨( ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﺅﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺃﺤﻴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ـ‬.‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ،‫ﺨﺭﻓـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟـﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺸﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﻼﺱ‬١٩٨٨‫ﺹ‬٣٠،١٣٥،١٧٩.
  9. 9. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٧١ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬)‫ﺭ‬.‫ﺒﺎﻟﻡ‬" (‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬‫ﻤـﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﺒﺘـﺩﻓﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬")٩( . ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺕ‬‫ﻜ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺞ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻗﺎﻟﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺯﻤﻨـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌ‬‫ﺘﺴـﺘﻐل‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ٍ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼ‬‫ﻏ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀ‬ ٍ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺭ‬.‫ﻏﻴـﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻅﻬﺭ‬ ،‫ﻋﻘﻼﻨﻲ‬.‫ﺘـﺎﺭﻴﺦ‬ ‫ﺤﻘﻴﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺘﺄﺴﻴﺴ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻨﺯﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬.‫ﻭﻴﺭﻯ‬)‫ﺱ‬.‫ﺒﺭﻭﻥ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻤﺎﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐـﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﻜﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻼﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬: ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴـﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ،‫ﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺴﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﻜل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻨﺩﺸﺎﻓﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺘﻜﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻅـﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬(‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠـﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒـﺎﺩﺉ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻅﻬـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﺤـﺎﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ )٩( Geography Science And Art, p.١٦٧.Op.Cit.
  10. 10. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٧٢ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺸـﺎﺭﻜﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺫﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻬﻭﺩ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﺼ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻴﻨﻜﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴـﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨـﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤـﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﺴﻔﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌـﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﺭﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺼﺎﺕ‬)١٠( . ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻐﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺸﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬: ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺘﺘﻁـﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ،‫ﺒـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺩﻭﻨﻪ‬.‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻀﺎﺭﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺼـﻴﺎﻨﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴـﺘﺜﻤﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺼﻼﺤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺠل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻟﺤﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬٣٨ )١١( . ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﻜﻑ‬،‫ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐـﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﺱ‬ ،‫ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺘﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺫﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬ ،‫ﻜﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼـﻐﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒـﺭﻯ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬‫ﺒﻜل‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬‫ﻲ‬ (١٠) ‫ـ‬Geography Science And Art, p. ١٦١.Op.Cit. )١١( ‫ﺍﻷﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺩﻭﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻨﺱ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻫﻴﺭﻴﺔ‬ ،٩‫ـ‬١١/١٠/٢٠٠٠‫ﻡ‬.
  11. 11. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٧٣ )Geosphere(‫ﺠﻤﻴـﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺱ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻅﺎﻫﺭ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬"Geosphere"‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻴـﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺘـﺩﺍﺨل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺜﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺨﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻐﻼﻑ‬.( ‫ﻭ‬‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻘﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺩﻯ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﺎﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺩﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻠـﻙ‬ ‫ﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﻬﻡ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺨﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﺱ‬ ،‫ﺒﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺯﺍﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺘﺭﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻤﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺤﻭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﻭﻋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺅﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﺒل‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﻫﻴل‬،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻭﺴﻁﻰ‬ ‫ﺁﺴﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺁﺭﺍل‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻜﺠﻔﺎﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ٍ‫ﻲ‬‫ﺒﻴﺌ‬ ٍ‫ل‬‫ﺨﻠ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺴـﺭﺩﺍﺭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﻬـﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻴـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼـﺤﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺒﺏ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻤﻭﺩﺍﺭﻴﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻨ‬‫ﻌﺩﺍﻤ‬‫ﻬﺎ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻴﻜﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬١٠٠٠‫ﻜـﻡ‬٢ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬٧٠٠‫ﻜﻡ‬٢ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻗـﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﺼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬.‫ﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺱ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬
  12. 12. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٧٤ ‫ﻭﻨﻬـﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﻤﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻬﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻴﺠﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺘﻴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺤﻴﺭﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻋﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﻬﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﺭﺯ‬ ‫ﺨﻠل‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﻤﺅﻗﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﻔﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﻭﻴﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬. ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻅﻬﺭ‬‫ﺒﺸـﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻴـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻋـﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺭﺃﻴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻌﻤل‬ ،‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬١٩٨٦‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﻓﻴﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺘﺤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬"‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬"‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗـﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻨﻭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘـﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺘـﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺄﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ‬.‫ﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺎﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺈﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻜﻭل‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻜﺎﺯ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﻊ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻗﺯﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬.‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬)‫ﺴﻴﻨﺎﺭﻴﻭ‬( ‫ﺍﻷ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟـﺯﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴل‬‫ﺤـﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻤﻭﺭﻓﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﺯﻭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺭ‬٣٩ )١٢( . (١٢) ‫ـ‬ Kislov, A.V ,Surkova ,G.V , Assessment of contribution of visible Evaroration from Caspian Sea Surface and level changes during Holocene and late Pleistocene. Moscow University Magazine , Cycle ٥ , Geography , N’ ٢ , ١٩٩٦ , p. ٧٥. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬
