MEDIA STRATEGY – AN INTRODUCTIONBY AAMIR ABBASI-IOBMMedia Planning
Basic Parameters of a Media PlanReachNumber of target audience individuals exposed to advertising orpromotion in an advertising cycle.Effective reach - % of target audience reached by the vehicleFrequencyNumber of exposures per individual target audience member in anadvertising cycle.Threshold / effective frequency – level of frequency below whichthe person would not have been effectively reached - at least 3exposuresNumber of advertising cycles during the year.Over the entire planning period – one year – 3 months – 1 month.
Media Balloon with 3 Ears• A media plan with fixed budget can bestrategically designed to reach a lot of peoplefew times or a few people a lot of times.• Imagine a 3 ear balloon (Reach, Frequency andNo of advertising cycles in a year) is tied off meansThe budget is fixed, the media planner can notmake one ear bigger with out squeezing theother.
Media Balloon – Trade Off• If the media strategy calls for increase in reach, soyou scatter budget and advertising exposure tomany media types such as TV, Radio, Newspaper,Magazines, Websites, Social Media etc.• But if the media strategy calls for increasedfrequency i.e same individual getting moreinteraction with your ad, you will focus yourbudget on single outlet. A magazine, Particularprogram on a TV Channel.
Frequency Vs ReachIt is better to sell some people completely thanmany people not at all.When you try to sell it to everyone you end upselling it to none.
Effects of Reach and Frequency1. One exposure of an ad to a target group within apurchase cycle has little or no effect in mostcircumstances.2. Since one exposure is usually ineffective, the centralobjective of productive media planning should be toenhance frequency rather than reach.3. The evidence suggests strongly that an exposurefrequency of two within a purchase cycle is an effectivelevel.4. Beyond three exposures within a brand purchase cycleor over a period of four or even eight weeks, increasingfrequency continues to build advertising effectivenessat a decreasing rate but with no evidence of decline.
Effects of Reach and Frequency5. Although there are general principles withrespect to frequency of exposure and itsrelationship to advertisingeffectiveness, differential effects by brand areequally important6. The data strongly suggest that wearout is nota function of too much frequency. It is moreof a creative or copy problem.
Marketing Factors Important toDetermining FrequencyBrand historyBrand ageBrand shareBrand loyaltyPurchase cyclesUsage cycleCompetitive share of voiceTarget group
Creative Factors Important toDetermining Frequency Message complexity Message uniqueness New vs. continuing campaigns Image versus product sell Message variation
Media Factors Important toDetermining Frequency Clutter Editorial environment Attentiveness Scheduling Number of media used Repeat Exposures
The Trade off betweenReach & Frequency– Reach is more important when gaining awarenessfor a new product– Frequency is more important whencommunicating product details or building BrandAttitude (needs more exposures)
Three Scheduling MethodsContinuityPulsingFlightingJan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Scheduling and Timing Decisions– Media schedule are based on and reflect• Advertising Objectives –‘high reach’ or ‘shift in attitude’• And how quickly Attitude is likely to decay– Scheduling strategies detail the media strategy• Flighting – alternating bursts with periods of inactivityLong purchase cycle products– when wear-in and wear out is slow– high peaks of recall are required• Pulsing – continuous base level advtg. augmented by intermittentburstsFrequently purchased products– when decay is fast– continuous levels of high recall are not needed• Continuous or Even – limited advertising spread out evenly– Frequently purchased services and products– quick decay, high levels of recall are not needed
Developing the Media PlanFollowing areas are strongly interlinked:• Situation / Environment Analysis• Marketing Strategy Plan• Advertising Strategy Plan
Media Use Decision— PrintMedia Use Decision— BroadcastMedia Use Decision— Other MediaAdvertising Strategy PlanDeveloping the Media PlanSetting Media ObjectivesSelecting Media Within ClassSelecting Broad Media ClassesDetermining Media StrategyMarketing Strategy PlanSituation Analysis
Why Media Planning• Mushroom growth in electronic and print media.• 10 years back there was PTV and Radio Pakistan only.Now there are around 70 TV channels and umpteenradio options.• Newspapers were Jang, Nawa e waqt, Dawn, BusinessRecorder and Nation mainly.• Budgets dwindling but the desire for exposure isgoing up.• TV Channels and newspapers are very expensive.• TV Channels and newspapers are showing too muchflexibility.• This becomes more tricky for companies which areserving in small/limited territories.
Why Media Planning• But the most important point is the change inthe profile of the owners of media.• Now they are owned by business groups whotook an entry with either profit making orpolitical muscle mindset.• This change has changed everything on mediascene.
Why Media Planning• What is more important Media Planning orCreative Execution?
Media Planning ObjectivesThere are basically two objectives to have amedia plan.• Value for money!• “Top of the mind” positioning.