  13. 13. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٧٥ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻠﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺄﻟﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩ‬ ،‫ﺜﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺜﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻗﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻨﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻬﻤ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ،‫ﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﻘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺜﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﻟﻭﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬_‫ﻜل‬٢٠‫ﺃﻭ‬٤٠ ‫ﺃﻭ‬١٠٠‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﺱ‬ ،‫ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻨﻌﻜﺎﺴ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻴﺯ‬‫ﻴﺅﺩﻴﻪ‬‫ﺴﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻔﻅ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ٍ‫ﻕ‬‫ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﻉ‬ ،‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺸﻌ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺍﻷﺯﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻌﻁﻲ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻴﺎﺯﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺏ‬ ‫ﺴﻘﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻭﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﻭﻱ‬ ،‫ﺒﺎﻟﺴﻤﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺠﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻅﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﺍﻷﻜﺴﺠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻴﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺍﻫﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻤﺔ‬. ‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺇ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﻁﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺯﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬)o٣(‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﺨﺹ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻴﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺒﻭﺴﻔﻴﺭ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬‫ﺁﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﻠل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬
  14. 14. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٧٦ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻭﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺸﻜل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺠﺯﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬١٠%‫ﻭﺘﺩل‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﻘﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﻁﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺕ‬٤٠ )١٣( . ‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬١٩٩٨‫ﺍﻨﺒﻌﺎﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬ ، ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺥ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺭﻏﻡ‬ ،‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬‫ﺠﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺃﺕ‬.‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬١٩٩٥ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺸﺎﺭﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬)IPCC(‫ﻤﻀﺎﻋﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺫﺭﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﻓﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺴﺒﺒ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬١٥‫ـ‬٩٥‫ﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬٢١‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ، ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻌل‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻭﺍﺤل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻁﻐﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻻﺠﺌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺘﻀﺎﻋﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻴﻀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻬﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺤﺫﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﻘﺱ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﻤﺎﺘﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻁﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷ‬‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺭﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﻁﻴل‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺼﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻨﻘﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺎﻗﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﺨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﻜﺎﻟﻤﻼﺭﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻀﻌﻑ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻓﻘﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬٤١ )١٤( . (١٣) -Izrael , U. A , Ecology and Control of the State of the natural Environment , Moscow Headrometeo press , ١٩٨٤ , p. ٤١٧. ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ (١٤) - HILARY FRENCH , Protecting the Planet In The Age Of Globalization.W.W. NORTON & COMPANY , New York London , ٢٠٠٠ , p. ٩٤.
  15. 15. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٧٧ ‫ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻓﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺎﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺱ‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺯﺤﺯﺡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﺜل‬ ‫ﻜﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬‫ﻨﻁﺎﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﻀﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺔ‬‫ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻀﺎﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻌﺭﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺕ‬‫ﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻠل‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬. ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬‫ﻓ‬‫ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻨﺎﻙ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻔﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﺎﺡ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻭﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺴﺭﻋﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻊ‬٤٢ )١٥( . ‫ﺍﻵﺜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻭﺍﺌﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻴﺨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺯﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻴﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﺒﺩﻋﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺭﺍﻜﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺜﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻟﺤﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺯﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺼﺎﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘل‬ ‫ﻜﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻤﺼﻁﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺴﺭﻋ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺎﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬ ،‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬‫ﺘﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻜﻨﺩﺍ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻤﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻤﻁﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻭﺜﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻻﺴﻜﻨﺩﻨﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺭﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﺭﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭﻤﻥ‬ )١٥( ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻴﺎﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ـ‬….‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻤﺭﺠﻊ‬ ،٥٥.
  16. 16. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٧٨ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺩﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ‬‫ﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺭﻨﻭﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻔﺎﻋل‬١٩٨٦،‫ﺍﻻﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬‫ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺠ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺤﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺤﺙ‬ ‫ﻋﻤل‬ ‫ﺼﻤﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻜل‬ ، ‫ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬. ‫ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻓﻕ‬)‫ﺭﻴﺎﺒﺘﺸﻴﻜﻭﻑ‬ ،‫ﻤﻴﻼﻨﻭﻓﺎ‬(‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻨﻪ‬‫ﻤﻬ‬‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﺸﺎﻜل‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺠﺩ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ،‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭ‬‫ﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﻭل‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ،ﻭﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺭﻜﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬‫ﺘﻪ‬‫ﺒﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻭﻁ‬٤٣ )١٦( . ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬: ‫ﺃ‬-‫ﻟﻺﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻘ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﺸـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻗﻴﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻁﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﻠﻔـﺔ‬ ‫ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻘـﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗـﺔ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻼﻴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻻﻑ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬)‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺨﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﻱ‬(‫ﺍﻟﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ، ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬ً ‫ﻭﺸـﺭﻁﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻴـﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻀـﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴ‬‫ﻜﺎﻟﻤـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻐﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ،‫ﻏﺫﺍﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻷﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬. ‫ﻋـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺒﺴﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺍﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻐﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺤـﺩﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻨﻅـﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﻷﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻥ‬،‫ﺃﺠﻴﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﻥ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬‫ﻴـﺅﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺴﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻼﻨﺩﺸﺎﻓﺕ‬(‫ﻭﺨﻔﺽ‬ ، ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﻤﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺴـﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺨﺭﻴﺏ‬ ،‫ﻟﻸﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺘﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬‫ﺨﺎﻁﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺎﻟﻴﺏ‬ ‫ﻉ‬)،‫ﺤﺭﺍﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﺦ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺜﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬ ،‫ﺴﻘﺎﻴﺔ‬(..‫ﺍﻟـﺩﺒﺎل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻠﻴل‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻤﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻁـﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺎﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻓـﻲ‬ ،‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻭﻟﻭﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ،‫ﺨﺼﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺨﻔﺽ‬ )١٦( ‫ﻤﻴﻼﻨﻭﻓﺎ‬ ‫ـ‬.‫ﻱ‬.‫ﺭﻴﺎﺒﺘﺸﻴﻜﻭﻑ‬ ،‫ﻑ‬.‫ﺃ‬.‫ﺘﺭﺠ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ‬ ،‫ﻡ‬‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺃﻤـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﺀ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬ ،‫ﻁﺭﺒﻭﺵ‬١٩٩٦‫ﺹ‬ ،٩٥.
  17. 17. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٧٩ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺼﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭل‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺸﻜﻠﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬‫ﺒﺸـﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨﺎﺠﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺤﺭ‬ ‫ﺸﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬‫ﻋﻥ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺴﺒﺎﺏ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬)١٧( . ‫ﺏ‬-‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻨﻅﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬)‫ﺍﻟﻭﻅﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬:( ‫ﺍﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺒﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬‫ﻨﻅـﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺨﻼل‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﻁـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻴﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻌﺭﻑ‬ ‫ﺸﻤﻭﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺜﺭﻫـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﻭﺸﺭﺡ‬ ،‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻭﺭﺓ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬‫ﺃﺸـﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻴﺠﺎﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﺍﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬‫ﺍﻻﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻐﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻔﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺙ‬ ،‫ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺒﻘﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﺯﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨـﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤـﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟـﻙ‬ ،‫ﺴـﻠﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻭﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﺴﺱ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﺘﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺼﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬. ‫ﺨ‬ ‫ﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬‫ﻭﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌـﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﺀ‬‫ﺴﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻥ‬‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ‬‫ﺍﺌ‬‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻴﻤـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻕ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺒﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻨﻅﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺸﻌﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻤﺎﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻅﻭﻤﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﺃ‬ ‫ﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﻁﻁ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺸﻭﺍﺌﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺨﻠل‬٤٤ )١٨( . ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ‬ ‫ﺘﻘـﻭﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴـﺘﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﻁﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻀﻭﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻬـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻠﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﺠـل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺡ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺭﺘﺒﺔ‬ (١٧) F. Reimers, Nature management, Moscow, Myslpress P. ١٠٩-٣٢٣ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‬ )١٨( ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻨﺸﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺭ‬ ،‫ﻤﻠﺤﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺨﻨﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ـ‬‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻟﻨﻴـل‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻁﺭﻭﺤﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺠ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬،‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬٢٠٠١‫ـ‬٢٠٠٢‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﻡ‬٥‫ـ‬٧‫ﺒﺘﺼﺭﻑ‬.