Advertising Spiral• The following slide encapsulates theadvertising process where media planning hasa crucial role to play.• WHY?
Advertising Process & Media Planning• It starts from new idea generation OR need identification.• Translation of idea into a brief.o Target markets identification.o Research data.o Territories identificationo Nature of the message• Creative designs / mood boards.• Presentation and Approvals.• Media selection.• Placements.• Monitoring• Droppage Reporting.• Recording and archiving.
Qs to be Answered• Do you know where your business is comingfrom and where the potential for increasedbusiness lies?• Do you know which markets offer the greatestopportunity?• Do you need to reach everybody or only aselect group of consumers?• How often is the product used?• How much product loyalty exists? (Whichbrand is the most loyal brand in the world?)
Qs to be Answered• What does the cost benefit analysis say?• What volumes we are planning to sell?• Do you want to reach lots of people in a widearea (to get the most out of your advertisingrupee)? Then mass media, like newspaper andradio, might work for you. (School example).• If your target market is a select group in adefined geographic area, then direct mail andoutdoor media could be your best bet.
Qs to be Answered• Which schedules work best with different media.For example, the rule of thumb is that a print admust run three times before it gets noticed.• Similarly Radio and TV advertising is mosteffective when run at certain times of the day oraround certain programs, depending on whatmarket youre trying to reach.• During which time of the month there is a salessurge?
Advertising media generally include:• Television• Radio• Newspapers• Magazines (consumer and trade)• Outdoor billboards• Public transportation• Social media (Facebook, twitter, linkedin, skype etc.)• Direct mail• Giveaway items• Other media (brochures, newsletters and so on)
A Typical Advertising Model• What is the biggest handicap we advertisersor advertising agencies face?• People don’t buy newspapers, watch tv, listento radio and Logon to see our advertisement.• That attitude changed altered a bit the shapeof advertising or you may say it took it to thenext step.• Advertisement programs.
A Typical Advertising ModelAdvertising Objectives1. Increasing interest2. Increasing referrals / making way for word ofmouth.3. Image building4. Increasing level of usage5. awareness
A Typical Advertising ModelA. BUYER: Target audience action objectivesB. BRAND: Communication objectivesC. AD(S): Processing objectivesD. MEDIA: Exposure plan
The Target Audience• So when we are selling, we are selling to thatsomebody.• Now “WHO” is that somebody is what all thegame is all about.• Following slide will analyze this aspect indetail and how it would impact our mediaplanning process.
A Typical Advertising ModelA1- Target Audienceo new category users -- who can be induced to try theproduct category via our brando brand loyals, who can be induced via new users to usemore of our brand than they use at present.o brand switchers -- who can be induced to switch toour brand more frequently than they do at present.o other-brand loyals - who can be converted to ourbrand from loyalty to another. (Forhans, Dentonicexample).
A Typical Advertising ModelWhere lies the biggest effort?
A Typical Advertising ModelA2- Decision-Makero Identification of the decision-maker withintarget audience.A3- Personal Profileo Behavioral and attitudinal definition of targetaudience.
A Typical Advertising ModelB. Communication Objectives (Brand)o In order to take action such as purchase of a brand, atarget audience individual must:o have the category need, i.e., be "in the market" for theproduct class;o be aware of the brand as an option within the class;o have at least a tentatively favorable brand attitude towardit;o intend to buy it, although this intention may be quitelatent or subconscious until the individual is in thepurchase situation; Has that ever happened to you that allof a sudden you developed interest in the product/brand?o experience no barriers to purchase facilitation, such asdistribution unavailability or inability to meet the price orpricing terms. (PEPSI & COCACOLA example)
A Typical Advertising ModelC. Execution Processing (Making an ad)o Emotional Portrayal (sequence of emotions i.eyour mood board)o Message to be communicatedo Use of presenter / Brand Ambassador.
A Typical Advertising ModelD. Exposure (Media)o Media selectiono Media SchedulingHow are the above two different?
Define and plan out your strategy.Youve identified your target market, youve doneyour research and youve set your objective. Itsnow time to define and create a strategy.Your plan should contain the following:• Where will you buy media? Are there specificoutlets you are interested in?• What is your budget and where can you allocatethat budget, so that you can achieve theobjectives you have identified?
Define and plan out your strategy• How much will you spend with each outletand why?• What programming is available?• How long are the breaks?• How do ratings move in a break?
A Typical Advertising Model• Advertising actually moved on from traditional30 and 60 second slots to different modes.• What are they?
Face of Communication in PakistanMainly there are 6 categories ofcommunication agencies in Pakistan:1. Advertising agencies2. PR agencies3. Media buying houses4. Creative houses5. Digital media agencies6. Outdoor media agencies7. Media monitoring agenciesBeing media planners we will be dealing with 1,3,6and 7.