  18. 18. ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺤل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ١٨٠ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻫﺫ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺴـﺎﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﻟـﻸﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻜﻔـﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ‬ ،‫ﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺇﻨﺘﺎﺠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺼﻭل‬‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻟﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫ﻴﻬ‬‫ﺎ‬.‫ﺭﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﻓﻕ‬)‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ‬١٩٩٠(‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻥ‬ ،‫ﻟﺤﻀـﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺴﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺼﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻤﻴﺯ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬‫ﻗـﺩﺭﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺜﺒﺕ‬‫ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋـﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺴﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﻘﺒﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁـﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺎﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻨـﺏ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬‫ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬ ٍ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬. ‫ﺘﻌﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻴﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺠﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﻌﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻷ‬‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻏﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺠﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤﻀﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ‬٥٤ )١٩( . ‫ﺝ‬-‫ﻭﺘﺠﺩﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻴﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻤﻌﻴﺸﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ‬. ‫ﻭﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻫﺎ‬،‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴـﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﺘﻘﺒل‬ ‫ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻜﻔﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺒﻤﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﺅ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻭﻀﻊ‬ ‫ﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﻷﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻀـﺎﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻋﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﻜﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺴﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺒـﺎﻟﻅﺭﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﺘﺩﻫﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬١٣٣٩٢‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺘﺒﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻐﻼل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺎﻟﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬٨٦٠٨‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ‬ ،‫ﻫﻜﺘـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬ )١٩( ‫ﺘﺤﻠﻴﻠﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﻭﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺭﺍﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺭﺤﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ـ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬)١٢(،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺃﻡ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ،١٤١٠،‫ﻩ‬١٩٩٠‫ﺹ‬ ،‫ﻡ‬٣.
  19. 19. ‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻠﺔ‬–‫ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺩ‬٢٠-‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺩ‬)١+٢(٢٠٠٤‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬ ١٨١ ‫ﺘﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻓﻌ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺭﻭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬١,٥‫ﺠﺩﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﻟـﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻜل‬ ،‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﻴﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺤﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬٠,٥‫ﻨﺤـﻭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺫﺍﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﺠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺄﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬٨٠٠ ‫ﺃﺠ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺭ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﻥ‬ ‫ل‬)٢٠( . ‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔـﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺤﺼـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻨﺎﻗﺹ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺍﻀﻲ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ‬ ،‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺸﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﺒﻁﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼـﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﺎﻴﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺴﻤﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻴﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺸﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ،‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﺒـﺄﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺴﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺒﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‬. ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺒﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭ‬: ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺸﺭﺡ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻤﺨﺎﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴـﻠﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺯﺍﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺨﺎﻁﺭ‬ ،‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﻭﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺨﺴﺎﺌﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺏ‬ ‫ﺨـﻼل‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴـﻜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺴـﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺒﺸﻜل‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺼـﺭ‬ ‫ﻫـﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺴﺎﺌل‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺤﺎﻀﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ﺇﺫ‬ ‫ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻗﺭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺤﺩﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻔﺎﻋل‬ً‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺘﻔﺎﻋ‬‫ﻤﻜﺸﻭﻓ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ٍ‫ﺩ‬‫ﺤ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬. ‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺸﺭﻨﻭﺒﻴل‬ ‫ﻜﺎﺭﺜﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺤﺎﺀ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺠﻐﺭﺍﻓﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻲ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻭﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺠﻴﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺭﺜﻴﺔ‬‫ﻫـﺫﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﺴـﻁﺢ‬ ‫ﻓـﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺘـﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻴﺭﺯﻭل‬ ‫ﻭﺠﺯﻴﺌﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﺨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻁﻼﻕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺘﺅﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺌﻕ‬ (٢٠) ، ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ‬‫ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ،‫ﻋﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻅﻡ‬ ،‫ﻤﺤﻤﻭﺩ‬‫ﺩﻤﺸﻕ‬ ‫ﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻭﺙ‬٩٩-٢٠٠٠‫ﺹ‬ ، ،‫ﻡ‬٢٦٠.

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